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Goire N.,University of Queensland | Sloots T.P.,Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Center | Nissen M.D.,University of Queensland | Whiley D.M.,Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Center
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Gonorrhoea is no longer an easily treatable ailment but rather is now a challenging disease in terms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) with treatment options rapidly diminishing. The causative agent of gonorrhoea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, has managed to develop resistance to almost every single drug used against it with the sole exception of extended spectrum cephalosporins. The situation is further exacerbated by the fact that not only are the rates of gonococcal infections on a steady rise globally, but tracking AMR is being undermined by the growing popularity of molecular methods at the expense of traditional bacterial culture in diagnostic laboratories. Recently, concerns have been raised over the emergence of a multi-resistant gonococci and the potential for untreatable gonorrhoea. Maintaining optimal epidemiological surveillance of gonococcal AMR remains an important aspect of gonorrhoea control. The development of molecular tools for tracking AMR in N. gonorrhoeae has the potential to further enhance such surveillance. In this chapter, we discuss nucleic acid amplification-based detection of AMR in gonorrhoea with a particular emphasis on chromosomal-mediated resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Syrmis M.W.,Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Center | Syrmis M.W.,University of Queensland | Moser R.J.,Sequenom | Whiley D.M.,Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Center | And 9 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2011

The Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing platform uses matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled with single-base extension PCR for high-throughput multiplex SNP detection. In this study, we investigated the use of iPLEX MassARRAY technology for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genotyping. A 16-plex MassARRAY iPLEX GOLD assay (MRSA-iPLEX) was developed that targets a set of informative SNPs and binary genes for MRSA characterization. The method was evaluated with 147 MRSA isolates, and the results were compared with those of an established SYBR Green-based real-time PCR system utilizing the same SNP-binary markers. A total of 2352 markers belonging to 44 SNP-binary profiles were analysed by both real-time PCR and MRSA-iPLEX. With real-time PCR as the reference standard, MRSA-iPLEX correctly assigned 2298 of the 2352 (97.7%) markers. Sequence variation in the MRSA-iPLEX primer targets accounted for the majority of MRSA-iPLEX erroneous results, highlighting the importance of primer target selection. MRSA-iPLEX provided optimal throughput for MRSA genotyping, and was, on a reagent basis, more cost-effective than the real-time PCR methods. The 16-plex MRSA-iPLEX is a suitable alternative to SYBR Green-based real-time PCR typing of major sequence types and clonal complexes of MRSA. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source

Goire N.,Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Center | Goire N.,University of Queensland | Freeman K.,Darwin Lab | Tapsall J.W.,Collaborating Center for and HIV | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

With increasing concerns regarding diminishing treatment options for gonorrhea, maintaining the efficacy of currently used treatments and ensuring optimal Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance surveillance are of the utmost importance. Penicillin is still used to treat gonorrhea in some parts of the world. In this study, we developed and validated a real-time PCR assay for the detection of penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) in noncultured clinical samples with the aim of enhancing penicillin resistance surveillance. The assay (PPNG-PCR2) was designed to be an indirect marker of penicillinase activity, by targeting a region of sequence predicted to be conserved across all N. gonorrhoeae plasmid types harboring the beta-lactamase gene while not specifically targeting the actual beta-lactamase-encoding sequence. The assay was evaluated by using a total of 118 N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates and 1,194 clinical specimens, including 239 N. gonorrhoeae-positive clinical samples from which N. gonorrhoeae cells were isolated and for which phenotypic penicillinase results are available. Overall, the PPNG-PCR2 assay provided 100% sensitivity and 98.7% specificity compared to bacterial culture results for the detection of PPNG in clinical specimens. PPNG-PCR2 false-positive results, presumably due to cross-reactions with unrelated bacterial species, were observed for up to 1.3% of clinical samples but could be distinguished on the basis of high cycle threshold values. In tandem with phenotypic surveillance, the PPNG-PCR2 assay has the potential to provide enhanced epidemiological surveillance of N. gonorrhoeae penicillin resistance and is of particular relevance to regions where penicillin is still used to treat gonorrhea. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Binks M.J.,Charles Darwin University | Cheng A.C.,Charles Darwin University | Cheng A.C.,Monash University | Smith-Vaughan H.,Charles Darwin University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Acute otitis media with perforation (AOMwiP) affects 40% of remote Indigenous children during the first 18 months of life. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the primary bacterial pathogens of otitis media and their loads predict clinical ear state. Our hypothesis is that antecedent respiratory viral infection increases bacterial density and progression to perforation.Methods: A total of 366 nasopharyngeal swabs from 114 Indigenous children were retrospectively examined. A panel of 17 respiratory viruses was screened by PCR, and densities of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were estimated by quantitative real time PCR. Data are reported by clinical ear state.Results: M. catarrhalis (96%), H. influenzae (91%), S. pneumoniae (89%) and respiratory viruses (59%) were common; including rhinovirus (HRV) (38%), polyomavirus (HPyV) (14%), adenovirus (HAdV) (13%), bocavirus (HBoV) (8%) and coronavirus (HCoV) (4%). Geometric mean bacterial loads were significantly higher in children with acute otitis media (AOM) compared to children without evidence of otitis media. Children infected with HAdV were 3 times more likely (p < 0.001) to have AOM with or without perforation.Conclusion: This study confirms a positive association between nasopharyngeal bacterial load and clinical ear state, exacerbated by respiratory viruses, in Indigenous children. HAdV was independently associated with acute ear states. © 2011 Binks et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Goire N.,University of Queensland | Goire N.,Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Center | Lahra M.M.,Collaborating Center for | Ohnishi M.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | And 10 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2013

Emergence and spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to extended spectrum cephalosporins is a major problem threatening treatment of gonorrhoea and is further highlighted by the recent report of a second ceftriaxone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strain (F89) in Europe, initially observed in France and subsequently identified in Spain. N. gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance has acquired new importance and molecular tools have the potential to enhance bacterial culture-based methods. In this study, we established a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for direct detection of the F89 strain. A key component of this screening protocol was the development of a hybridisation probe-based melting curve analysis assay (mosaic501-hybPCR) to detect the presence of an A501P substitution on the N. gonorrhoeae mosaic penicillin binding protein 2 (PBP2) sequence, an important characteristic of the F89 strain. The mosaic501-hybPCR was evaluated using plasmid-derived positive controls (n=3) and characterised gonococcal (n=33) and non-gonococcal (n=58) isolates. The protocol was then applied to 159 clinical specimens from Sydney, Australia, collected during the first half of the year 2012 that were N. gonorrhoeae PCR-positive. Overall, the results indicate that the PCR-based protocol is suitable for direct detection of the N. gonorrhoeae F89 strain in non-cultured clinical samples. It therefore provides an additional tool to aid investigations into the potential spread of F89 strain throughout Europe and elsewhere. Source

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