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Lovelace R.,University of Sheffield | Beck S.B.M.,Sir Frederick Mappin Building | Watson M.,University of Sheffield | Wild A.,Principal Transport Planner
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

A wide range of evidence supports policies which encourage people to cycle more and drive less, for health and environmental reasons. However, the likely energy implications of such a modal shift have remained relatively unexplored. In this paper we generate scenarios for increasing the cycling rate in Sheffield between 2010 and 2020. This is done through the novel application of a simple model, borrowed from population ecology. The analysis suggests that pro-cycling interventions result in energy savings through reduced consumption of fuel and cars, and energy costs through increased demand for food. The cumulative impact is a net reduction in primary energy consumption, the magnitude of which depends on a number of variables which are subject to uncertainty. Based on the evidence presented and analysed in this paper, we conclude that transport policy has a number of important energy implications, some of which remain unexplored. We therefore advocate the formation of closer links between energy policy and transport policy in academia and in practice; our approach provides a simple yet flexible framework for pursuing this aim in the context of modal shift. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Shahrbaf S.,Academic Unit of Restorative Dentistry | Vannoort R.,Academic Unit of Restorative Dentistry | Mirzakouchaki B.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Ghassemieh E.,Sir Frederick Mappin Building | Martin N.,Academic Unit of Restorative Dentistry
Dental Materials | Year: 2013

The effect of preparation design and the physical properties of the interface lute on the restored machined ceramic crown-tooth complex are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to determine, by means of three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA) the effect of the tooth preparation design and the elastic modulus of the cement on the stress state of the cemented machined ceramic crown-tooth complex. The three-dimensional structure of human premolar teeth, restored with adhesively cemented machined ceramic crowns, was digitized with a micro-CT scanner. An accurate, high resolution, digital replica model of a restored tooth was created. Two preparation designs, with different occlusal morphologies, were modeled with cements of 3 different elastic moduli. Interactive medical image processing software (mimics and professional CAD modeling software) was used to create sophisticated digital models that included the supporting structures; periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The generated models were imported into an FEA software program (hypermesh version 10.0, Altair Engineering Inc.) with all degrees of freedom constrained at the outer surface of the supporting cortical bone of the crown-tooth complex. Five different elastic moduli values were given to the adhesive cement interface 1.8 GPa, 4 GPa, 8 GPa, 18.3 GPa and 40 GPa; the four lower values are representative of currently used cementing lutes and 40 GPa is set as an extreme high value. The stress distribution under simulated applied loads was determined. The preparation design demonstrated an effect on the stress state of the restored tooth system. The cement elastic modulus affected the stress state in the cement and dentin structures but not in the crown, the pulp, the periodontal ligament or the cancellous and cortical bone. The results of this study suggest that both the choice of the preparation design and the cement elastic modulus can affect the stress state within the restored crown-tooth complex. © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials.


Bridgeman J.,University of Birmingham | Baker A.,University of Sydney | Brown D.,University of Birmingham | Boxall J.B.,Sir Frederick Mappin Building
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

Characterising the organic and microbial matrix of water are key issues in ensuring a safe potable water supply. Current techniques only confirm water quality retrospectively via laboratory analysis of discrete samples. Whilst such analysis is required for regulatory purposes, it would be highly beneficial to monitor water quality in-situ in real time, enabling rapid water quality assessment and facilitating proactive management of water supply systems.A novel LED-based instrument, detecting fluorescence peaks C and T (surrogates for organic and microbial matter, respectively), was constructed and performance assessed. Results from over 200 samples taken from source waters through to customer tap from three UK water companies are presented. Excellent correlation was observed between the new device and a research grade spectrophotometer (r2=0.98 and 0.77 for peak C and peak T respectively), demonstrating the potential of providing a low cost, portable alternative fluorimeter. The peak C/TOC correlation was very good (r2=0.75) at low TOC levels found in drinking water. However, correlations between peak T and regulatory measures of microbial matter (2day/3day heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), E. coli, and total coliforms) were poor, due to the specific nature of these regulatory measures and the general measure of peak T. A more promising correlation was obtained between peak T and total bacteria using flow cytometry. Assessment of the fluorescence of four individual bacteria isolated from drinking water was also considered and excellent correlations found with peak T (Sphingobium sp. (r2=0.83); Methylobacterium sp. (r2=1.0); Rhodococcus sp. (r2=0.86); Xenophilus sp. (r2=0.96)). It is notable that each of the bacteria studied exhibited different levels of fluorescence as a function of their number. The scope for LED based instrumentation for in-situ, real time assessment of the organic and microbial matrix of potable water is clearly demonstrated. © 2015.


Castleton H.F.,E Futures DTC | Stovin V.,Sir Frederick Mappin Building | Beck S.B.M.,Sir Frederick Mappin Building | Davison J.B.,Sir Frederick Mappin Building
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2010

Green roofs are a passive cooling technique that stop incoming solar radiation from reaching the building structure below. Many studies have been conducted over the past 10 years to consider the potential building energy benefits of green roofs and shown that they can offer benefits in winter heating reduction as well as summer cooling. This paper reviews the current literature and highlights the situations in which the greatest building energy savings can be made. Older buildings with poor existing insulation are deemed to benefit most from a green roof as current building regulations require such high levels of insulation that green roofs are seen to hardly affect annual building energy consumption. As over half of the existing UK building stock was built before any roof insulation was required, it is older buildings that will benefit most from green roofs. The case for retrofitting existing buildings is therefore reviewed and it is found there is strong potential for green roof retrofit in the UK. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Clarke S.D.,Sir Frederick Mappin Building | Fay S.D.,Sir Frederick Mappin Building | Fay S.D.,Blastech Ltd | Warren J.A.,Sir Frederick Mappin Building | And 4 more authors.
Measurement Science and Technology | Year: 2015

A large scale experimental approach to the direct measurement of the spatial and temporal variation in loading resulting from an explosive event has been developed. The approach utilises a fixed target plate through which Hopkinson pressure bars are inserted. This technique allows the pressure-time histories for an array of bars to be generated, giving data over a large area of interest. A numerical interpolation technique has also been developed to allow for the full pressure-time history for any point on the target plate to be estimated and hence total imparted impulse to be calculated. The principles underlying the design of the experimental equipment are discussed, along with the importance of carefully controlling the explosive preparation, and the method and location of the detonation initiation. Initial results showing the key features of the loading recorded and the consistency attainable by this method are presented along with the data interpolation routines used to estimate the loading on the entire face. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

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