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Lechleitner M.,Landeskrankenhaus Hochzirl | Lechleitner M.,SIPCAN Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and Nutrition | Hoppichler F.,Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Bruder | Hoppichler F.,SIPCAN Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and Nutrition
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift | Year: 2011

Insulin therapy is a vital hormone replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In type 2 diabetes, insulin is indicated if glycaemic goals are not reached by oral antidiabetics, as well as for metabolic detoriation, co-morbidities, surgery, pregnancy or contradictions against oral antidiabetics. Insulin preparations are characterized by the onset of the insulin action, the peak profile and duration of action. Available are short acting, long-acting and premixed preparations of human insulin, and insulin analogues. The gold standard of insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes is functional insulin therapy with a basal-bolus insulin regimen and control and adaption of the therapy by the patient. Various insulin regimens are available for treating patients with type 2 diabetes, including basal insulin supported oral therapy, supplementary mealtime injection of short acting insulin or insulin analogues, conventional insulin therapy or a basal bolus procedure. The various insulin preparations and regimens make it possible to adapt the therapy according to the patient's individual need. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Kruschitz R.,Medical University of Vienna | Kruschitz R.,Medical University of Graz | Kruschitz R.,SIPCAN Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and Nutrition | Wallner-Liebmann S.J.,Medical University of Graz | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

We aimed to describe the relationship between BMI and the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography within young athletes and non-athletic controls, to comparatively evaluate the diagnostic powers of subcutaneous adipose tissue thicknesses at different body sites, furthermore to explore appropriate cut-offs to discriminate between athletes and controls. Measurements were determined in 64 males and 42 females, who were subsequently separated into two even groups (athletes and non-athletes). The optical device LIPOMETER was applied at standardised body sites to measure the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue layers. To calculate the power of the different body sites and the BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. In men, the neck (optimal cut-off value 2.3 mm) and trunk (optimal cut-off value 15.5 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power: with 90.6% (58 of 64) of the subjects being correctly classified into athletes or non-athletes. Discrimination power of the BMI values was 64.1% (41 of 64 were correctly classified). In women, the upper back (optimal cut-off value 3.3 mm) and arms (optimal cut-off value 15.9 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power with 88.1% (37 of 42 being correctly classified). When using BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes only 52.4% (22 of 42) were correctly classified. These results suggest that compared to BMI levels, subcutaneous fat patterns are a more accurate way of discriminating between athletes and non-athletes. In particular the neck and the trunk compartment in men and the upper back and arms compartment in women, were the best sites to discriminate between young athletes and non-athletes on the basis of their fat patterns. © 2013 Kruschitz et al.


Kruschitz R.,Medical University of Vienna | Kruschitz R.,Medical University of Graz | Kruschitz R.,SIPCAN Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and Nutrition | Wallner-Liebmann S.J.,Medical University of Graz | And 6 more authors.
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift | Year: 2014

Introduction: The purpose of this study was the evaluation of a weight loss program in primary care settings with respect to the European Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Obesity in Adults with regard to the long-term success of changes in body weight and composition.Methods: Overweight and obese patients (n = 1167) who underwent a standardized meal replacement-based weight loss program (myLINE®, AENGUS, Austria) in primary care settings were included in this evaluation. Body composition was measured by conventional anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (AKERN BIA101®, BIACORPUS RX4000®, SoftwareBodycomp Version 8.4 Professional). Data of patients who participated at least 12 months in the program were analyzed retrospectively and compared with their baseline data. Results: After 12 months, a weight loss of 8.6 ± 7.5 kg (mean ± standard deviation) or 8.2 ± 7.8 % from baseline was seen (p < 0.001). In all, 71.9 % of all patients achieved a minimal weight loss of 5 %, and 18.8 % lost 15 % of their initial weight. In comparison with the baseline (35.7 ± 11.5 kg), body fat decreased to 29.6 ± 10.7 kg, which is 83.7 ± 18.9 % from baseline (100 %; p < 0.001). Body cell mass showed an absolute reduction of − 1.4 ± 2.2 kg (p < 0.001), although a relative increase of 1.5 ± 2.5 % (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between male and female subjects regarding changes in weight, body fat, and body cell mass. Conclusion: The evaluated program complies with the European Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Obesity in Adults (2008), which recommend a weight reduction of 5–15 % from initial weight within 6 months. Furthermore, the data showed a significant reduction of body fat and a relative increase of body cell mass. © 2014, The Author(s).


Damon S.,SIPCAN Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and Nutrition | Damon S.,Obesity Academy Austria | Schatzer M.,SIPCAN Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and Nutrition | Hoppichler F.,SIPCAN Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and Nutrition | And 8 more authors.
Aktuelle Ernahrungsmedizin | Year: 2011

Nutrition in childhood should not only provide adequate energy and essential nutrients for growth and physical as well as mental health, but also prevent future nutrition related diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, or cardiovascular diseases. Due to the increasing prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents and a nutritional behavior, within an obesogenic environment, in need of improvement, effective concepts and programs for therapy and prevention are in demand. Certain nutritional guidelines and models have been proven to be therapeutically beneficial. However, extensive multidisciplinary family-based lifestyle programs are required for achieving sustained effects. In order to induce changes in nutritional behavior, numerous parameters such as early programming, learned behaviors, education, and in particular the social and cultural environments need to be taken into consideration. Besides family and environment, schools are important living spaces for children and therefore resemble a valuable setting for preventive projects and health promotion. Various interventions oriented towards nutritional education as well as improving foods offered at schools (as essential precondition for a healthier behavior!) demonstrate that nutritional competences and behavior of students can be positively affected. The body of evidence in regards to effects on weight is still unclear. However, combined, multicomponent nutritional- and exercise oriented interventions, not only geared towards the school environment, but also towards families at an early stage, are more likely to have a sustained effect on preventing overweight. Children from intact families or families of intermediate and high socio-economic status benefit more. Therefore, community based interventions and concepts are necessary for an effective prevention and therapy, which can only be successfully implemented with political support. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.


Damon S.,SIPCAN Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and Nutrition | Schatzer M.,SIPCAN Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and Nutrition | Hofler J.,SIPCAN Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and Nutrition | Hofler J.,Hospital Barmherzige Bruder | And 3 more authors.
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift | Year: 2011

Overwhelming evidence exists supporting the benefit of lifestyle and nutritional interventions to prevent or delay type 2 and gestational diabetes and improve glycemic control and co-morbidities in patients of all sub-types of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, nutritional therapy is an indispensable and fundamental treatment component, which has to be based on evidence-based recommendations, adapted for dietary intake and medication, and periodically adapted according to diagnosis and individual course of illness. This overview is based on the currently valid evidence-based nutritional recommendations of the European and American Diabetes Associations for the management of diabetes mellitus. It describes the quality and quantity of beneficial macronutrient (carbohydrates, fat, and protein) and micronutrient intake, alcohol consumption, and food groups. Moreover, the evidence for supplements and functional foods is summarized and the role of body weight and different weight loss diets are discussed. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | SIPCAN Special Institute for Preventive Cardiology and Nutrition
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift (1946) | Year: 2011

Overwhelming evidence exists supporting the benefit of lifestyle and nutritional interventions to prevent or delay type 2 and gestational diabetes and improve glycemic control and co-morbidities in patients of all sub-types of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, nutritional therapy is an indispensable and fundamental treatment component, which has to be based on evidence-based recommendations, adapted for dietary intake and medication, and periodically adapted according to diagnosis and individual course of illness. This overview is based on the currently valid evidence-based nutritional recommendations of the European and American Diabetes Associations for the management of diabetes mellitus. It describes the quality and quantity of beneficial macronutrient (carbohydrates, fat, and protein) and micronutrient intake, alcohol consumption, and food groups. Moreover, the evidence for supplements and functional foods is summarized and the role of body weight and different weight loss diets are discussed.

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