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Hillman D.R.,Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital
The Medical journal of Australia

Poor sleep imparts a significant personal and societal burden. Therefore, it is important to have accurate estimates of its causes, prevalence and costs to inform health policy. A recent evaluation of the sleep habits of Australians demonstrates that frequent (daily or near daily) sleep difficulties (initiating and maintaining sleep, and experiencing inadequate sleep), daytime fatigue, sleepiness and irritability are highly prevalent (20%-35%). These difficulties are generally more prevalent among females, with the exception of snoring and related difficulties. While about half of these problems are likely to be attributable to specific sleep disorders, the balance appears attributable to poor sleep habits or choices to limit sleep opportunity. Study of the economic impact of sleep disorders demonstrates financial costs to Australia of $5.1 billion per year. This comprises $270 million for health care costs for the conditions themselves, $540 million for care of associated medical conditions attributable to sleep disorders, and about $4.3 billion largely attributable to associated productivity losses and non-medical costs resulting from sleep loss-related accidents. Loss of life quality added a substantial further non-financial cost. While large, these costs were for sleep disorders alone. Additional costs relating to inadequate sleep from poor sleep habits in people without sleep disorders were not considered. Based on the high prevalence of such problems and the known impacts of sleep loss in all its forms on health, productivity and safety, it is likely that these poor sleep habits would add substantially to the costs from sleep disorders alone. Source

Ryan G.,Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder in which abnormal mucus in the lungs is associated with susceptibility to persistent infection. Pulmonary exacerbations are when symptoms of infection become more severe. Antibiotics are an essential part of treatment for exacerbations and inhaled antibiotics may be used alone or in conjunction with oral antibiotics for milder exacerbations or with intravenous antibiotics for more severe infections. Inhaled antibiotics do not cause the same adverse effects as intravenous antibiotics and may prove an alternative in people with poor access to their veins. To determine if treatment of pulmonary exacerbations with inhaled antibiotics in people with cystic fibrosis improves their quality of life, reduces time off school or work and improves their long-term survival. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry for relevant trials. Date of last search: 15 March 2012We also searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register. Date of the last search: 01 June 2012. Randomised controlled trials in people with cystic fibrosis with a pulmonary exacerbation in whom treatment with inhaled antibiotics was compared to placebo, standard treatment or another inhaled antibiotic for between one and four weeks. Two review authors independently selected eligible trials, assessed the risk of bias in each trial and extracted data. Authors of the included trials were contacted for more information. Six trials with 208 participants were included in the review. Trials were heterogenous in design and interventions (however, all included trials compared inhaled versus intravenous antibiotic regimens). Risk of bias was difficult to assess in most trials. Results were not fully reported and only limited data were available for analysis. Four trials reported some results on forced expiratory volume at one second and found no significant differences between the inhaled antibiotic and the comparison intervention. In two of these trials using 300 mg of inhaled tobramycin, the change in forced expiratory volume at one second was similar to intravenous tobramycin; and in one trial the time until the next exacerbation was not different. No important adverse effects were reported. There is little useful high-level evidence to judge the effectiveness of inhaled antibiotics for the treatment of pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis. The included trials were not sufficiently powered to achieve their goals. Hence, we are unable to demonstrate whether one treatment was superior to the other or not. Further research is needed to establish whether inhaled tobramycin may be used as an alternative to intravenous tobramycin for some pulmonary exacerbations. Source

From the first case reports of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 it was clear that a significant proportion of infected individuals suffered a primary viral pneumonia. The objective of this study was twofold; to assess the utility of the CURB-65 community acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity index in predicting pneumonia severity and ICU admission, and to assess the relative sensitivity of nasopharyngeal versus lower respiratory tract sampling for the detection of pandemic influenza (H1N1) CAP. A retrospective cohort study of 70 patients hospitalised for pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 in an adult tertiary referral hospital. Characteristics evaluated included age, pregnancy status, sex, respiratory signs and symptoms, smoking and alcohol history, CURB-65 score, co-morbidities, disabling sequelae, length of stay and in-hospital mortality outcomes. Laboratory features evaluated included lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein (CRP), nasopharyngeal and lower respiratory tract pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 PCR results. Patients with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza CAP differed significantly from those without pneumonia regarding length of stay, need for ICU admission, CRP and the likelihood of disabling sequelae. The CURB-65 score did not predict CAP severity or the need for ICU admission (only 2/11 patients admitted to ICU had CURB-65 scores of 2 or 3). Nasopharyngeal specimens for PCR were only 62.9% sensitive in CAP patients compared to 97.8% sensitivity for lower respiratory tract specimens. The CURB-65 score does not predict severe pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 CAP or need for ICU admission. Lower respiratory tract specimens should be collected when pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza CAP is suspected. Source

Rosenstengel A.,Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital
Journal of Thoracic Disease

Pleural infection is a common and increasing clinical problem in thoracic medicine, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. In recent years there has been a marked increase in interests and publications relating to evolving interventions and management options for pleural infection and empyema. Recently published research data as well as guidelines have suggested better approaches of radiological assessment, updated management algorithms for pleural infection, intrapleural adjunct therapies and re-examined the roles of biomarkers, pleural drainage techniques, and the role of surgery. This review highlights some of the recent advances and recommendations relevant to clinical care of pleural infection. © Pioneer Bioscience Publishing Company. Source

Honeybul S.,Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital | Ho K.M.,University of Western Australia
Journal of Neurotrauma

There is currently much interest in the use of decompressive craniectomy for intracranial hypertension. Though technically straightforward, the procedure is not without significant complications. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of 164 patients who had had a decompressive craniectomy for severe head injury in the years 2004 to 2009 at the two major hospitals in Western Australia. Eighty-six patients had a bifrontal decompression and seventy-eight had a unilateral decompression. Two patients died due to post-operative care issues. Complications attributable to the decompressive surgery were: herniation of the cortex through the bone defect (42 patients, 25.6%), subdural effusion (81 patients, 49.4%), seizures (36 patients, 22%), hydrocephalus (23 patients, 14%), and syndrome of the trephined (2 patients, 1.2%). Complications attributable to the subsequent cranioplasty included: sudden death due to massive cerebral swelling in 3 patients (2.2%), infection requiring removal of the bone flap in 16 patients (11.6%), and bone flap resorption requiring augmentation in 10 patients (7.2%). After excluding simple complications such as subdural effusion and brain herniation through the skull defect and some patients who died as a direct consequence of traumatic brain or extracranial injury, 81 patients (55.5%) had at least one complication after decompressive craniectomy. The occurrence of at least one complication after decompressive craniectomy was significantly associated with an increased risk of prolonged stay in the hospital or rehabilitation facility (odds ratio 2.54, 95%confidence interval 1.22,5.24, p=0.013), after adjusting for predicted risk of unfavorable outcome. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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