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China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation , or Sinopec Limited , is a Chinese oil and gas company based in Beijing, China. It is listed in Hong Kong and also trades in Shanghai and New York. Sinopec is the world's fifth biggest company by revenue and its second biggest chemical producer.Sinopec Limited's parent, Sinopec Group, is one of the major State Owned petroleum energy and chemicals companies in China, headquartered in Chaoyang District, Beijing. Sinopec's business includes oil and gas exploration, refining, and marketing; production and sales of petrochemicals, chemical fibers, chemical fertilizers, and other chemical products; storage and pipeline transportation of crude oil and natural gas; import, export and import/export agency business of crude oil, natural gas, refined oil products, petrochemicals, and other chemicals. In 2011 it ranked as the 5th largest company in sales in Forbes Global 2000. In 2009, it was ranked 9th by Fortune Global 500 becoming the first Chinese corporation to make the top ten and in 2010 it was ranked 7th. In 2007, it ranked first in the Top 500 Enterprises of China ranking. Wikipedia.


Weng X.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2014

Impact polypropylene (PP) copolymer M30RH with high melt flow rate was produced via polymerization directly on the loop PP plant by using asymmetric external electron donor technology. Mass production of M30RH was performed stably by modification of process, optimization of operation parameters, selection of DQC602 type catalyst with higher activity at later stage, and adoption of nucleating agent VP-101B endowing PP with better balance between rigidity and toughness. Compared with its domestic counterparts produced via degradation method, M30RH is free from odour, yellowing and has good balance between rigidity and toughness. As a result, M30RH is widely used in the field of special modified resins for washing machine parts and car parts. ©, 2014, Research Institute of Beijing. All right reserved.


Zeng B.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2014

The import situation and trends of high density polyethylene (HDPE) in recent years were analyzed from the imports, trade models, sources, prices, etc. The import of HDPE in China is in a fast-growing state. The import of HDPE is dominated by general trade model in all the trade models, and the imports by month fluctuate widely. The imports of HDPE from Middle East countries are growing quickly from the sources of HPDE. Many grades in all categories of HDPE are imported and all kinds of applications are involved. The general grades of HDPE are imported from some low-cost regions, such as Middle East and South-East Asia, and the high value-added products are imported from Europe, Japan, Korea and the United States. Finally some suggests are proposed for domestic HDPE manufacturers. ©, 2014, Research Institute of Beijing. All right reserved.


Li X.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2014

The author analyzed the reasons for problems like blocking of additive feeding, dust flying, additive loss and shutting-down of the extrusion granulator unit in the extrusion and granulation process of polyolefin powders. The additive feeding problems of the polypropylene plant were solved by compounding main and auxiliary antioxidant as 2.5 mm particles, and granulating calcium stearate and glyceryl monostearate. The fault rate of measuring instrument of additive feeding and the possibility of extruder shutting-down in the production of linear low density polyethylene were reduced by decreasing the mass fraction of magnesium silicate hydrate to 0.30%, and compounding and granulating it with erucamide and the antioxidant. Granulation of additives also reduced the work intensity and occupational hazards of the operators, and enhanced the quality of polyolefin products. ©, 2014, Research Institute of Beijing. All right reserved.


Chen W.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2014

Special high density polyethylene (HDPE) resin for producing chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) was developed by optimizing polymerization parameters and selecting proper catalyst in a slurry polyethylene plant. The resin had similar relative molecular mass and its distribution to those products of the same kind. And the density of the resin was between those of the domestic resin A and imported resin B. The resin's crystallization temperature was close to that of the imported resin A, while its melt temperature and enthalpy were slightly higher than those of the imported resin A. The melt flow rate and bulk density of the resin were similar to those of the imported resin A. The resin's quantity of large particles and fine powder were less than those of the imported resins, and its particle diameter distribution was narrower than those of the imported resins. The pore diameter, pore volume and the specific surface area of the resin were close to those of the imported resin A. The properties of CPE articles produced from the special HDPE resin met the target requirements. ©, 2014, Research Institute of Beijing. All right reserved.


Ma C.Y.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Liu Y.T.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Wu J.L.,Sinopec
Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics | Year: 2013

This paper is typically studied the fracture flow in the anisotropic media in consider with the stress sensitivity of permeability. Combined with anisotropy percolation characteristics of permeability, laboratory full tensor permeability test method is established by means of the expandable polystyrene (EPS) cystosepiment, and the non-linear flow physical simulation in fractured anisotropic media is studied. Through numerical calculation and physical experiment, the variation mechanism of full tensor permeability with stress sensitivity in fractured anisotropic media is revealed. Based on percolation theory, tensor theory and coordinate transformation principle, the full permeability tensor model for single and multiple group fracture is presented. It is extended to the reservoir in situ condition, and the mathematical model of the full tensor permeability for multiple group and pressure-sensitive fractured anisotropic media is established. The results have a significant impact in understanding the seepage law in the fracture. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Mo Y.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2014

The author studied the physical properties, relative molecular mass distribution, rheological behavior and thermal shrinkage properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE) special resin 2520D for shrink films. LDPE 2520D had lower melt flow rate, higher relative molecular mass, appropriate density and consequently good mechanical properties. The dynamic rheological behavior of 2520D melt accorded with characteristics of shear thinning and extrusion hardening, which resulted in excellent processability of the resin. The transverse and machine thermal shrinkage of blown films made of 2520D reached 63.2% and 68.5%, respectively, exceeding the national standard. The application experiments of 2520D show that the shrink films made of 2520D have outstanding performance, and the mechanical properties and shrinkage of the films meet customers' requirements.


Jiang L.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2014

The particle sizes of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) GH660, 1330, 466F were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and according to their particle distribution, the main factors that resulted in low mechanical properties of GH660 were grafting ratio, particle size and its distribution. The pre-polymerization system was optimized by adding another pre-polymerization reactor in combination with the method of improving grafting ratio and the theory of synergistic toughening with large and small particles. The conversion rate of styrene and the particle size and its distribution of the rubber particle were controlled by using double pre-polymerization reactor technology via adjusting the operating temperature and stirring rate of each pre-polymerization reactor. The apparent grafting ratio of GH600 was increased from 93% to 100% and the actual grafting ratio from 81% to 94%. The particle size of the rubber particle was decreased from 3.0 μm to about 2.0 μm, and the proportion of the particles with small size was increased significantly. The weight average molecular mass of GH600 reached 3.00×105 after optimization and the relative molecular mass distribution got narrower, and the mechanical properties of GH660 were improved remarkably. The tensile stress at yield of GH660 was 10% higher than that of the reference value. ©, 2014, Research Institute of Beijing. All right reserved.


Qiu N.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Chang J.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Zuo Y.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Wang J.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Li H.,Sinopec
AAPG Bulletin | Year: 2012

The Tarim Basin is one of the richest basins in oil and gas resources in China. The Cambrian and Middle-Upper Ordovician strata are the most important source rocks. Previous early Paleozoic thermal histories have led to varied hypotheses on the evolution of the lower Paleozoic source rocks, causing a significant impact on petroleum exploration in the basin. A new Paleozoic thermal history of the Tarim Basin was reconstructed in this article using the integrated thermal indicators of apatite and zircon (uranium-thorium)/helium ages, apatite fission tracks, and equivalent vitrinite reflectance data. The modeled results indicate that different parts of the basin experienced widely differing early Paleozoic thermal gradient evolution. The eastern and central regions of the basin experienced a decreasing thermal gradient evolution from 37 to 39°C/km during the Cambrian and Ordovician to 35 to 36°C/km in the Silurian, whereas the northwestern region of the basin had an increasing early Paleozoic thermal gradient evolution from 28 to 32°C/km in the Cambrian to 30 to 34°C/km in the Ordovician and Silurian. The Lower Cambrian thermal gradient resulted from the higher thermal conductivity of the 800- to 1000-m (2625- to 3280-ft) thickness of gypsum and salt in the Cambrian strata. The basin experienced an intracratonic phase during the late Paleozoic and a foreland basin phase during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, with the thermal gradient decreasing to the present-day value of 20 to 25°C/km. The sensitivity of thermal modeling by the best-fit method is less than ±5% in our study, and the differences of the early Paleozoic thermal gradient evolution in different regions of the basin may result in differential maturation of lower Paleozoic source rocks. The maturity histories of the source rocks, modeled based on the new thermal histories, indicate that the lower Paleozoic source rocks in most areas of the basin matured rapidly and reached the late mature to dry-gas stage during the Paleozoic but experienced slower maturation during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. These new data on the Paleozoic thermal history and lower Paleozoic source rock maturity histories of the Tarim Basin provide new insights to guide oil and gas exploration of the basin. Copyright ©2012. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.


Cao B.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2012

Purification technologies for FCC slurry oil and the use of the purified FCC slurry oil in chemical industry were discussed. The applications of settlement separation, filtration separation, electrostatic separation, centrifugal separation and high temperature ceramic membrane cross-flow filtering in the purification were emphasized, in which the high temperature ceramic membrane cross-flow filtering could achieve the best purification effect for FCC slurry oil. The production of needle coke, carbon black and carbon-fiber material from the purified FCC slurry oil was introduced also.


Wang W.,Sinopec
Drilling Fluid and Completion Fluid | Year: 2010

The second interface of borehole is great change interface, which is often occurred to gas water channeling weaknesses. And its cementing stregth is related to slurry itself, the bond strength between cement slurry and the cake surface, mud cake itself, and strength between mud cake and formation. On the basis of second interface characteristic, and adding active material, interface strengthening agents to form drill-solid fluid, it was effectively overcome the incompatible problems of traditional cement slurry between drilling fluid and mud cake. Through physical and chemical activation, formation-cake-cement cementation affinity increased, and eventually drilling fluid filter cake turned into enhancement layer from the weak layer of cement bond quality ring to improve the quality of the second packer interface. The technology was used several times in the thermal recovery wells, production wells, directional wells and made a contrast with the adjacent wells. The technology of this integared working fluid can solve the problem of interlayer channeling, and meet the needs of oil upgrading and production improvement.


Chen W.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Chen J.,Sinopec
Fuel | Year: 2016

Crystallization behaviors of biodiesel including measurement and modeling the amount of precipitated crystal at different temperatures were studied. The amount of crystal precipitated from biodiesel at different temperatures was measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) according to the method, which was established in this work. Comparison of model predictions and DSC experimental data shows that the amount of precipitated crystal predicted by regular solution model agrees well with the experimental results. The critical strain and storage modulus in linear region of biodiesel gels at different temperatures were obtained by studying the yielding process of gelled biodiesels using controlled stress rheometer. Based on Wu-Morbidelli scaling model, the microstructure fractal dimensions were obtained and the fractal structures of biodiesel gels were studied by establishing the relationship between the rheological parameters and the amount of precipitated crystals. The experimental results show that with the increase of amount of precipitated crystals, the storage modulus in linear region increases and the critical strain decreases. Meanwhile, these two parameters display a power-law relationship with the amount of precipitated crystal. Based on Wu-Morbidelli model, the biodiesel gels are in the transition zone. The results obtained by scaling model display that the fractal dimensions of biodiesel gels increase with decrease in temperature. It is suggested that the microstructure of biodiesel gels is porous at relatively high temperatures and the structure is relatively compact at relatively low temperatures. It was found that fractal dimensions were not influenced by the composition of biodiesels. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yue W.,Beijing University of Technology | Liu C.,Beijing University of Technology | Fu Z.,Beijing University of Technology | Wang C.,Beijing University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Tribology International | Year: 2013

Low temperature ion sulfuration technology was used to obtain sulfurized layer on W doped diamond-like carbon (W-DLC) coating. The tribological behaviors of the pure W-DLC and sulfurized W-DLC coatings were investigated under PAO and MoDTC lubrication conditions. It shows that sulfurized W-DLC coatings can obviously improve their tribological performances under PAO with MoDTC lubrication. The primary reason is due to the formation of WSx on the surface of sulfurized W-DLC coating, the decomposition of additives for formation a higher ratio of Mo sulfide/Mo oxide and the graphitization for a high ratio of sp2/sp3. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Yang G.,Henan University | Zhang J.,Henan University | Zhang S.,Henan University | Yu L.,Henan University | And 2 more authors.
Tribology International | Year: 2013

The tribological properties of two as-synthesized triazine derivatives were evaluated with a four-ball machine. Results show that the triazine derivatives show good antiwear and extreme pressure properties. Besides, the difference in the tribological properties of the triazine derivatives is closely related to the difference in their molecular structure. Namely, a synergistic tribological effect of the N-containing heterocyclic species and borate ester group in as-synthesized lubricant additive improves the antiwear performance of base stock. Moreover, a protective film containing B2O3, Fe2B, ammonium salt and so on is formed on worn surfaces to improve antiwear ability and load-carrying capacity of the lubricants. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Hu Y.,China University of Geosciences | Wang Q.,Sinopec | Tang M.,China University of Geosciences
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

Starch/lactic acid graft copolymer (Starch-g-PLA) was prepared by the in situ copolymerization of starch grafted with lactic acid catalyzed with sodium hydroxide, and then mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to get composite films. The structures of the graft copolymer and composite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal stability were also investigated. It was found that the compatibility of Starch-g-PLA and PVA was better than that of starch and PVA in the composite films. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the Starch-g-PLA/PVA composite film increased by 69.15% and 84.22%, respectively, while the water absorption decreased by 50.39%, which overcame the shortcomings of hydrophilicity and poor mechanical properties of Starch/PVA film. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also showed that the thermal stability of Starch-g-PLA/PVA film was improved compared with Starch/PVA film. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yuan W.,Nanjing University | Yuan W.,Sinopec | Yang Z.,Nanjing University | Yang Z.,Key Laboratory of Paleomagnetism and Tectonic Reconstruction | Yang Z.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences
Gondwana Research | Year: 2015

The relationship between the Alashan Terrane and North China is a contentious issue given the discovery of allochthonous detrital zircons in Middle Ordovician flysch sandstones from the southwestern Ordos Margin and the large differences in palaeolatitudes between the North China and Tarim cratons. We have collected a suite of Middle to Late Devonian sedimentary rocks from the Niushoushan Mountains at the southeastern margin of the Alashan Terrane, adjacent to the western margin of the Ordos Basin of the North China Craton (NCC). U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotopic studies were carried out on detrital zircons from these rocks. The zircon U-Pb ages define five age populations: 0.4-0.7Ga (peak at 488Ma), 1.0-1.3Ga (peaks at 1001 and 1152Ma), 1.5-1.8Ga, 2.4-2.8Ga (prominent peak at 2506Ma and secondary peaks at 2668 and 2796Ma) and >3.0Ga (peak at 3332Ma). One detrital zircon yielded a Hadean age of 4022±17Ma. Zircons with U-Pb age spectra of 2.4-2.7 and >3.0Ga and their corresponding εHf(t) values are significantly different from those in the NCC, indicating that these detrital zircons are not from the NCC, which implies that the Alashan Terrane was not part of North China until the Middle to Late Devonian. U-Pb age spectra of zircons dated at 1.0-1.3Ga, 2.4-2.7Ga, and >3.0Ga, and their corresponding Hf isotope data, have a strong similarity with zircons from East Gondwana and the South China Craton. © 2013 International Association for Gondwana Research.


Wang X.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2014

The author analyzed the process parameters, production transition process and product properties of the very low density polyethylene (VLDPE) TJVL-1210 in a linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) plant. TJVL-1210 was produced by ternary copolymerization of two kinds of alpha alkene and ethylene, which reduced the density of LLDPE from 0.9200 g/cm3 to 0.9120 g/cm3. The technology bottleneck of the gas phase fluidized bed reactor was broken through. TJVL-1210 could be applied to modification of polypropylene, heat shrinkage film, frozen packaging film, etc. and replace part of high-end resin products in current market, such as metallocene polyethylene and polyolefin elastomer. ©, 2014, Research Institute of Beijing. All right reserved.


Hong H.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2014

Polypropylene (PP) resin M50T with high flowability and high rigidity having melt flow rate of about 50.0 g/10 min was produced directly in the second generation domestic loop reactor based on the premise that the composition of the main catalyst and cocatalyst was not changed. The technical difficulties in producing PP with melt flow rate more than 40.0 g/10 min on the plant were overcome by increasing the amount of hydrogen to 0.52% through the enhancement of reaction pressure in the loop reactor and reducing the extruder barrel temperature to 210 ℃ or so. M50T had flexural modulus not less than 2000 MPa, tensile stress at yield over 38.0 MPa and isotactic index above 96.0%. ©, 2014, Research Institute of Beijing. All right reserved.


Wang Z.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2012

High pressure and high hydrogen sulphide in carbonate formations of northeastern Sichuan Basin are a serious threat to drilling safety. The detection of abnormal pressure while drilling is regarded as a long-term difficult problem due to its complicated origin. In order to solve this problem, we investigated the genetic mechanism of abnormal pressure and the response of surface logging parameters and established detection models, respectively, for abnormal pressure while drilling either in porous-type or in fractured-type carbonate formations through theoretically and methodologically delineating the detection of abnormal pressure while drilling. These two models synthetically take various factors into consideration, such as the correlation between different accumulation capacity and pressurizing or depressurizing mechanism, the different response of high-pressure gas or water layers and the effect of autochthonous or allochthonous abnormal pressure, therefore, the application of these two models indicates that they are more scientific, reasonable and effective.


Cheng L.,Sinopec
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2015

The reservoir of the Jurassic Ziliujing formation Zhenzhuchong Segment in Yuanba area of northeast Sichuan Basin possesses good potential with natural gas resources. But the distribution of gas is not clear, so it limits the selection of the exploration direction. The research on the dominant migrating channel of gas needs to be carried out. In this paper, taking advantage of drilling and seismic data, the author detailedly analyzes the geological factors that could affect gas migratory direction in Zhenzhuchong Segment of Ziliujing Formation reservoir. Meanwhile it defines five kinds of main controlling factors which include higher permeability conducting sand body, fault, unconformity surface, tectonic background and structure form of cover bottom. By researching the relationship between each main controlling factor and gas migration direction, the author puts forward two models of dominant migrating channel of Zhenzhuchong Segment in Yuanba area. The first is along the sand body-fault composite channel, and the second is along the sand body-unconformity surface composite channel. The first one is more favorable for high gas concentrating. And then it effectively indicates the future exploratory direction. © 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Liu J.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2012

The Wuhan 800 kt/a ethylene plant have been the first plant designed using the Chinese technology with the proprietary intellectual properties. The technical progresses and breakthrough in the process, including pyrolysis, separation and recovery, and low temperature storage, were analyzed. The cracking furnaces designed with the SINOPEC CBL cracking furnace technology were adopted, in which modified 2-1 coils combined with SINOPEC (swirling) element radiant technology(SERT) increased the thermal efficiency and prolonged the coke cleaning period more than 50%. The recovery system using SINOPEC low energy consumption technology(LECT) decreased the energy consumption because of the advanced process based on distribution theory combined with proprietary equipment condensating fractionating tower(CFT). The specific energy consumption of ethylene product was 23.556 GJ/t, which was less 8% than the average level in 2009 in China. It was also the first time that the key equipments such as charge gas compressor, propylene compressor, ethylene compressor and cold box were localized in one plant.


Shen D.,Sinopec | Xiao W.,Dalian University of Technology | Yang J.,Dalian University of Technology | Chu N.,Dalian University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2011

Silicalite-1 membranes supported on macroporous alumina (α-Al 2O3) tubes for pervaporation were successfully prepared by introducing ethyl triethoxysilane (ETES) during the preparation of synthesis solutions. The effects of synthesis parameters (i.e., [ETES] content, crystallization time, and crystallization temperature) on the membranes thickness and pervaporation performance were investigated for silicalite-1 membranes grown onto seeded supports. The as-synthesized membranes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pervaporation testing. The results indicated that the as-synthesized membranes were typical MFI-type zeolite membranes and the ETES promoted the crystal growth of the silicalite-1 membranes. The optimum molar composition (1TEOS:0.17TPAOH:120H2O:[0.02-0.04]ETES:4EtOH), more than 16 h crystallization time at low-temperature (413 K) was better for obtaining a dense and continuous silicalite-1 membranes with a good pervaporation performance. The M3 membrane shows a relatively low selectivity for ethanol/water system but a high selectivity for acetone/water and butanol/water systems. The total fluxes of the M3 membrane were 1.55, 0.10, and 1.51 kg m -2 h-1 towards acetone/H2O, butanol/H 2O and ethanol/H2O mixtures, respectively for 3 wt.% acetone/water, 2 wt.% butanol/water and 5 wt.% ethanol/water mixture, respectively and the corresponding separation factor was 211, 150, and 39, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Su H.,Sinopec
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2015

Based on the fluid boundary layer theory, this paper presents a new flow model that can be used to describe the non-linear seepage feature in low permeability reservoir to obtain continuous function of the dynamic kick-off pressure gradient. And the nonlinear seepage flow model of dynamic kick-off pressure gradient is considered to establish the mathematical model of one-dimensional single-phase fluid flow, and the discrete equations are linearized with fully implicit method. Besides, the distribution feature of formation pressure and influence of nonlinear seepage flow coefficient on moving boundary expansion are studied comparatively from linear seepage model, quasi linear formation pressure and nonlinear seepage model reflecting dynamic kick-off pressure gradient. Numerical results indicate that with the influence of the dynamic kick-off pressure gradient, the formation pressure of near well region declines more greatly, while formation pressure in the far zone is higher, and formation pressure decline range is narrower. In addition, when nonlinear coefficient numerical value is smaller, the degree of fluid flow nonlinearity is stronger, and expansion velocity of dynamic boundary is lower. © 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Wu X.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2012

The reactive characteristics of catalytic pyrolysis for C 5 narrow distillation of Yanshan gasoline were investigated over R0 catalyst which was specially designed for producing more propylene from heavy oil. Due to different mechanisms for respective thermal and catalytic pyrolysis reactions, the conversion of paraffins was higher than that of olefins in thermal pyrolysis reaction of C 5 distillation, while the conversion of olefins was higher than that of paraffins in catalytic pyrolysis reaction of C 5 distillation over R0 catalyst, and the yield of propylene in catalytic pyrolysis reaction was higher than that in thermal pyrolysis reaction. In catalytic pyrolysis reaction of C 5 distillation, the conversion of olefins varied in relative small scale with the change of reaction temperature, while the conversions of paraffins significantly increased with the increase of reaction temperature, and the selectivity of propylene exhibited the trend of increasing firstly and then decreasing. All these implied that olefins were more favorable for propylene production. Both the conversions of paraffins and olefins in the catalytic pyrolysis reaction of C 5 hydrocarbons decreased with respective increase of space velocity and coke deposition amount on catalyst, and more significant decrease of paraffins conversion was found. The catalytic reaction of paraffins disappeared when the coke deposition amount on catalyst reached 0.44%, and then the conversion of paraffins was totally led by thermal pyrolysis reaction.


Wang D.-C.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong Gaodeng Xuexiao Xuebao/Journal of Petrochemical Universities | Year: 2012

The resonance point lattice concept was put forward to explain the symmetry of the microscopic particles, atoms, molecules and macroscopic objects. The resonance point of the lattice is the electromagnetic gauge transformation of the cumulative resonance point and has a gauge transformation, showing the U1 symmetry. The resonance point of the lattice is the angular momentum conservation movement, is the circumference of inertial motion. Electronic angular momentum causes the direction of the resonance field, the electric field to produce a centripetal force, the magnetic field generated tangent eccentric exercise. Electrons in different energy level transition probability of the different resonance lattice resonance radiation has the symmetry. The difference between the center of mass balance produces a symmetry breaking of the resonance radiation, electrons release energy to produce a non-gauge transformations, asymmetric radiation. Atomic and molecular crystals are determined by the resonance point lattice between the resonance point of the lattice will produce nuclear resonance precession of the nuclear role model. Resonance radiation-photons in the dissemination process of fermion aggregates (planet) to produce the weak interaction, this function of photon energy attenuation, the attenuation constant for the Hubble constant H 0.


Liu Z.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2012

The high pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for four binary systems, namely ethylene-isobutane, ethylene-1-butene, ethylene-trans-2-butene and ethylene-cis-2-butene, were measured at 286.15 K in high pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium apparatus. The experiment results accord with the thermodynamic consistency test. The data were correlated by means of Peng-Robinson equation and the interactive coefficients of the four binary systems at 286.15 K were calculated. The results show that the average relative error of the pressures of the four binary systems are 0.31%, 0.17%, 0.19% and 0.27%, respectively. And the average vapor mass fractions of the four binary systems are 0.52%, 0.60%, 0.82% and 0.39%, respectively. The obtained coefficients of the PengRobinson equation models are consistent with the experiment data, and can meet the demand of current engineering design.


Yu F.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2012

In this paper, the water balance in para-xylene separation unit is discussed. The effect of water in adsorbent on the stability and selective adsorption performance of the adsorbent is analyzed, finally, measures for keeping the optimal water content of adsorbent are put forward, such as proper controlling the amount of water injection, monitoring the water content in feed and tracing water balance daily, to prolong the service life of adsorbent and ensure a safety running of the unit under optimum conditions.


A fast sample-preparation method for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis was established, and the contents of Ni and La in a nickel-based methanation catalyst were measured by means of EDXRF. The optimal analysis conditions and detection range were determined, and the accuracy and the precision of the measurement was investigated. The two standard working curves were obtained from two standard samples. In the ranges of 10.0%-45.0%(w) for the Ni content and 0.2%-4.0%(w) for the La content, the intensities of the characteristic X-rays showed good linear relationships with the contents. According to the recovery test by standard addition, the recoveries of Ni and La reached 99.24%-102.75% and 100.55%, respectively. The RSDs(n=10) were in 2.52%- 2.73% for the Ni content and 2.02% for the La content. It was validated by ICP chemical method that EDXRF could be used in the determination of metallic element contents.


Liu W.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2012

A number of spherical storage tanks of different metallurgies were inspected with non-destructive testing methods, i. e. macro testing, MT, UT and RT, etc to find out the potential safety hazard. Most of the defects were repaired by blasting and welding, and the technical requirements and process parameters of repair welding were described. For the remaining defects, safety assessment was performed using two different calculation methods based upon fracture mechanics. In operation, an appropriate coating was applied on the external wall of the tanks for corrosion protection, and H2S in storage media was controlled to prevent SSCC of internal wall. The practices show that the inspection is effective and the defect treatments are practical and reliable, which have ensured the safe operation of spherical tanks.


Yin Z.,Sinopec
China Petroleum Processing and Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2012

This article has summarized the optimized measures relating to the loading of catalyst, and the sixth operating cycle of the residue hydrotreating unit at SINOPECs Maoming Branch Company, and made a detailed comparison on the impurities removal rate, hydrogen consumption and energy consumption of the sixth operating cycle with those achieved by the previous five cycles. Test results have revealed that the second-generation RHT series novel residue hydrotreating catalysts featured high activity, good stability, and long operating cycle and could remarkably reduce the hydrogen consumption and energy consumption of process unit. The hydrotreated AR product, having low Conradson carbon residue, low sulfur content, low metal content, high content of saturated hydrocarbons, and low content of asphaltenes and resins, is an excellent FCC feed. Judging from their overall property the second-generation RHT series of residue hydrotreating catalysts used in the sixth operating cycle have commanded a leading position among other catalysts used in previous operating cycles.


Xu B.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2012

The corrosion types of high pressure hydrogénation equipment and related effective protecting measures are introduced. Main equipment corrosion issues happened during the operation of two sets of high pressure hydrogenation units (residue hydrotreating and hydrocracking) in Hainan Petrochemical Company since startup, as well as the countermeasures are summarized, and some suggestions for operation and further improvement are proposed. From the years of production experiences, it can be seen that based on a proper design, optimum material selection and equipment manufacture, during the daily work, strengthening managements of process operation, equipment inspection and corrosion protection, a long-term safety and stable running of high pressure hydrogenation unit is truly possible.


Lin W.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2012

The influences of different silica sources and particles size of zinc oxide on the activity of sorbent were investigated. The results indicated that the sorbent prepared with the L silicate as the silica source showed low zinc silicate formation rate and high equilibrium activity. The sorbent prepared with ZnO particles of high surface area showed not only high initial activity, but also high formation rate of zinc silicate, so it possessed low equilibrium activity. In contrast, the sorbent prepared with ZnO particles of medium size possessed high equilibrium activity.


Wang Y.-H.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong Gaodeng Xuexiao Xuebao/Journal of Petrochemical Universities | Year: 2012

The acidic components were extracted from Daqing crude oil by using NaOH/EtOH mixed solution. The interfacial tension and dilational rheological properties were investigated at the kerosene-water interface by means of oscillating drop method. The effects of oscillating frequency and bulk mass fraction on interfacial dilational properties were exploited. The results show that the acidic component molecules can easily adsorb onto the interface and greatly reduce interfacial tension. The interfacial dilational behaviors of acidic components are similar to those of surfactants. The modulus increased with increasing frequency and passed through a maximum with bulk concentration increasing, while phase angle increased with decreasing frequency or increasing concentration monotonically. Morover, the modulus maximum of Daqing acidic components is about 45 mN/m, which is much higher than that of Shengli acidic components.


Liu J.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2012

The changing in global crude suppiy demand structure and developing trend are analyzed. During the 11 five year plan period, SINOPEC Engineering Incorporation (SEI) has designed or retro fitted a number of new and existing refinery or petrochemical complex projects having different charac teristics, four typical overall processing flows among them are reviewed. To further demonstrate the im pact of selecting appropriate heavy oil upgrading scheme on plant profit, four heavy oil processing schemes involved novel technology and combined process are studied from perspective of liquid products production and investment return, techno economically. Besides, coping with the change of crude sup ply structure, the incorporation of petroleum substitute fuel production in modern refinery is also discussed. The technical schemes of direct liquefaction of coal to oil and combined direct/indirect liquefac tion of coal to oil are compared. Finally, some countermeasures for engineering design to cope with the change of crude supply demand structure are proposed. © 2012 by the authors.


Cao Y.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2012

In recent years, Chinese benzene market price frequently fluctuated due to international crude oil price and the contradiction between supply and demand. So the supply and demand balance of the Chinese benzene market was fragile. Through analyzing the benzene market, the characters of the downstream and the upstream consumption structure and the law of the Chinese benzene market are pointed out. The domestic benzene supply and demand in future is forecasted. Appropriate suggestions are given according to the conclusion.


Zhao R.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2012

Based on studying the reaction characteristics of delayed coking and coking mechanism in furnace tubes, a technical revamping of the coking furnace of a 1. 6 Mt/a delayed coking unit was carried out in order to control the cracking severity of feedstock leaving furnace, a software simulating process happened inside and outside of the furnace tube was adopted. Several novel technical measures and patents were involved in the revamping, as well as operating parameters optimization to enhance the heat provided for coking reactions by furnace and improve product distributions. The simulation results post to furnace revamping showed that the cracking severity of feedstock leaving furnace was deepened and the heat provided for coking reactions was enhanced significantly. Commercial running results showed that by adopting deep cracking technology in coking furnace, the processing capacity of the furnace increased and reached 1.86-1.95 Mt/a; the external surface temperature of furnace tube was about 80°C lower than that of prior to revamping, and the operation period after coke burning was prolonged from 9-month to more than 15-month. After revamping, although the carbon residue in feed was higher, the coke yield/coke yield coefficient both decreased and the liquid yield increased with good economic benefit, which indicated that this delayed coking unit could meet the requirements of processing inferior feedstock with high processing capacity and improved product distributions.


Chen Q.-P.,Sinopec
Petrochemical Equipment | Year: 2012

The equipment problems during Shell coal gasification operation in nearly two years were introduced. The article will share the root cause analysis for these occurred problem, treatment and improvement solution, recommendation on how to check, inspect and manage for critical position of key equipment.


Chen G.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2012

The test results of cracking furnaces running of SINOPEC indicates that some furnaces have the drawbacks of high flue gas temperature, high oxygen content in the flue gas and high firebox outside wall temperature, which leads to low thermal efficiency. The energy conservation can be achieved by optimizing the operation conditions, process design and furnace structure. The reforming of a cracking furnace in SINOPEC Maoming petrochemical company for energy saving was carried out by adding heat transfer tubes with twisted tapes, changing the structure of the furnace tubes, transforming the structure of the convection section, using new burner, replacing the lining of the radiation section, sharing induced fan and modifying the Venturi distributor. The results showed that after the reforming, the feed rate increased by 9%, the exhaust gas temperature decreased by 53.6°C, the tube wall temperature reduced by 40°C, the thermal efficient was improved by 1.77 percentage point and the operating cycle extended by more than 100%.


Wang L.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2012

R&D progresses in major petrochemical catalysts were introduced, including catalysts for ethylene/propylene production, styrene catalysts, toluene disproportionation catalysts, transalkylation catalysts, ethylene epoxide catalysts and acrylonitrile catalysts. Current interests in the petrochemical catalyst area were analyzed, such as green catalytic processes, alternative feedstock, new catalytic materials and catalyst production process control.


Xianghong C.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2012

The current gasoline pool in domestic refineries is reviewed including dominant FCC blending component, lack of components from catalytic reforming, alkylation and others. Given the trend of future crude supply, consumption demand of gasoline, strengthening environmental regulations toward gasoline quality and emission/waste reduction during production, it would be critical for refineries to seek appropriate process routes for gasoline production based on the current conditions and challenges facing. Several recommendations to domestic refineries for future gasoline production scheme are proposed in this paper. Firstly, the combination of hydrocracking and catalytic reforming process should be incorporated into gasoline production more actively; secondly, the combined process of hydro-pretreating residue feed-FCC-hydro-fining FCC gasoline should be promoted; thirdly, more attention should be paid to high quality gasoline blending components from LPG resources through such processes as LPG aromatization, butylene-iso-butane alkylation and iso-butylene polymerization; and finally, light naphtha isomerization can play a more important role as well.


Four standard test methods for determining the boiling range distribution of petroleum fractions by gas chromatography were compared, and data correlations of these standard test methods were studied as well. The test results of these four standard methods were basically in good agreement. ASTM D2887 method is simple, fast and with good precision for analyzing petroleum fractions in the boiling range of 55. 5-538 °C. ASTM D7500 method having wide measurement range is preferred to determine petroleum fractions, such as various lubricating oils, VGO and other heavy petroleum fractions. The effect of film thickness of capillary column on the determination result was also discussed. When testing heavy oil sample containing over n-C 100 hydrocarbons, capillary column with film thickness of 0.1 urn is suggested to be used for better determination accuracy.


Qiang H.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2012

The industrial application of two C 8 aromatics isomerization catalysts, RIC-200 developed by Research Institute of Petroleum Processing and an imported catalyst represented the advanced world level, was introduced. The start-up, performance test and long-term operation of these two catalysts were compared. Industrial application results show that these two catalysts all exhibit good isomerization activity and stability; the conversion of ethylbenzene, C 8 hydrocarbons yield and selectivity of RIC200 are slightly better than those of the imported catalyst. Besides, RIC-200 catalyst is in reduced state, thus its start-up procedure is simple and the start-up period is shorten; its operation risk is low and more stable due to without water injection to adjust catalyst activity during operation.


Lu L.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2012

Polyolefins have accounted for more than half of the world production of thermoplastics. Despite their commercial importance, the lack of functional groups in their structure and difficulty for the introduction of polar groups to traditional coordination polymer has significantly limited many end uses. New synthetic approaches have been developed in recent years. This article summarizes and reviews these various preparation methods, namely, acyclic diene metathesis polymerization, carbene polymerization, catalytic chain growth, click reaction and coordination polymerization without the use of aluminium alkyls.


Based on actual exploration conditions of Jiyang depression, we analyze unique petroleum geological conditions in the continental rift basin, follow the basic judgment that subtle reservoirs can become the main reserve replacement position, take oil and gas accumulation theory and key exploration technologies as main contents to tackle the exploration problem, and deepen the researches of the rift basin structure, deposition and accumulation law. Consequently, some innovative understandings have been obtained since 2002, such as the efficient hydrocarbon generation and expulsion mechanism of hydrocarbon source rock in the brackish lake environment, the origin and reservoir formation mechanism of gentle slope shore-shallow lake-beach-dam sand body in the rift lake basin, continuity and orderliness of reservoir distribution in the rift basin. Besides, China promotes excessive application of high-precision seismic exploration technology for complex geological targets in this area, develops and forms ultra-high temperature deep perforating and fracturing technology, which broadens exploration and development of deep hydrocarbon reservoir. Risk exploration and pre-exploration are highlighted. Breakthroughs are made continuously in new fields. Annual average three-level (proven, controlled and predicted) reserves have exceeded one hundred million tons for many consecutive years and all of these make contributions to stable annual oil yield in Shengli Oilfield.


Yin Z.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2012

Based on analyzing the comprehensive energy consumption of Maoming Oil Refinery, using process system integration optimizing approaches, optimizing the transformation, utilization and recovery of industrial energy in the whole plant were carried out. Some optimized solutions and measures for saving energy were proposed and mostly were realized, such as improvements in some main refining units, heat integration among units, proper using low-temperature heat, revamping storage-transportation and steam power system. Successful results were achieved, in 2011, the total crude processing capacity reached 14. 5 million tons with processing loss of 0. 38% only, the comprehensive energy consumption of the whole plant was reduced to 2 071 MJ/t, in which saving electricity more than 20 million kWh and steam 255 kt.


This article introduces the problems in tertiary refrigeration system for the expanded ethylene plant in Maoming since it was put into production in September 2006 and its technical modification during the overhaul in 2010, analyzes the problems including the accumulation of liquid-level in the first suction drum of tertiary refrigeration compressor, the mismatch between tertiary refrigeration system and ethylene tower, the high pressure in ethylene tower, and the mismatch between tertiary refrigeration system and cooling water temperature, and finally provides corresponding solutions for optimization.


Yu H.,Sinopec | Ren S.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Zuo J.,China United Coalbed Methane Company
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2012

To describe movement laws and complex flooding mechanisms of air and foam during the air-foam flooding, we built a mathematical model for the air-foam flooding based on an assumption of the correlation between phases and components. This model used the mathematical model of in-situ combustion as reference and combined the processing of physicochemical parameters with an air low-temperature oxidation dynamics equation and an empirical model of the foam flooding. The present paper examined the closure of this model and proposed a solution way to corresponding numerical models. A concept model was built and the oxidation dynamics model was modified through an experimental match with the air-foam flooding, and consequently the sensitivity towards influential factors for the displacement mechanism of the low-temperature oxidation flooding was assessed in an air-foam flooding simulation. The result shows that the displacement effect is matched considerably well with the water breakthrough time during the whole experiment. The air-foam flooding characteristic of a better effect and lower cost is fit for heterogeneous reservoirs with variation coefficients between 0.7~0.8 or for positive-rhythm reservoirs in the late water flooding stage. Many methods can be beneficial to increasing the air-foam flooding effect, such as high temperature and pressure, water injection at higher position while production at lower position, switchover to the foam flooding as the moisture content reaching to 96% by the water flooding and an inverted seven-spot well pattern in the water flooding. Besides, a better flooding effect can be also achieved as the gas liquid ratio keeps between 1:1~2:1, the air injection rate ranges in 0.1~0.2 PV/a or the air-foam alternating-air injection pattern is applied.


Zhao W.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2014

The phenomenon of "color particle" in the polypropylene product was analyzed. The results show that "color particle" is attributed to the moisture carried by the polypropylene powder entering the extruder and the moisture in the polypropylene powder is correlated with the medium such as steam and cycle nitrogen. Some measures have been adopted, including eliminating the defects of the process equipment and modifying the process procedures to remove the moisture carried by the polypropylene powder. Among these measures, the water accumulated at the bottom of the power storage bin is drained; meanwhile the stuff at the bottom of the power storage bin is utilized as the scrap which can be used to purify the equipment during the extruder start-up. Consequently, the quality problem of " color particle" which is resulted from moisture carried by the powder during the extruder start-up and shut-down has been solved.


Li Z.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Lin C.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Dong B.,Petrochina | Bu L.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2012

Thin intercalations and internal structures within mono-sandbody play a more and more important role in injection flooding and remaining oil generation. Based on depositional models of subaqueous distributary channels in the fluvial-dominated delta, we established an internal structure model for subaqueous distributary channels in the fluvial-dominated delta and figured out a three-dimensional distribution mode of intercalations in a single subaqueous distributary channel using data of outcrop photos and well sections. The results show that there are three kinds of intercalations within subaqueous distributary channels. The first is a lateral accretion intercalation that is formed when channels shift laterally, the second is a foreset intercalation that is formed when channel progradation occurs in a front slope, and the third is a vertical accretion intercalation that is formed when channel accretion occurs vertically in a flat area. These different intercalations may objectively reveal a three-dimensional distribution mode of basic units within subaqueous distributary channels and veritably reflect internal structures of subaqueous distributary channel sands in the fluvial-dominated delta.


Zhou Y.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2012

The effects of the modification in cleaning pores of ultra-stable zeolite prepared by hydrothermal method on its catalytic cracking performance were studied. The ultra-stable zeolite Y modified or not modified by pore cleaning were used as active components for preparing catalysts, respectively. The physical properties and catalytic cracking performance of prepared catalysts were investigated in comparison. As compared with the catalyst using ultra-stable zeolite Y without modification cleaning as its active component. Catalyst using the modified ultra-stable zeolite Y as its active component had better physical properties and catalytic performance, its pore volume and specific surface area increased, hydrothermal stability and catalytic cracking ability improved. The total liquid yield and gasoline yield were inimproved, gasoline selectivity was increased and coke selectivity was improved.


Ai Z.,Hubei University of Education | Deng R.,Hubei University of Education | Zhou Q.,Sinopec | Liao S.,Hubei University of Education | Zhang H.,Hubei University of Education
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2010

One of the major challenges in emulsion polymerization over the past two decades was how to increase the solid content of latex products. In contrast to the conventional latex, high solid content (HSC) latex has a large volume fraction of dispersed phase, even larger than 70% in weight. Conventional emulsion polymerization, miniemulsion polymerization, self-emulsification polymerization and concentrated emulsion polymerization were all used to prepare HSC latexes, and many good results have been reported in recent years. Meanwhile, many applications of HSC latexes have also been developed. The present review summarized the progresses in the past few years mainly on the preparation methods and application of HSC latexes. Finally, some research directions as well as prospects were also proposed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wang J.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2014

Polypropylene random copolymer (PPR) for pipes with β crystal form structure was prepared and the influences of five different β nucleating agents on properties of the β crystal form PPR were studied. The results indicate that properties of the β crystal form PPR depend on the type and amount of β nucleating agents. The content of β crystal form structure is over 80% and the Charpy notched impact strength reaches 100 kJ/m2 when the mass percentage of E nucleating agent is 0.20%. C nucleating agent has the greatest impact on the distortion temperature under load of the β crystal form PPR, and the distortion temperature under load increases to about 76 ℃ with C nucleating agent. The tensile elongation at break is increased by 20% when A, B, C or D nucleating agent is added respectively. The addition of E nucleating agent is thought to be suitable to satisfy the requirements of impact and heat resistance of the β crystal form PPR after overall consideration. ©, 2014, Research Institute of Beijing. All right reserved.


Geng Z.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Han Y.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Gu X.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Gu X.,Sinopec | Zhu Q.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2012

Data fusion is an emerging technology to fuse data from multiple data or information of the environment through measurement and detection to make a more accurate and reliable estimation or decision. In this Article, energy consumption data are collected from ethylene plants with the high temperature steam cracking process technology. An integrated framework of the energy efficiency estimation is proposed on the basis of data fusion strategy. A Hierarchical Variable Variance Fusion (HVVF) algorithm and a Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) method are proposed to estimate energy efficiencies of ethylene equipments. For different equipment scales with the same process technology, the HVVF algorithm is used to estimate energy efficiency ranks among different equipments. For different technologies based on HVVF results, the FAHP method based on the approximate fuzzy eigenvector is used to get energy efficiency indices (EEI) of total ethylene industries. The comparisons are used to assess energy utilization states of different equipments and technologies. It is helpful to decision-makers to identify quantitative energy consumptions and major influence factors to improve energy-saving chances. Furthermore, the proposed strategy can be used to evaluate energy efficiencies in other process units too. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Zhou Q.,Wuhan University of Technology | Gong W.,Wuhan University of Technology | Xie C.,Sinopec | Yang D.,Griffith University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

Cottonseed hull, a low-cost widely available agricultural waste in China, after used as substrate for the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation, was tested for the removal of Neutral Red (NR), a cationic dye, from aqueous solution. A batch adsorption study was carried out with varied solution pH, adsorbent dosage, reaction time and initial NR concentration. The results show that the kinetics of dye removal by the spent cottonseed hull substrate (SCHS) is prompt in the first 5 min and the adsorption equilibrium can be attained after 240 min. The biosorption kinetics and equilibrium follow typical pseudo-second-order and Langmuir adsorption models. Thermodynamic parameters of Δ G°, Δ H° and Δ S° show that the adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used for the characterization of possible dye-biosorbent interaction. This study provides a facile method to produce low-cost biosorbent for the purification of dye contaminated water. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Yang J.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2012

Industrial application of the second generation RHT series residue hydrotreating catalysts developed by Research Institute of Petroleum Processing was carried out at the 3. 1 Mt/a RDS unit of SINOPEC Hainan Company for FCC feedstock pretreatment. The operation results showed that this new generation RHT series catalysts exhibited high hydrordesulfurization activity and good performance of removing carbon residue in feedstocks,especially during the mid and late operation period as compared with imported catalysts. The operation period of this new generation RHT series catalysts was prolonged for more than two months due to the good stabilities of catalysts.


Lu H.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2012

An energy consumption analysis of the 3.2 Mt/a hydrotreating unit in Qingdao Refining &• Chemical Company was carried out based on the unit performance test data (under full capacity). Some energy saving measures were proposed based on the production status of the plant. Through adopting advanced technology, optimizing operation conditions, implementing technical renovation and enhancing management,the energy consumption of the plant was reduced significantly, in 2010 the energy consumption of the plant reached as low as 198. 13 MJ/t,which is the new record of low energy consumption within the same type of units in Sinopec. It also provides energy saving thoughts for new unit design and existing unit revamping.


Li D.,Sinopec
Computers and Chemical Engineering | Year: 2016

Opportunities and challenges in the petrochemical industry and the emergence of massive disruptive technologies have triggered a new revolution that has the power to fundamentally change industrial processes including manufacturing, engineering, materials, supply chains, lifecycle management. Recently, the newly arisen smart factory adopted a disruptive manufacturing methodology and has become a key part of the petrochemical industry. The smart factory, which is different from the original production systems used in the petrochemical industry, needs to assess and position its future research agenda including its definition, intension, framework, and technology. Systems thinking and systems problem solving for the smart factory must be prioritized. Based on an analysis of the driving force for smart factory development, this paper proposes a lifecycle blueprint and consensus-based operating and technology roadmap. The definition and features of a smart factory in the petrochemical industry are presented. Furthermore, a summary of the technical systems and future-proof research field of the smart petrochemical factory from an academic and industrial viewpoint is presented. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang S.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2012

The status of water consumption in the production of molecular sieves is described and the way to decrease the consumption is analysed. Instead of, the discharged filtrates after proper treatment was reused for substituting the fresh water in the whole process. The recycling operation of the filtrates of every belt-filters was optimized. After precipitation, the filtrate was reused by recycling to the former working procedure. The recycling use of the sewage water from the adsorbing tower after the calcination system decreased the consumption of fresh water, increased the productivity of the unit and cut the cost of the products.


Wang D.-C.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong Gaodeng Xuexiao Xuebao/Journal of Petrochemical Universities | Year: 2012

A electromagnetic field with physical reality-resonance field was proposed, which substitute for the hypothesis wave of De Broglie wave-phase resonance. Replacing Schrodinger's analogy method with resonance field, a basic wave equation was generated from wave prosperity or particle property directly, which were equal to Schrodinger's equation. A pair of harmonic oscillator radiates electromagnetic field respectively, whose electromagnetic radiation radiates on the particle surface of the opposite side, proceeding electromagnetic interaction with the particle of the opposite side, and then generated quantum resonance effect. When the two particles achieved energy equilibrium, whose energy was the resonance binding energy of them. The binding energy of resonance was inverse to the square of distance. Resonance field had resonance quantum, its basic equation came from wave nature, the interacting field and other physical significances. The theory of energy convergence of resonance field, the theory of energy balance of center of mass of resonance field, the theory of energy conservation of resonance field, the theory of symmetry and asymmetry of resonance field and other theories of resonance field was proposed.


Zheng Y.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2012

Based on the process requirements and the analysis of water utilization of individual section and also the whole process of FCC catalyst production, the water supply-utilization system was redesigned and reallocated to achieve an optimization status, including local water system optimization, the plant water network optimization, sewage treatment and reuse in recycle, etc. The results of the execution of this plan is reported.


Tang X.,Sinopec
China Petroleum Processing and Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2012

The local flow characteristics in an external-loop airlift slurry reactor were investigated. The axial profiles of the local gas holdup, the Sauter mean diameter and the rise velocity were obtained. It was found that the bubble size and rise velocity were influenced by the solid holdup, and the bubble coalescence was enhanced by the increase of the solid holdup. A new correlation was used to predict the slip velocity between the gas phase and the slurry phase by taking into account the local gas holdup, the bubble size, and the physical properties of the experimental system. By using this correlation, the local drag coefficient can be calculated in the bubble swarm.


Zhao F.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2012

The problems to be improved in current industrial production of NaY are that the Si (originated from raw material sodium metasilicate) utilization is only around 75% and the untreated alkali-mother liquor sewage caused serious environmental pollution. In this work, the mother liquor, after separating the suspended solids (NaY) and some gelatinous materials, was mixed thoroughly with aluminium sulfate solution to make silica-alumina gel for recycling use as part of the Si source of the starting materials to synthesize NaY. Factors of using the solid-separated liquor and aluminium sulfate to prepare silica-alumina gel including the quantity of aluminum sulfate addition, the pH value, temperature and aging time of gelation, etc, and their effects on Si loss, filtration velocity of Si-Al gel are investigated. The experimental results make a suggestion for raising process economy and alleviating environmental pollution.


Zong B.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2015

Since China implemented the National Basic Research Program (“973” plans) in 1998, the Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP) has been charged with the three green chemistry projects of petroleum refining and chemical synthesis (G2000048000) in 2000, green and sustainable chemistry for high-efficiency utilization of petroleum resources (2006CB202500) in 2006, fundamental of chemistry and engineering for high-efficiency oil refining technology (2012CB224800) in 2012, respectively. These projects promote the development of science and technology, and demonstrate the leading role of RIPP in China petrochemical industry. In addition, the green caprolactam production technology, as an example, further elaborates the important role of these projects for the development of new technology. The innovation technology includes TS-1 zeolite integration with slurry bed for cyclohexanone ammoximation, silicalite-1 zeolite integration with moving bed for cyclohexanone oxime rearrangement, and amorphous Ni alloy integration with magnetically stabilized bed for caprolactam purification. Based on the commercial application results, the investment for the caprolactam production plant was decreased by 70%, operation costs decreased by 10%, atom utilization increased from 60% to 90% and essentially waste-free, respectively. These achievements made China become the world's first production power country from an importer of caprolactam. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Ning F.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2015

There are two types of shale oil in Jiyang depression, i. e., mud-shale type and interlayer type. Through analyzing shale oil characteristics of these two types, the main control factors of shale oil enrichment in Jiyang depression were identified using mathematical statistics, typical anatomy, analysis and testing technology as well as hydrocarbon generation and expulsion simulation experiment. The main control factors for mud-shale type include mud-shale lithofacies, abnormally high pressure, shale oil mobility and mud-shale (micro) fissures. In abnormally high pressure transition segment of organic-rich laminated lithofacies, the better the mobility of shale oil is and the more developed the fissures are, the more beneficial it will be for the enrichment of shale oil in Jiyang depression. The main control factors for interlayer type are similar to those of conventional oil reservoirs, i. e., primarily controlled by physical properties and abnormally high pressure. The better the physical properties of interlayers are and the higher the abnormal pressure is, the more beneficial it will be for the enrichment of interlayer-type shale oil. These results have certain guiding significances for shale oil exploration in terrestrial rift basins of eastern China. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Wu Z.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2015

The complexity of coal constituent and the variety of downstream processes lead to variety of coal gasification technologies. Domestic coal gasification technologies nowadays were analyzed in this paper based on the coal gasification principle. It is thought that the entrained slagging bed is the main development direction of coal gasification technology, which possesses the advantages of high gasification reaction efficiency, high carbon conversion rate and is the best green process. The pyrolysis layer in moving bed leads to higher methane content in product gas and is good for coal to manufacture nature gas, but the problems of lower gasification intensity and alkali metals enrichment in the bed occur; Fluidized bed pyrolysis-gasification process can also raise methane content in its product gas. The gasification intensity is higher than that of moving bed if reasonable particulate size of feed coal is used. There are various problems for the other gasification technologies and need to continue to research and development or think carefully about industrial application.


Ji L.-W.,Sinopec
Petrochemical Equipment | Year: 2015

Flue gas turbine structure, operation condition, fault features and the existing of detection technology were discussed in detail. It is pointed out that the existing flue gas turbine axis vibration detector can't detect insensible defects at fault period and plenty of diagnosis and analysis data obtained can't give effective support. Set of newly upgraded monitoring technology were processed. A high-temperature vibration probe was installed on sensitive part to obtain effective detection to keep the FCC unit operating in good condition. © 2015, Lanzhou Petroleum Machinery Research Institute. All rights reserved.


In order to understand the ways and intensity of fugitive emission of shale gas from the Wufeng-Longmaxi Formation in Sichuan Basin and its periphery, we analyzed the time and features of late fugitive emission of shale gas and established shale gas leak mode by integrating various data inclduingthe burial history, structural features, pressure coeficient, gas contents and poroperm characteristics of cores from typical wells. It is believed that late fugitive emission of shale gas occurred in the whole period of late continuous uplifting of the shale gas strata. From the periphery to the interior of the basin, the initiation time of fugitive emission changed from the Early Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous. The matrix pores of shale reservoirs are dominated by nanoscale and the permeability is at nano-darcy level (averaging at 0.000 215×10-3 μ m2), and the sensitivity of permeability to stress is strong (descending two order of amplitude when effective overburden pressure of core ascending from 3.5 MPa to 40 MPa). The fugitive emission of shale gas from deep strata in which faults are poorly developed is the weak diffusion driven by hydrocarbon concentration difference. The late tectonic movements led to the uplifting of shale reservoirs or development of open faults. As the stress released, the permeability of shale reservoirs increased and horizontal permeability became far greater than vertical permeability (the average horizontal permeability of whole cores on surface is 0.567 8×10-3 μm2, while the average perpendicular permeability is 0.153 9×10-3 μm2). The fugitive emission of shale gas is the most intensive near the eroded outcrop area, in areas where the bu-rial depth of shale is shallow or near the open faults belt, and the intensity of emission along strata direction is far greater than that along the direction perpendicular to strata. As the stress, permeability and hydrocarbon concentration change from deep area to shallow area and then to outcrop area as well as the area near open faults belt, the bedding-parallel fugitive emission mode of shale gas is featured by gradual changes from weak diffusion to relative strong diffusion to strong diffusion and finally to seepage flow and the intensity of fugitive emission increase gradually. ©, 2015, Oil and Gas Geology. All right reserved.


Qiao A.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2015

NiW series catalysts made by pore volume impregnation method were characterized by temperature-programmed reduction. The influence of sulfur content on tetralin hydrogenation over NiW/SiO2-Al2O3 catalyst was investigated. Then the correlation of sulfur retarding effect and the interaction between active metals and support of NiW catalyst was discussed. It was shown that sulfur containing compound had mild inhibition on tetralin hydrogenation and could increase its apparent activation energy. Among the catalysts observed, the catalytic hydrogenation performance of ones with weak metal-support interaction was less influenced by sulfur containing compound than that of those with strong metal-support interaction. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Liu X.,Sinopec | Liu Z.,Petrochina
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2015

Aiming at the diversity of borehole trajectory model, a universal format is provided for spatial arc, cylindrical helix, natural curve and other models. The spatial coordinate increment of each borehole trajectory model is expressed as the product of three coordinate-distribution coefficients and a certain reference value, and the coordinate-distribution coefficient can be used to characterize the coordinate increment corresponding to the reference value per unit length. Then, a conversion coefficient of reference value is introduced, so as to convert the reference value of each borehole trajectory model into well length. As a result, the coordinate increment of each borehole trajectory model is expressed as the product of reference-value conversion coefficient, coordinate distribution coefficient and well length, characterized by concise format easy for computer programming. Due to the fact that different borehole trajectory models correspond to various steering drilling modes, the calculation method for different steering drilling modes should be established according to the design, monitoring and control of the same borehole trajectory. A universal format of borehole trajectory model can provide the generally applicable calculation method, while it is only required to select the borehole trajectory model with different coefficients for various steering drilling modes. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Zheng X.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2015

A steady state model for the dual-loop polypropylene process in Sinopec Hainan Petrochemical Corporation was established by means of the Polymers Plus software. The effects of hydrogen concentration, polypropylene yield, external donor dosage and propane content in the propylene circulatory system on the properties of polypropylene products were investigated by means of the model. The results indicated that, the model can reveal the production situation well. In the production of polypropylene with high melt flow index, the fall of the product isotacticity can be avoided by the adjustment of the external donor dosage. When the hydrogen amount increased, the reactor temperature runaway should be prevented and exhaust emission should be increased to reduce the accumulation of inert components in the propylene circulatory system. When the deviation between actual and designed yields was large, the slurry density in the reactors should be adjusted and the catalyst residence time should be ensured unvaried. After the product isotacticity met the requirements, the consumption of the hydrogen and catalyst should be reduced by controlling the dosages of the external donor and triethyl aluminium. The propane content in propylene should be controlled. By optimizing the operation, Hainan Petrochemical polypropylene unit decrease the cost of catalyst 474 400 ¥ in 2011. ©, 2015, Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry. All right reserved.


Hoxtolgay basin, located in northwestern Xinjiang, is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basin developed on the thrust nappe system of the west Junggar orogenic belt formed in late Paleozoic. There exists an ongoing debate in understanding of the basin prototype and its evolutionary history in Mesozoic-Cenozoic period. To restore the history of formation and evolution, and determine the type of the basin, research ideas of reformed basin was applied to analysis of formation and development of the basin, the comprehensive geological studies and seismic structural analysis were carried out as well. Results show that the formation and evolution of Hoxtolgay Basin in Mesozoic-Cenozoic age is mainly influenced by west Junggar orogeny, and can be subdivided into at least three basin formation and reformation periodssince Triassic, respectively Indosinian, Yanshanian and Himalayan period. The prototype of the basin in Indosinianis a compressional depression controlled by the east-westtrending Xiemisitaishan piedmont thrust fault, and developed an extensional depression with a large scale subsidence in Yanshan period. At late Yanshanian, the basin was strongly reformed by folding and thrusting, and the north-south ramp framework of the basin wasformed. The sedimentary area of the basin was greatly narrowed and restricted to the middle depression belt of the basin in late Yanshanian to Himalayan period, and mainly exhibited the characteristics of the reactivity and inheritance of the pre-existing faults. Although the tectonic stress fields and basin features are different in different stages of formation and development of the basin, their regional tectonic stress fields are generally the same or similar in the later stage of each basin development, mainly due to Xiemisitaishan Piedmont fault thrusting southward and Daerbute sinistral transpressional faulting. It is therefore concluded that Hoxtolgay basin is generally a strike-slip and thrust reformed basin caused by the changes of the regional tectonic stress fields in the process of basin evolution.


Liu R.-B.,Sinopec
Natural Gas Geoscience | Year: 2015

High shale gas flow of 203×103 m3 was tested in Longmaxi Formation in Nov. 28, 2012, which declared the discovery of Fuling shale gas field. On July 10, 2014 the proved geological reserves of the first shale gas field in China was submitted to National Reserves Committee. The practices of exploration and development prove that the reservoirs in Fuling shale gas field belong to quality shales deposited in deep shelf, with great thickness, stable distribution, no interlayers. The shale gas field is characterized by high production well, high pressure reservoirs, good ingredients of gas and good effects on testing production, belonging to mid-deep quality natural gas reservoirs with high pressure. According to the comprehensive studies on regional sedimentary background, lithology, micro-pore structures, geophysical properties, gas sources, features of gas reservoirs, logging responding features and producing features of gas wells, it shows that (1) Longmaxi Formation in Fuling shale gas field belongs to deep shelf environment where organic-rich shales developed well; (2) Thermal evolution of shales of Longmaxi Formation is moderate and Nanometer-level pores develop; (3) The shale gas sources came from kerogens of Longmaxi Formation itself; (4) The shale gas reservoirs of Fuling Longmaxi Formation is similar to the typical ones in north America in geological features and producing rules. So all above proves that the shale gas produced from Longmaxi Formation in Fuling is the typical in-situ detained, self-generated and self-stored shale gas. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Zhang L.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Wang A.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Jin Z.,Sinopec
Energy Exploration and Exploitation | Year: 2011

CO 2 gas reservoirs have been found in a series of rift basins in East China. The objective of this study is to reveal origins and fates of CO 2 in the Dongying Depression in East China by using isotopic (He and C) and molecular compositions. 3He 4He, CO 23He and δ 13CCO 2 values indicate that the CO 2 gases with CO 2 > 79% in the deep fault belts in the depression are predominantly mantle-derived. In contrast, CO 2 in most gases in the relative stable areas, where source rocks are developed, is less than 10%. Based on helium isotope and δ 13CCO 2 ∼ CO 2He diagram, it was found that 10-30% of these CO 2 gases is mantle-derived, 28% to 68% is limestone-decomposed and 18% to 54% sedimentary organic in the relative stable areas. The mantle-derived and limestone-decomposed CO 2 in the relative stable areas indicates that the mantle-derived geo-fluid met the source rocks. More hydrocarbons can be generated via its heat influence.As the previously published model is not suitable for study of CO 2 fates at least in the case of thermogenic CO 2 addition, we proposed two models for CO 2 addition and loss: model I for CO 2 loss and limestone-decomposed CO 2 addition and model II for CO 2 loss and addition of sedimentary organic CO 2, based on a δ 13CCO 2 ∼ CO 2He diagram. By using the new models, it was revealed that the loss rates of mantle-derived CO 2 can be as high as 50-99.99% for most gases in the depression, the addition rates of limestone-decomposed CO 2 range from 18% to 150%, and the addition rates of sedimentary organic CO 2 from 11% to 230%. From this study, it was revealed that more mantle-derived CO 2 entered the Dongying Depression than previously recognized.


Unconventional hydrocarbon resources have become one of the major targets for oil and gas exploration in present China, among which shale gas reservoirs are the best and the most practical choice. In view of this, this paper summarizes the characteristics of unconventional shale gas reservoirs in China. (1) Dark shales mainly include marine, interactive marine & terrestrial deposit, and lacustrine mudstones and shales. (2) The common types are agrillaceous shale, carbonaceous shale, siliceous shale, and calcareous shale. (3) Shale gas pooling are usually found in such hypoxia environments as closed bay, lagoon, deep lake, undercompensated basin, deep shelf, etc. (4) The effective indexes for dark shales are generalized as follows: more than 0. 5% in the TOC value, over 40% in the content of brittle minerals, less than 4000 m in the burial depth, more than 30 m in effective thickness, and over 50 km 2 in the effective area. Therefore, based on the fact of widely distributed dark shales all over China and the breakthrough made in shale gas exploration, it is predicted that shale gas resource reserves will be at least 60× 10 12-80× 10 12 m 3 in China. With this great potential, shale gas resources will be the next important field of oil and gas exploration and development. In the end, this paper also suggests that other peculiar geological conditions like complex surface, burial depth, post-stage preservation, environmental protection, etc. should be highly focused on in the further shale gas exploration and development.


Li X.-Y.,British Geological Survey | Li X.-Y.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Zhang Y.-G.,Sinopec
Journal of Geophysics and Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper discusses the concepts of multicomponent seismology and how it can be applied to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs, illustrated using a 3D three-component real-data example from southwest China. Hydrocarbon reservoirs formed from subtle lithological changes, such as stratigraphic traps, may be delineated from changes in P- and S-wave velocities and impedances, whilst hydrocarbon reservoirs containing aligned fractures are anisotropic. Examination of the resultant split shear waves can give us a better definition of their internal structures. Furthermore, frequency-dependent variations in seismic attributes derived from multicomponent data can provide us with vital information about fluid type and distribution. Current practice and various examples have demonstrated the undoubted potential of multicomponent seismic in reservoir characterization. Despite all this, there are still substantial challenges ahead. In particular, the improvement and interpretation of converted-wave imaging are major hurdles that need to be overcome before multicomponent seismic becomes a mainstream technology. © 2011 Nanjing Geophysical Research Institute.


Zhao Q.-L.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | Zhao Q.-L.,Sinopec | Wang L.-L.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics
Tetrahedron Asymmetry | Year: 2011

A series of novel bidentatephosphite ligands, derived from methyl 3,6-anhydro-α-d-glucopyranoside and chlorophosphoric acid diaryl ester, were easily synthesized. These ligands were successfully employed in the Cu-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate 1,4-addition of the organozinc reagents diethylzinc and/or dimethylzinc to enones. The stereochemically matched combination of glucopyranoside and (R)-H8-binaphthyl in ligand 2,4-bis{[(R)-1,1′-H8-binaphthyl-2,2′-diyl] phosphite}-methyl 3,6-anhydro-α-d-glucopyranoside was essential to afford 85% ee for 3-ethylcyclohexanone with an (S)-configuration in THF, using Cu(OTf)2 as a catalytic precursor. When the reaction was carried out at lower temperatures, changing from -10 to -80 °C, a marginal influence of the temperature on the enantioselectivity of the reaction was observed. The presence of the methyl substituent at the 1-position of the glucopyranoside skeleton had a negative effect on the enantioselectivity in the 1,4-addition of ZnEt2 to acyclic enones. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang P.-X.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Zhang J.,Sinopec
Zhongguo Shiyou Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal of China University of Petroleum (Edition of Natural Science) | Year: 2012

In order to improve the accuracy, speed and stability of multi-parameters automatic matching for fractured horizontal well test analysis, a new parallel group particle swarm optimization algorithm combined with traditional method, intelligence algorithm and parallel algorithm was proposed. The proposed algorithm was combined with Gauss-Newton algorithm and solved by OpenMP parallel algorithm. The results show that in the particle swarm optimization algorithm, the searching direction of particle approaches to linear by clustering particles. The shortcoming of the local optimization is avoided and searching speed is increased. The algorithm combines Gauss-Newton algorithm with particle swarm optimization, which ensures its stability. Meanwhile, OpenMP parallel optimization algorithm can reduce the complexity of the model and improve the calculation efficiency. Compared with other optimization calculation algorithms, the algorithm shows high accuracy, high efficiency and the capability of dividing flow stage to some extent in well test interpretation for multi-fractures horizontal well.


Wang Z.,Sinopec
Shiyou Diqiu Wuli Kantan/Oil Geophysical Prospecting | Year: 2012

The main reservoirs of second members of Shahejie formation in Xiaoying are delta front sheet sand. Because of thin layers and fast horizontal changes of sand, the determination of sand boundaries is the critical factor to succeed on the exploration. Aiming at the exploration difficulties of low resolution of seismic data and the indeterminacy of sand pinchout lines, this paper goes on the fine descriptions for the main oil-bearing sandstone pinchout line through the spectral imaging and phase attribute analysis on the basis of the substratum correlation and statistical analysis of drilling. And the comprehensive geological evaluation is undergone in conjunction with the actual drilling comments. Thus, the good development results are achieved.


The Longmen Shan Mountain is situated at the boundary area between the eastern and western geological structure of the Chinese continent. Since this mountain came into being from the Indosinian folds and thrusts, its original geography has been difficult to recover due to the structural superposition, reformation and concealment during the Yanshan and Himalayan Epoch. According to the basin-mountain coupling rule, this paper particularly reviews drilling and seismic data in the Sichuan Basin, then in combination with the features and evolution laws of the mountainous structure, discusses again the formation and development of the Longmen Shan Thrust-Nappe Structure in the Indosinian Movement and their relationship with oil and gas pooling in the Sichuan Basin. The following conclusions are drawn. (1) The sedimentary sources in the "Late Xujiahe" basin formation period are closely related to the earlier Indosinian movement; the Paleo-Tethys Ocean in the north and south wings of the Songpan-Ganzi area was first sealed then closed, and was pushed to the margin of the steady continent by the significantly combined force of hedging and thrusting. (2) The Longmen Shan Mountain was lifted up high and erected at the fold-and-thrust belt after the Anxian Movement, which was the main orphanse in the Longmen Shan Indosinian Epoch. (3) The crosslinking molasse alluvial fan system on an extremely large scale in the "Early Xujiahe" basin formation period shows its characteristics of "being strong in the north and weak in the south". (4) After the orogenic movement, the Longmen Shan Mountain experienced a rather long period of structural stability, and later was dominated by denudation, planation, and slow and gradual lake deposits, and no late-period Indosinian movement ever occurred before the Jurassic. (5) There were two totally different and inverted basins formed respectively in the "Early and Late Xujiahe" basin formation periods, where the favorable domains for hydrocarbon pooling were reserved: the West Sichuan (Chuanxi) Depression transformed from the continental margin dominates in the "Early Xujiahe" basin while sandbodies in the river marsh and lake march and inflow rivers dominate in the "Late Xujiahe" basin.


Lu S.,Northeast Petroleum University | Huang W.,Northeast Petroleum University | Chen F.,Northeast Petroleum University | Li J.,Northeast Petroleum University | And 4 more authors.
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

Research on the evaluation criteria of shale oil/gas is conducted so as to accurately assess the resources potential of shale oil and gas. After making statistic analysis of the geochemical index of hydrocarbon source rock layers in five areas such as Songliao, Hailaer, Jiyang, based on the characteristic of triple-division between the oil content and TOC of source rock, this paper classifies shale oil/gas into three levels of resources in terms of enrichment degree: scattered (ineffective) resources, low efficient resources and enriched resources. The mature stage, at which organic matter generates oil/gas in large amounts, corresponds to shale oil/gas enrichment window. Furthermore, recoverable index is defined and its computation formula is proposed to provide a quantitative index for recoverability evaluation, considering the brittle mineral content, thickness and depth of shale, etc. In practice, TOC variable values in well profile obtained by TOC-logging correspondence can be used to draw the TOC isopach map and calculate the resources amount of different levels. Then combined with the evaluation criteria, TOC and R o isopach maps are superimposed to identify the favorable shale oil/gas areas.


Li H.,East China University of Science and Technology | Li H.,University of Hong Kong | Mu B.-Z.,East China University of Science and Technology | Jiang Y.,Sinopec | Gu J.-D.,University of Hong Kong
Geomicrobiology Journal | Year: 2011

Although the presence and activity of ammonia-oxidation archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidation bacteria (AOB) were observed in thermophilic habitats recently, their existence in the geothermal subterranean oil reservoirs is still not available. This study investigated the abundance and distribution of AOA and AOB in the production waters of high-temperature oil reservoirs by using real-time PCR and phylogenetic analysis based on amoA genes. The results indicated the occurrence of both AOA and AOB in 9 out of totally 17 wells. The AOA-like phylotypes are mainly clustered within two major clades of archaeal amoA sequences known from water columns, sediments and soils: clusters A and B, and a few clones are related to the new genera: Candidatus 'Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii'. The AOB-like phylotypes mainly belong to Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas clusters, while two of them are deep-branched in Nitrosospira cluster and showed no substantial alignment to the known cultured AOB, indicating the possibility of new AOB phylotypes. The abundance of AOA and AOB-like amoA genes ranged from 2.92 × 10 3 to 9.21 × 10 4 and from 2.91 × 10 2 to 8.12 × 10 3 amoA gene copy numbers per ml production water with the ratios of AOA to AOB ranging from 5.10 to 95.5. Statistical analysis showed that amoA gene fell into five groups and the distribution of amoA gene is significantly correlated with the environmental factors, e.g., temperature and recovery process. Our study showed distribution of prokaryotic amoA gene in various oil reservoirs was affected by production processes. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Xu Y.,Sinopec
Well Testing | Year: 2014

Through discussing on common problems of surface well test system, such as chock manifold, three-phase separator, hydrocarbon metering and processing systems, the causes and corresponding solutions to these problems are analyzed emphatically, which provides reference and guidance for conducting surface test to be more safe, reliable and high efficiency in the future. ©, 2014, Well Testing. All right reserved.


Chen X.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2015

A liquid sulfur-containing phenol ester antioxidant (KY505) was synthesized by transes-terification of methyl 3-(3, 5-di-ter-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate and 2-(phenylthio) ethanol. The structure of the product was analyzed by IR and NMR. Then the solubility and anti-oxidation performance of the product was inspected. The results indicate that the antioxidant ability of KY505 is outstanding, and the oil solubility of KY505 is better. The oxidation induction period increases by more than 50%, compared with antioxidants, like hindered phenol type, phenol ester type and thio-phenyl type antioxidant.


Wang Y.,Zhejiang University | Zhang S.,Zhejiang University | Zhao Y.,Zhejiang University | Lin M.,Sinopec
Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical | Year: 2014

The deactivation mechanism of hollow titanium silicalite (HTS) in aqueous ammoximation of acetone was investigated. Amines and polynitro-compounds, formed by alkaline autocatalytic and oxidative coupling reaction respectively, were determined to be the main by-products. The results showed that deactivation of HTS could be caused by two main reasons: (1) slow deactivation due to by-product amines adsorbed on the active sites of catalyst surface; (2) rapid deactivation in the late period due to by-products, mainly 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB), filling and blocking the pores of catalyst. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Sun L.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2015

SINOPEC has successfully developed and owned the independent intellectual property rights for complete set of aromatic technology, which had been commercialized on the 600 kt/a aromatics complex in Hainan refinery, SINOPEC. Technology progresses and engineering innovation included not only the improvement of catalyst and adsorbent performance, the development and application of new reaction and separation process, the use of combined process to maximize aromatics production etc., but also the innovative design method of reducing energy consumption and production cost and enhancing essential safety and product quality. This aromatic technology was more competitive with these technology progresses and engineering innovation. The progress of key process technology, engineering innovation and the industrial application of aromatics production were summarized. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Yang Y.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2015

The investigation of the adsorption capacity of RFS09 SOx transfer for simulated FCC regeneration flue gas was conducted in a small-scale fluid bed unit. The experimental results indicate that S2 removal rate of SOx transfer steps down at some time point with the extension of running time. The accumulated adsorption capacity indicates a gradually increasing trend with running time. It increases quickly at the beginning of reaction and then goes up slowly. The absorption capacity per mass of SOx transfer in unit time decreases gradually and steps down at some time point. The accumulated absorption capacity of the SOx transfer increases with increase of loading, but it is not a simple amount of amplification. The research results indicate that there is an economic usage amount of SOx transfer in commercial unit for the largest SO2 accumulation absorption capacity per weight of SOx transfer.


Chun N.S.,Sinopec
Annual Fuels and Lubes Asia Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2016

After several years of rapid expansion, the lubricating oil demand peaked in 2012. In 2015, industrial enterprises' total profits fell 2.3% compared to 2014 . This was the first decline in years. From January 2015 to November 2015, the cumulative domestic oil production was 5.328 million ton, a decrease of 3.2% from the same time period for the previous year. A presentation covers the effect of slowdown of China's lubricant market; advanced formula; rebalancing supply and demand; and how SINOPEC deals with the trend. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the F+L Week 2016 (Singapore 3/8-11/2016).


Li H.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2015

The development course, prospect, bottleneck and advantages of the three dimensional (3D) printing technology were summarized and the opportunity of 3D printing technology for petrochemical industry was analyzed. 3D printing technology has the characters of realizing personalized production, preparing high-precision products and complex integrated products all at once. Consumables are the most important cost of 3D printing products, which are the bottleneck of restricting the extensive use of 3D printing technology. The research and development of consumables is the key to develop 3D printing technology. The rapid development of 3D printing technology will provide good opportunities for petrochemical industry, such as scientific research, instrument manufacture and management, etc, especially the development of new materials for 3D printing will bring benefits to the petrochemical industry. Developing high-end consumables for 3D printing is beneficial for the enterprises to occupy the advantaged position in the future competition and enhance the competitiveness. ©, 2015, Research Institute of Beijing. All right reserved.


Zhang N.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2016

This paper describes the differences between K44-08-122 and domestic similar special resin for tubing in terms of capillary rheological curve, crystallization, mechanical properties, molecular weight and distribution. The results show that elongation at break of K44-08-122 reaches 616%, its simply supported beam notched impact strength and toughness are higher than that of contrast sample. Oxidation induction time of K44-08-122 is 80.7 minutes, which is far greater than 34.0 minutes of contrast sample. The crystal temperature of K44-08-122 is high while the melting temperature is lower; it has good mechanical properties and processing performance. It meets the requirements of GB/T 17219-1998, passes the certification of pipe PE80 grade, which meets the requirements of PE80 pipes. © 2016, Research Institute of Beijing. All right reserved.


Cui Y.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2016

The melt flow rate of special linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) grade DFDA-6010 for multi-layer coextrusion polyolefin(POF)heat shrinkage film is 0.95 g/10 min and density 0.921 g/cm3 based on requirements of stiffness of interlayer and melt strength of POF. The formula of the additive is developed and the technical indexes and process conditions of LLDPE are established for industrial production. DFDA-6010 is prepared by gas phase polyethylene condensation with 1-hexene as comonomer and mole ratio of two materials are controlled to 0.154. The testing results show that the transversal stretching breaking stress of the product is 33.6 MPa, and the longitudinal stress is 29.9 MPa. The applications prove that the properties of grade DFDA- 6010 is equivalent to those of overseas products. © 2016, Research Institute of Beijing. All right reserved.


Wang Y.,Beihang University | Niu J.,Sinopec
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering (English Edition) | Year: 2011

Iterative Learning Control (ILC) captures interests of many scholars because of its capability of high precision control implement without identifying plant mathematical models, and it is widely applied in control engineering. Presently, most ILC algorithms still follow the original ideas of ARIMOTO, in which the iterative-learning-rate is composed by the control error with its derivative and integral values. This kind of algorithms will result in inevitable problems such as huge computation, big storage capacity for algorithm data, and also weak robust. In order to resolve these problems, an improved iterative learning control algorithm with fixed step is proposed here which breaks the primary thought of ARIMOTO. In this algorithm, the control step is set only according to the value of the control error, which could enormously reduce the computation and storage size demanded, also improve the robust of the algorithm by not using the differential coefficient of the iterative learning error. In this paper, the convergence conditions of this proposed fixed step iterative learning algorithm is theoretically analyzed and testified. Then the algorithm is tested through simulation researches on a time-variant object with randomly set disturbance through calculation of step threshold value, algorithm robustness testing, and evaluation of the relation between convergence speed and step size. Finally the algorithm is validated on a valve-serving-cylinder system of a joint robot with time-variant parameters. Experiment results demonstrate the stability of the algorithm and also the relationship between step value and convergence rate. Both simulation and experiment testify the feasibility and validity of the new algorithm proposed here. And it is worth to noticing that this algorithm is simple but with strong robust after improvements, which provides new ideas to the research of iterative learning control algorithms. ©2011 Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering.


Liu J.,Sinopec | Yu W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhou C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Journal of Rheology | Year: 2011

The characteristics of van Gurp-Palmen (vGP) plot for long-chain branching polymer with well-defined topological structures, including symmetric star, asymmetric star, H-shaped, and comb polymers, have been calculated by "branch-on-branch" constitutive model. It is indicated that there is only one characteristic transition in the vGP plot for nearly symmetric star polymers, but more for other chain topologies, which were deeply dependent on the topology and the molecular parameters such as side-arm length, backbone length, and number of side arms. The theoretically calculated characteristic transition points were used to construct a topology map. A feasible protocol to distinguish the topological structures of branched polymer was put forward to quantify the chain structure qualitatively and quantitatively. Such a method has been successfully proved by its application on the available data in the literature. © 2011 The Society of Rheology.


Tian T.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2015

The FCC main fractionator usually has 2-3 pump-around (PA) heat exchangers. The lower PA has a higher temperature, indicating more valuable energy available. The effect of the heat removal optimization from the top and middle tower PA of the main fractionator on the operation was simulated using PRO/II simulation software. It is found that the increase of the energy recovery from the PA heat exchanger at the tower top and the first PA heat exchanger at the middle tower leads to an increase of the vapor and liquid phase load on the plate of the column. The model also indicates that under the conditions of stable heat recovery from the tower top PA, more heat removal from the middle tower PA needs more heat removal from the lower part of PA of slurry, resulting in lower total heat removal from the slurry (including upper part of PA of slurry), and higher yield of gasoline and diesel,while the slurry reduces slightly. The increase of heat removal from the tower top PA leads to a larger loading of both of gas and liquids phases at the lower part of the column, which makes the heavier component go up and more heavy components in gasoline and diesel products.


Liu X.,Sinopec | Su Y.,China National Petroleum Corporation
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2015

As a primary step of effectively controlling borehole trajectory, the design of borehole deviation control scheme has been widely applied in the process of directional drilling. Based on the spatial arc trajectory model, an interactive design method was proposed for the borehole deviation control scheme in this study, so as to solve the multi-valuedness problem of certain parameters, reveal the applicable conditions of special direction-turn modes, and describe the range of initial tool face angle for deviation gain or drop. The research results show that this interactive design method has optimal design and result check functions, and is easy to use onsite; the multi-valuedness problem of certain parameters, such as initial tool face angle, cannot be judged simply by deviation increment, but depends on the deviation rate at the terminal of direction turn; the steady-inclined and full direction turns should be limited within a certain well interval, which is can be characterized by allowable bending angle; the allowable bending angle of steady-inclined and full direction turns is unable to exceed 180° nor 90° respectively. The interval of steady-inclined direction turn is composed of two parts, i.e., deviation gain and drop with the midpoint of interval as the demarcation. The deviation gain or drop tendency of direction turn can be discriminated by initial tool face angle, while the demarcation line or area for initial tool face angle depends on the deviation angle at the starting point. The scientific and applicable research results have been validated by application examples. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


SBA-15 supported nano-scaled copper oxide was synthesized by impregnation method via ultrasonic-assisted route. The removal test from gas mixture containing 0.1 vol.% hydrogen sulfide was carried out over this material at atmospheric conditions. The effects of the chemical nature of copper oxide and the textural properties of the material on removal capacity were studied. The materials before and after the removal test were analyzed by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscope, X-ray photoelectron Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer and Inductive Coupled Plasma. The results showed that copper species are located predominantly in mesopore channels, existing as copper oxide nanoparticles. Mesopores are active sites for removal reaction. The outstanding performance of hydrogen sulfide uptake capacity is attributed to a combination of the nature of the active centers and the well-proportioned distribution of active phase inside the mesoporous material. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Wang X.,Shandong University | Yu L.,Shandong University | Jiao J.,Shandong University | Zhang H.,Guangxi Agricultural Vocational Technical College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Liquids | Year: 2012

A series of novel COOH-functionalized imidazolium-based surface active ionic liquids (SAILs), N-alkyl-N′-carboxymethyl imidazolium bromide ([N-C n, N′-CO 2H-Im]Br, n = 10, 12, 14), was synthesized. Their aggregation behavior in aqueous solution was investigated by surface tension and steady-state fluorescence measurements. From surface tension data, a group of micellization parameters was obtained. Compared with 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C nmim]Br) bearing the same hydrocarbon chain, [N-C n, N′-CO 2H-Im]Br exhibits considerably lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) and surface tension at cmc (γ cmc), higher adsorption efficiency (pC 20) and effectiveness of surface tension reduction (π cmc), indicating the incorporation of carboxyl group favors micelle formation. The average aggregation number (N agg) values of [N-C n, N′-CO 2H-Im]Br, determined by fluorescence quenching method, are slightly different from those of [C nmim]Br. The effect of temperature on the aggregation behavior of [N-C 12, N′-CO 2H-Im]Br was also studied. It is found that there exists a minimum cmc at nearly 38 °C, which is higher than that of [C 12mim]Br. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chen J.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2015

The problem of petroleum replacement was raised during the late of the last century, and then the ethanol blended gasoline was introduced, soon after the biodiesel appeared in the market. Since the elaborations on the petroleum replacement were confined in narrow scope before, in this paper the whole problem of petroleum replacement would be discussed, such as different types of feedstocks or energies, different fuel products and the corresponding vehicle engines, in conjunction of alternative scenarios in different nations. The data of techno-economic analysis and greenhouse gas emission study were provided, and all the discussions aimed at the medium term and long term goals based on strategic viewpoints. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Wu W.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2015

The typical process scheme stucture and main purpose of a modern aromatics complex for BTX production are summarized. The recent progresses in the five technologies of catalytic reforming, aromatics extraction or extractive distillation, toluene disproportionation and transalkylation, xylene isomerization, and adsorptive separation for para-xylene recovery are introduced. SINOPEC has developed its proprietary aromatics production technologies and successfully commercialized them in an aromatics complex with 600kt/a para-xylene production capacity in Hainan refinery, SINOPEC. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Liu X.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2015

The industrial application of ZCG-1 catalyst in the RFCC unit of SINOPEC Beijing Yanshan Company was introduced. The results of application indicate that ZCG-1 catalyst shows excellent residue cracking ability, resistance to heavy metal contamination and good coke selectivity, especially gasoline selectivity. When the feedstock contains 51.26% (ω) residue, the gasoline yield reaches 48.80% (ω), increased by 6.0 percentage points than the former catalyst VRCC-1 and the liquid yield maintains at 82.45% with a good product distribution and a remarkable economic benefit.


Wang Z.M.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Wang Z.M.,Sinopec | Chang X.C.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Hou W.L.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Wang J.Q.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research
Corrosion Science | Year: 2013

The selective dissolution behaviour of CuZr-based metallic glasses can be strongly influenced by minor Ni additions. The surface corrosion layers of the Ni-free alloy are changed from a porous Cu-enriched film to a Zr-enriched covered passive film on the Ni-containing alloys, thus, resulting in the elevation of critical potentials. The results indicate that the preferential dissolution of Zr atoms is inhibited by minor Ni alloying, while Cu atoms dissolve. A local bonding controlled mechanism is proposed to understand the switchable behaviour of selective dissolution. It presents us with new insights into the intrinsic corrosion resistance of alloys. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Li K.,China University of Geosciences | Li K.,Stanford University | Zhao H.,Sinopec
Transport in Porous Media | Year: 2012

By utilizing fractal dimension as one of the parameters to characterize rocks, a mathematical model was derived to predict the production rate by spontaneous imbibition. This fractal production model predicts a power law relationship between spontaneous imbibition rate and time. Fractal dimension can be estimated from the fractal production model using the experimental data of spontaneous imbibition in porous media. The experimental data of recovery in gas-water-rock and oil-water-rock systems were used to test the fractal production model. The rocks (Berea sandstone, chalk, and The Geysers graywacke) in which the spontaneous water imbibition experiments were conducted had different permeabilities ranging from 0.5 to over 1000 md. The results demonstrate that the fractal production model can match the experimental data satisfactorily in the cases studied. The fractal dimension data inferred from the model match were approximately equal to the values of fractal dimension measured using a different technique (mercury-intrusion capillary pressure) in Berea sandstone. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Dongwen Y.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The right selections of right mechanical sealing and flushing process of hydraulic turbine in hydrotreating unit determines the safety and long-term operation of the unit. In present design of the unit, the PLAN53A OR PLAN53B flushing is selected for the sealing systems of almost all hydraulic turbines. Although the PLAN53BC flushing is described in API682 standard and has been applied for the mechanical seal of mixers in chemical industry, it has not been used for the mechanical seals in high-temperature hot oil pumps of refineries. By the selection of PLAN53C flush design, utilization of balance piston instead of accumulator, the connection of upper chamber of piston with separation liquid system and connection of lower chamber of piston with internal seal chamber, the pressure of the separation liquid in balance state is higher than the pressure of internal seal chamber by 25% and the pressure difference between two sides of seal face is successfully reduced. Although the pressure in seal chamber is as high as 3. 0 MPa, the pressure difference between the two side of seal face is only 0. 4 MPa, which has substantially improved the working conditions of steel bellow tubes, extended the service life and ensured the long-term operation of the mechanical seals.


Shixin W.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The test of preparing quality vaseline by the single-stage in series process of high-pressure hydrorefining with FV-10 catalyst is described. The results show that under the experimental conditions and by the application of representative materials for commercial production of medicine white vaseline and the selection of the optimum process conditions, the hydrorefining product quality meet the specifications of medicine white vaseline in the national standard GB 1790-2003, specifications of cosmetic vaseline in industry standard SH 0008-1990 and specifications of food grade vaseline in industry standard SH/T 0767-2005. The hydrorefining with FV-10 catalyst can produce medicine white vaseline at relatively mild operating conditions. The medicine white vaseline hydrorefining temperature of the first reactor is 20 °C lower than the normal industrial production. The cosmetic vaseline hydrorefining can select the same operating conditions as medicine white vaseline hydrorefining, and the hydrorefining product quality is in line with the cosmetic vaseline industry standard. The food grade vaseline hydrorefining requires the appropriate selection of process conditions. When the temperature of the first reactor temperature is too low, carbonizable substances in the refined products will be off specifications. When the first reactor temperature is too high, the light component with carbon number lower than 18 will fail to meet the specifications.


Yongxin J.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The status-quo and the impact of joint patents in reorganization of SINOPEC engineering sector were analyzed, and treatment schemes were designed and implemented based upon the requirements of authorities. The transfer agreement of joint patents was entered with China Petrochemical Corporation, and evaluation of patent technologies was completed. The agreement on benefit sharing was signed with China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation, and principles of treatment of newly authorized patents are defined. Therefore, the problems relating to a large number of joint patents in the process of reorganization are appropriately handled. This has ensured that the core properties of SINOPEC engineering sector meet the requirements of regulatory authorities and provide useful experience and reference for other enterprises in treatment of joint patents in reorganization process.


Ning S.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

Previous studies show that the CO2-rich syngas is harmful to Fischer Tropsch(FT) and alcohols synthesis in terms of conversion and yield. Therefore, the reduction of CO2 content in bio-syngas is essential before synthesis. A novel enhanced reforming process of the CO2-rich bio-syngas into CO-rich bio-syngas by adding electric current was investigated at atmospheric pressure using a mixture of rice husk char and NiO/Al 2O3 catalyst. The current promotion effect was examined in temperature ranges from 400 to 800 C and current ranges from 0 to 4 A. The results indicate that the promotion effect of current is remarkable. The CO 2 in bio-syngas is almost completely converted (99. 5%) into CO at 4 A and 800 C. The current promotion effect is attributed to the synergy of dissociation of CO2 on the surface of NiO/Al2O3 catalyst induced by the thermal electrons, proved by the measurement of TOF-MS (time of flight mass spectrometer) and local heat effect which is helpful to the conversion of CO2.


Pan Q.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

In a case study of RFCCU wet flue gas desulfurization unit of EDV process, the impact of its operation on the operation of RFCC boiler and the problems in 3 years' operation after it was started up were analyzed. It was concluded that the pressure in the chamber of RFCC boiler was increased by 2. 8 kPa after installation of flue gas desulfurization unit and it was necessary to revamp the boiler to improve its pressure bearing capability; The blades of slurry circulation pump and nozzles of scrubber had be periodically replaced based upon wearing conditions to maintain a good scrubbing efficiency. The practice shows that the 304L stainless steel of the flue gas stack is subject to serious corrosion in sulfuric acid mist and 316L stainless steel with higher corrosion resistance can be applied. As the pH value of circulation slurry is no higher than 7.5, appropriate amount of coagulant can be used to prevent fouling of system piping. In addition, the injection of caustic into the slurry liquid can eliminate the side reaction by sulfite in oxidation tank and mitigate the corrosion of the equipment in PTU unit.


Since the startup of the ethylene plant in Zhenhai, the operation of its viscosity decreasing system had been unstable, the operation parameters had deviated from the design values, and the bottom pipeline of the viscosity decreasing tower had been plugged, thus threatening the smooth operation of the ethylene plant at high load. By analyzing the abnormal phenomenon, some emergency measures were taken to avoid the local shutdown of the viscosity decreasing system, and some solutions were put forward to avoid the coking of quench cooler and to prevent bulk coke from entering the bottom pipeline. After implementation, the operation conditions of the viscosity decreasing system were improved markedly, and the smooth operation of the ethylene plant at high load was ensured.


This paper introduces the basic conditions of long distance pipeline for low temperature ethylene in a 1 000 kt/a ethylene project of Zhenhai Refining and Chemical Company, compares the performance of cold insulation materials, calculates the thickness and allowance of cold insulation layer, and analyzes the influence of the design, arrangement and installation of cold insulation pipe bracket, the construction technology of cold insulation materials and the protection measures on cold insulation design. The results show that the cold insulation design can meet the expected goals. This analysis also provides a theoretical basis for the subsequent stable operation, overhaul, maintenance and energy saving transformation of the long distance pipeline.


Lu Y.-J.,Sinopec
Petrochemical Equipment | Year: 2013

The V-bar flow meter was non-standardized and specially designed for high viscosity fluid. It is simple in structure, economy and feasibility,easy for maintenance, and long stability, which is used in high viscosity oil product, industrial gas, and sullage fluid. Its working principle, structure, technical feature and application are introduced.


Zhang J.,Sinopec
Ethylene Industry | Year: 2013

The ignition system for the ethylene flare in Yangzi cannot operate normally for a long time. The igniter cannot work properly, the pilot is easily extinguished, and the flare gas cannot be totally reclaimed, bringing hidden trouble to the safe production of ethylene plant. This article analyses the problems in the ignition system for ethylene flare, introduces the modification of the ignition system, and puts forward corresponding solutions.


This article introduces the current development and advantages and disadvantages of intelligent wireless instrument, the standards for industrial wireless network, the methods for realizing industrial wireless network security and the methods for ensuring the reliability of wireless network. Taking an 800kt/a ethylene raw material tank farm as an example, this article introduces the implementation plan of wireless transmission instruments in tank farm, discusses in detail the layout of wireless instruments on site including the type and number of measurement point and the layout scheme of multi-functional nodes and gateway, and introduces in detail the related software and the setting methods used in the scheme.


SINOPEC Beijing Yanshan Company replaced the demethanizer feed separator in ethylene plant during the overhaul in 2011. After start-up, the hydrogen content in high-pressure methane was significantly reduced and hydrogen loss was reduced, but the operation of demethanizer was unstable and the overhead temperature fluctuated frequently. This article introduces the operation status of cold box system and demethanizer in Yanshan ethylene plant, analyzes the reasons for the unstable operation of demethanizer based on the actual situations on site, the operation and adjustment experiences of other ethylene plants and the simulation optimization literatures, and proposes some adjustment measures.


Jian J.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

The releasing temperature of safety valves on the top of hot low pressure separator is about 360 °C, but the design temperature of flare pipes is usually bellow 260 °C. Available methods are needed to decrease the releasing temperature from 360 °C to 260 °C. The HTRI software is used to simulate several cooling schemes, which are compared and analyzed in economy and feasibility. The conclusions can be drawn that the scheme of embedding the cooling exchangers inside the flare drum of unit is preferred and the schemes of fin pipes and double pipes are fit for installing on flare pipes outside unit.


According to the property of odorous media in wet air oxidation unit in SINOPEC Luoyang Branch Company, the reason of pipeline corrupted by odorous media was analyzed, and the counter-measures was made to alleviate the corrosion influence, and the feasibility of technological innovation of the counter-measures was discussed.


Liu Z.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

Two CCR units in Sinopec Jinling Company are designed with IFP and UOP process design packages. The main differences between the two processes are in the reforming reaction section and catalyst regeneration section. The two processes are different in operation reaction performance. UOP's process offers a slightly better reaction performance. The aromatics in the reaction product oil is higher and naphthene is 0.5% lower. There is no obvious pressure drop of the reactor in operation cycle. But low-purity reduction hydrogen will cause the coking in the inlet electric heater. Since the regeneration system of UOP's process has adopted valveless catalyst transfer process, there is little catalyst abrasion. The regenerator Johnson screen has been deformed many times because the peak temperature of catalyst coking burning bed is as high as 565 °C. The oxygen content of UOP catalyst calcination is controlled at 20% which is 4% ∼6% higher than of that of IFP. UOP catalyst has a better dispersion. Whereas, the surface area decreases rapidly. The increasing speed of iron content of IFP catalyst is two times that of UOP's.


Yang X.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

According to the regulations on the hydro-test of piping in the standards of petrochemical industry, the pressure of hydro-test of the piping is determined based upon design temperature and pressure. As different petrochemical units have different design conditions for piping and the testing pressure is different, there are a lot of packages of hydro-tests in the construction. It is suggested to define the hydro-test pressure by a new method called piping class hydro-test. The pressure-temperature limitations were listed out in piping class. For piping whose pressure-temperature limitation is equal to flange pressure-temperature rating, hydrotest pressure for these pipings can be defined as 1. 5 times the flange maximum working pressure at normal temperature. This method can apparently reduce the number of packages of hydro-tests while meeting the hydro-test requirements of piping.


Hu B.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

In the shutdown maintenance of refinery process units, a large amount of waste gas, waste water and waste oil will be produced, which can not meet the increasingly stricter environmental requirements if they are not purged under airtight conditions. In its shutdown for maintenance of refinery units, SINOPEC Guangzhou Petrochemical Company, through analysis of the factors affecting the air-tight purging, completed the air-tight purging measures, such as addition of oil and water blow-down processes, addition of diesel recycle cleaning, proper arrangement of shutdown procedures, control of consumptions of steam and nitrogen, control of flare gas emission and temperature in unit shutdown, development of quantitative indicators, control of production of waste water and waste oil, reasonable allocation of storage capacity of waster water and waste oil, etc. The airtight purging in shutdown was successfully implemented. All blow-downs and emissions from purging meet the specifications for environmental protection.


This paper introduces low emission shutdown quick emptying method used for the ethylene plant in Yanshan. For liquid-phase materials heavier than C3, water wash method is used to displace the materials in system with water and sent the materials to tank farm for storage. For C3 and lighter materials, propylene recovery process is used to recover the propylene in propylene refrigeration system, and an existing pump, which was out of service, is put into use again to expedite the delivery speed of materials in propylene distillation column. Other materials are vented via flare after vaporization and recovered with flare gas compressor as burning fuel for cracking furnaces. This method obtained expected results in practical implementation, but there were still some shortcomings. A scheme for further optimization is put forward.


Xu H.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Wen H.M.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Wen H.M.,Sinopec
International Journal of Impact Engineering | Year: 2016

A computational constitutive model for concrete subjected to dynamic loadings is proposed in this paper. The equation of state is described by P ∼ α relationship. The strength model is first proposed for concrete under uniaxial unconfined compression/tension by taking account of strain hardening and softening, dynamic enhancement excluding inertial effect, and then extended to total stress space by taking into consideration the pressure dependency and Lode effect. The newly developed constitutive model is compared with the HJC, RHT and K&C models by employing single element simulation approach and numerical SHPB tests. It transpires that the newly-developed constitutive model for concrete is advantageous over the existing models. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yang F.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

The critical operation technology for controlling shot coke formation in the delayed coker has been established in SINOPEC Luoyang Company. Based on the mechanism of shot coke and tests results, it is pointed out that the critical operation conditions, under which the shot coke will be occurred, can be strictly controlled by reducing recycle ratio and reaction pressure and increasing the reaction temperature to obtain the highest liquid yield. Meanwhile several measures, including monitoring neutron level indicator of point C on the coke drums, amount of quench, temperature of point C on coke drums, and optimal coker operation conditions, have been adopted to build a forecasting system for the shot coke formation, which would provide security and operational basis.


Shang J.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

Based on the static measurement results of H2S absorption capacities of MDEA and different ratio sterically hindered amine solutions, the desulfurization performance of MDEA and sterically hindered amine solution with optimized ratio for high sulfur natural gas was investigated in a high gravity desulfurization side-stream apparatus under the conditions of operation pressure of 8. 3 MPa and different gas/liquid ratio. The influence of rotating speed of high gravity apparatus on the selective desulfurization was also studied. The results indicate that No. 8 solvent exhibits the largest H2S absorption capacity. The absorption capacities of No. 8 solvent at 40 C and 50 C are 79. 67 g/L and 59. 20 g/L, respectively. The high gravity desulfurization technology can reduce the H2S content from 2. 0 × 10 5 mg/m3 in raw gas to less than 100 mg/m3 in purified natural gas. At the ratio of gas to liquid of 95, purified gas has the H2S contents of 19. 8 mg/m3 and total sulfur contents of 32. 27 mg/m3 and CO2 contents of 0. 38%, which meets the second category natural gas quality standard.


Wu C.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2013

The study on the stability of rhodium catalyst systems used in oxo synthesis of olefins was reviewed. The degradation of organo-phosphrous ligands through oxidation or hydrolysis and the deactivation mechanism of the rhodium complex catalysts were discussed. The ways for stabilizing the rhodium catalyst systems included searching for more stable ligands and additives used to inhibit the deactivation. Many approaches based on these ideas were introduced, and their advantages and disadvantages were analyzed.


Zong H.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2013

The dilational rheological properties of hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide (HMPAM) in oil-water system were investigated by interfacial tension relaxation method. The acidic component fraction and asphaltene fraction were extracted from Shengli crude oil by using NaOH/EtOH solution and solvent extraction, respectively. The influences of acidic component and asphaltene on the dilational rheological behavior of HMPAM in oil-water system were expounded. The experimental results showed that the elasticity of interfacial film increased exponentially with the increase of HMPAM concentration in oil-water system due to the formation of interfacial net structure by hydrophobic interactions in HMPAM molecules. The acidic component molecules will hinder the formation of interfacial net structure by hydrophobic interactions between acidic molecules and HMPAM molecules, resulting in the decrease of the elasticity and viscosity of interfacial film in oil-water system, while asphaltene has little effect on the interfacial film due to its relatively larger molecular size.


This article introduces the energy-saving retrofit of the No. 4 cracking furnace in the ethylene plant at SINOPEC Tianjin Company, discusses the general operation conditions and energy-saving effect of the cracking furnace after retrofit based on site tracking detection, operation data collection and data calculation and analysis, points out the existing problems in the operation, and puts forward corresponding solutions, providing references for the retrofit of cracking furnace in the future.


The installation hot oil air preheater in the waste heat recovery system for the heater of atmospheric-vacuum distillation unit had unsafe potential. The hot oil air preheater was removed in the overhaul in 2012 and a new cast iron finned-plate air preheater was installed, which eliminated the safety hazard. The flue gas emission temperature was lowered from 150 °C to 90 ∼ 100 °C, the thermal efficiency of the heater was raised by 2% and low-temperature heat was recovered from flue gas. In the operation of cast iron finned-plate air preheater, the finned plates at the flue gas side fouled and pressure drop of flue gas rose because of low temperature of flue gas. The pressure drop was restored to normal by hot water flushing at the flue gas side. The flue gas emission temperature was raised to 105 ∼ 115 °C and pressure drop rise was effectively brought under control.


Chen Z.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

EDV (Electro-Dynamic Venturei) wet scrubbing process and LOTOX (Low Temperature Oxidation System) denitration process licensed from DuPont-Belco, USA and applied in the 3.5 MM TPY FCCU of Sinopec Jinling Company are introduced. After the application of these processes, the concentrations of pollutants in the flue gases emitted from the FCCU have been reduced significantly, i. e. the concentration of SO, has been reduced from 553 mg/m3 to 29 mg/m3, that of nitrogen oxides has been lowered from 215 mg/m3 to 29 mg/m3, and that of dust has been reduced from 152 mg/m3 to 25 mg/m3, which are much lower than the emission limits allowed by China national applicable pollutant emission standards, indicating that these technologies offer excellent environmental benefits. The construction investment of the stack of FCCU is saved, the pressure drop of the scrubbing system is reduced, the impact on the upstream system is minimized and the emitted flue gases contain no water droplets after application of these processes. In addition, these processes are easy in operation and reliable in equipment and can operate with the FCCU synchronously.


He J.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The light component is high in the blow-down light sluny oil in the start-up and shut-down of the refinery process units or during abnormal operation. When the blow-down oil flows to the light sluny oil tank, the floating roof of the light sluny tank rushes to the head, the pipelines move and oil leakages occur due to the high vapor pressure of oil and rising pressure inside the tank. When meeting ignition sources including fire, lightning and thunder strike, etc, they will trigger fire accident of light oil storage tanks, which will greatly threaten safe operation. To solve this problem, the sluny oil storage system is revamped by addition of a flasher for the light sluny oil before entering the tank. After the light sluny oil flows to the tank, the light components in the light sluny oil will be flashed out by depressurization and then enter into low-pressure gas system. The flashed light sluny oil is pumped to light sluny oil tanks to avoid the problems of overpressure and light component escape after the light sluny oil enters into the tank directly. The accidents caused by highpressure of light sluny oil tank are prevented and safe operation of the refinery is ensured.


Jiang M.,Sinopec
Ethylene Industry | Year: 2013

Naphtha is an important feedstock to ethylene plant. Based on the detailed PONA composition analysis of naphtha, this article simulates the operation of cracking furnace, puts the simulation data into the mathematical economic model of ethylene plant, changes the coil outlet temperature of the furnace, and gets the economic curve. The higher the proportion of paraffin in naphtha is, the higher the value of naphtha is. The best propylene to ethylene ratio is 0.58.


Gao J.,Sinopec
Ethylene Industry | Year: 2013

This article mainly introduces the industrial application of different types of air-heater in cracking furnaces of ethylene plant, analyzes die actual energy saving performance of the air-heaters with the help of Aspen software according to different hear resources, and gives some improvement suggestions by analyzing the economic profit as well as the positives and negatives of different types of air-heater.


This paper introduces the process of GK-V type cracking furnace quench cooler and the typical leakage accident, and analyzes the force and structure of the quench cooler. The results show that during the operation of the quench cooler, the stress concentration caused by slanted hanger, coupled with the deformation of body structure and the falling off of supporting block, result in the internal coking of the quench cooler and the superheating of the outside wall, eventually leading to body weld crack and leakage. The improvement scheme was put forward and implemented successfully, its feasibility was verified via analysis and finite element calculation, and good results have been achieved.


Zhang K.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2013

Oil and gas development in deep and ultra-deep waters has become a hot issue in worldwide petroleum industry. However, lack of exploration and development equipment for these resources constrains whole progress. With advantage of its capacity in machinery, steel and ship building industries, China ocean petroleum engineering equipment has developed quickly. Currently, China is not only perfecting its manufacturing system for shallow-water prospecting equipment, but also making big progress in producing prospecting equipment for ultra-deep waters. Around 2020, China will be one of best countries of the ocean petroleum engineering equipment. China can rely on its own petroleum equipment to explore hydrocarbons of deep and ultra-deep water in the central and eastern part of northern South China Sea, where foreign powers have not interfered so much, and then turn to southern South China Sea and other area. Thus, China can take initiative in oil and gas development of this area. Meanwhile, China also jointly develop oil and gas in deep and ultra-deep waters with certain foreign companies, and by this way, stop or weaken their cooperation with circumjacent countries that have violated China's sovereignty. By then, China will be able to enter the world's offshore oil and gas exploration and development market in an all-around way.


Zhang W.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2013

Based on a typical pyrolysis gasoline hydrogenation unit, process simulation and pinch analysis were applied to study the potential of its energy efficiency improvement. Combined with the actual operation data, some problems in the unit were found, including a lot of heat transferred across the pinch, low heat efficiency of the feed furnace of the second reactor, high exergy loss of the second reactor outlet water cooler and low temperature of the depentanizer feed. A series of measures should be taken to solve the problems, including using efficient heat exchanger to decrease the temperature difference of the heat transfer, adding a thermal separation unit to separate the circulating hydrogen and reduce the cooling water requirement, and redesigning the heat exchanger network. Computer simulation, feasibility study, and estimate of investment and income show that the measures can reduce the energy consumption significantly and achieve better economic benefit.


Liang Z.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

This paper introduces the performance of a new C8 aromatics isomerization catalyst RIC 200 in laboratory and commercial unit, and compares with the results of SKI 400 catalyst under the industri al conditions. The results of the new catalyst indicate that the performance of RIC 200 under industrial operation conditions is in accordant with the results in laboratory test and better than SKI 400. The new catalyst possesses distinct characteristics, such as low deactivation rate, high ethylbenzene conversion and enhanced isomerization activity under even high pressure, low H2/HC molar ratio, low hydrogen consumption, and stable C8 aromatics yield. The RIC 200 catalyst also demonstrates its excellent adapt ability in varying industrial operation conditions.


Zhu Y.H.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

The ammonium salt plug and corrosion of trays and air cooler of the debutanizer were analyzed, which occur during the long term operation of Zhenhai Refining & Chemical Company's continuous catalytic reforming unit. According to the water soluble property of ammonium chloride, the water injection prior to air cooler and in feed of the debutanizer was used to avoid ammonium salt deposition with good results and a long term operation of the device.


Wang J.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The causes of coking n furnace tubes of recycle hydrogen heater are analyzed in detail. The unit had to be emergently shutdown because of flooding of recycle hydrogen desulfurization ower. gency shutdown, the failure of 5 check valves at outlet of heater, etc ed to he back flow of VGO o furnace ubes. The coking of VGO occurred n he high-temperature tubes because of improper emergency handling. The causes of tower flooding were: high hydrocarbon carry-over n iquid amine due to mproper design of hydrocarbon removal facility for recycle hydrogen, high solid particles in iquid amine due o mproper design of amine regeneration process, the blocking of seal pan and he bubbling of hydrocarbon carried over with liquid amine because of inappropriate selection of trays of desulfurization tower. All these ed o final flooding of desulfurization ower. Effective countermeasures have been mplemented and good results have been achieved.


Shen W.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

The troubles of over current tripping, flooding and serious oil carrying in the discharged water from the first stage desalting unit often appear when processing the crude oil with high water content in the 1. 6 Mt/a desalting unit in SINOPEC Jingmen Company. To solve these problems, the improved pulse and desalting techniques were adopted. Then the flooding phenomenon is disappeared, desalination rate is up to 96. 90% and desalination pass rate is over 93. 21%. Furthermore, several proposals were suggested in order to improve the electric desalination, such as optimizing demulsifier, using crude oil pretreatment agent in crude oil tank, and adding the new flow-path of electric desalination sewage discharge.


Zeng F.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2013

The industry application of SLH-211, a new type of inorganic chromium catalysts for ethylene polymerization, was introduced. The activities of the SLH-211 catalysts were high and the product produced with them had broad relative molecular mass distribution. The catalysts can be used in condensed state with high production rate. During the industrial application, the catalytic activity (polyethylene output based on unit mass catalyst) of SLH-211 was above 13000 kg/kg in non-condensed state and 6500 kg/kg in condensed state, and the tensile stress and the tensile yield stress of the product were 37-40 MPa and 21-23 MPa, respectively.


Li H.,Sinopec | Junjun Y.,Advanced Technolojy and Materials Co.
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The working principles and composition of reactor filter were described. The operations of 3 reactor filters supplied by domestic vendors in the S Zorb unit in SINOPEC Beijing Yanshan Company were analyzed. The operation data of the 1st filter met the design requirements. The 2nd filter had a higher differential pressure due to the impact of higher absorbent fines in reaction system. The 3rd filter was running stably. When the unit was operated at a capacity of 130 ∼ 135 t/h, the differential pressure of reactor filter was maintained at 30 ∼ 35 kPa. The commercial operation demonstrated that the performances of domestic filters could completely meet the design requirements. As system factors have a great impact on the operation, service-life management should be made for the reactor filters in respect of design, fabrication, installation, maintenance, etc to extend the operation cycle of the unit.


Liu Y.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

This paper presents the technique features of sulfur recovery unit in SINOPEC Jinling Petrochemical Company. Based on brief introduction of principle of acid gas treatment and ammonia incineration, the three main factors which affect ammonia burning in oven were analyzed in detail. The problems in the ammonia bearing gas treatment in 50 kt/a sulfur recovery unit and possible countermeasures were discussed. Some of practical technical solutions and experiences for long stable operation of treating the ammonia bearing acid gas were also introduced. By above countermeasures, SO2 emission is decreased to 400 mg/m3, friendly to environment. The NOx emission can be effectively controlled to less than 55 mg/m3.


Zhang J.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

The catalytic cracking is a chain reaction involving three steps: initiation, propagation and termination. The main reaction mechanisms are the classical cracking mechanism and protolytic cracking mechanism. The latter one can better explain the initiation step in the catalytic cracking of paraffin. The catalytic cracking of dodecane by Y zeolite was used as model reaction to investigate the mechanism of catalytic cracking and hydrogen transfer reaction in this paper. Hydrogen transfer index (HTI,defined as a ratio of the paraffin content over the olefin content in liquid products) is used to investigate the influence of Si/Al ratio, the La content and the P content on the hydrogen transfer performance. The results indicate that HTI is a convenient way to characterize the hydrogen transfer performance of the zeolites in FCC reactions, and the results were also compared with other methods.


Yang L.,Sinopec
Ethylene Industry | Year: 2013

In the first operation cycle of BC-H-20B catalyst in acetylene hydrogenation reactor, BC-H-20B catalyst showed high activity and a large amount of green oil was produced, which affected the operation of ethylene rectification column. The reasons for the flooding in ethylene rectification column and the high production of green oil in acetylene hydrogenation reactor were analyzed, and some optimization measures including adjusting the hydrogen to acetylene ratio and the inlet temperature and adding crude hydrogen were advanced.


Zhang X.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The relationships between different impact factors in the design of general layout of petrochemical plants are discussed, such as the relationship between plant site conditions and overall plot plan, the relationship between plant elevation layout and site water drainage and the relationship between present site layout and the future plant development. The specific analysis by case studies concludes that the ideal layout is a rectangle with a length to width ratio of 1.6:1 ∼1.4:1. Four-line layout is recommended, and zero-slope elevation layout is proposed. In addition, the possibility of future plant development shall be considered. These provide a good reference for the design of general layout for large integrated refinery & chemical project.


Tang L.,Sinopec
Ethylene Industry | Year: 2013

According to the energy consumption of the ethylene plant in 2010, SINOPEC Zhenhai Refining & Chemical Company carried out some measures in 2011 including optimizing decoking scheme, putting air preheater into use, adding coking inhibitor and using SPYRO software to optimize the production. The consumption of steam, fuel and recycle water was reduced, the objective of energy saving and consumption reduction was attained, and the energy consumption of the ethylene plant in Zhenhai reached the advanced level of similar units at home.


Huang S.,Sinopec
Ethylene Industry | Year: 2013

The operation of C2 hydrogenation reactor in ethylene plant directly influences the quality of ethylene product. Since switching and regeneration are required for C2 hydrogenation reactor periodically, online undisturbed switching is important to increase the economics of the ethylene plant and to reduce emissions. Taking the switching of the C2 hydrogenation reactor in Zhenhai ethylene plant as an example, this article puts forward some measures including controlling the pipe warming time for the inlet heater of reactor and controlling hydrogen adding ratio to achieve the undisturbed switching of the reactor.


Shan S.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2013

A method for determining total sulphur in gas by modifying a quartz tube, connecting polyfl uortetraethylene tube with a double-ended needle for taking of samples and using splitting gas sampling unit for sample injection was established. The influences of polyfluortetraethylene tube, rubber tube and its lengths on the adsorption of sulfides were studied. The effects of direct sample injection to combustion area and sample injection to vaporization area on the determination were investigated. The repeatability and accuracy of the analysis using the splitting gas sampling unit were measured. The results showed that the adsorption of sulfi des in liquifi ed petroleum gas samples containing heavier components than C4 on the rubber tube was strong, and the longer the rubber tube, the stronger the adsorption. The adsorption of the sulfi des on the polyfl uortetraethylene tube was weaker. The test data of the direct sample injection to combustion area was a little bigger than those of sample injection to vaporization area, but their repeatability was better. Both the relative standard deviation and the relative deviation were less than 3%. The method can be used to determine total sulphur contents in other gases. By using the method, the absorption and coking of gas samples in the vaporization area of quartz tube can be avoided, and the rate and accuracy of the analysis can be improved.


Hao B.,Sinopec
Ethylene Industry | Year: 2013

Combined with the characteristics of NCMA CO2 removal system technology, this article lists the main factors influencing the stable operation of CO2 removal system in dry gas refining, and summarizes the adjustment methods and means for the CO2 removal system at SINOPEC Zhenhai Refining & Chemical Company. By analyzing and comparing the monitoring indicators, some measures for the long-term and stable operation of CO2 removal system are put forward including enhancing anticorrosion, controlling the formation of HSS thermostable salt, monitoring the fluctuation in upstream units and carrying out accident anticipation.


Chen S.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

Long start-up period and more SO2 emission are the two problems existing in Claus tail gas hydrogenation process. To solve the problems, a sulfidation technology in advance of hydrogenation catalyst is applied for the first time in the second 100 kt/a sulfur recovery plant of Zhenhai Refining & Chemical Company. The advantages and difficulties of the sulfidation technology in advance and the procedures were analyzed and introduced in detail. The application results show that the technology can satisfy the working need of the unit and cut the start-up time, save fuel and electricity consumption, and reduce the SO2 emissions.


Xing W.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The problems of poor dechlorination efficiency of caustic wash system, equipment corrosion and high water content in the coke burning gas of the CCR (Continuous Catalytic Reforming) regeneration system were analyzed; The solid-state dechlorination process was applied to replace the original caustic wash system to optimize the process for technical revamping. Appropriate dechlorination agent was selected for high water and high carbon dioxide of the coke burning gas. The application of solid-state dechlorination technology has simplified the process, improved the dechlorination efficiency and eliminated the impact of shutdown of equipment in regeneration system because of corrosion on the reaction system of CCR. After the shutdown of caustic wash systems, the impact of high water in coke burning gas on drying system is lowered, the loss of chlorine in coke burning process is minimized and the decreasing of specific catalyst area is mitigated. The service life of catalyst is extended, and chlorine addition for chlorination of regeneration oxygen is reduced.


Huang S.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The operation of quartz sand decoking water strainer of the 2. 3 MM TPY Delayed Coker Unit in SINOPEC Tianjin Petrochemical Company has been unsatisfactory-Based upon the analysis of performance deteroration and runaway of feed water of the strainer, the strainer was revamped based upon the existing equipment. The filter element was replaced with 316L strainer screen whose precision is 250 μm which is greatly higher than the design requirement (300 μm). After effective filtration, the number of backflushing of the strainer is reduced. The utilization of clean strained decoking water and process air for backflush of strainer element has minimized the malfunctions of equipment and greatly lowered the maintenance costs. The revamped strainer has improved the safety and stability of the delayed coker unit.


Yang W.,Liaoning University | Dingcong W.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

Alumina carrier was prepared using secondary nano particle self-assembly method and the residue hydrotreating catalysts prepared by impregnation with different contents of active metal using two different dipping methods were investigated. It is found that the pore volume of the catalysts prepared through conventional way without complexing agent reduces from 1. 2 mL/g to 0. 3 mL/g and the specific surface area decreases from 253 m2/g to 55 m 2/g and the active metal distribution is not even, as contrast with the impregnation results with complexing agent. Meanwhile the results indicate that the active metal is not evenly distributed on carrier with increasing amount of active metal loading, mainly concentrated and piled-up in smaller pore and on the surface of portion of the large pore. The addition of complexing agent in impregnation step can make active metal evenly distribute.


Tao T.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

Through 2 case studies of cracks in flue gas expander disk, the friction between the static and dynamic components as well as interaction between centrifugal force, thermal stress and alternating thermal stress which lead to cracking in the two cases are analyzed. To prevent the cracks in flue gas expander disk, the material of the disk must have good properties and stability, the manufacturing and installation quality must be strictly controlled, the wearing between static part and disk should be avoided and operating conditions should be strictly controlled. In repairing of the cracks in the disk, the appropriate repairing process should be prepared and evaluated based upon the specific conditions of cracks on the disk. The strict quality control of flue gas expander disk from material selection, fabrication, installation, maintenance and operation can effectively improve the reliability and economics of flue gas expander disk.


Li Y.,Sinopec
Zhongguo Shiyou Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal of China University of Petroleum (Edition of Natural Science) | Year: 2012

In Tahe Ordovician carbonate fracture-cavity reservoirs, 21 fracture-cavity units were divided by integrating well-seismic data with static and dynamic methods. According to natural energy and the reserves scale, the fracture-cavity units were classified and evaluated. A 3D through-going model of cave reservoirs in Tahe Oilfield was built by integrating well-seismic data and sequential indicator co-simulation. The results show that the cave reservoir is the main reservoir in Tahe Oilfield. During drilling and logging, serious fluid loss, drilling tools unloading and drilling time reducing to the minimum are important indicators to a large cave. The beads-shaped reflection and high abnormal impedance are the typical seismic response characteristic of cave reservoirs. Based on this, the spread of caves between wells can be predicted qualitatively. Besides, the reflection energy bodies and high-accuracy coherence cube can quantitatively predict caves distribution between wells.


Chen Z.,Sinopec
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2012

Through the analogy analysis of Western Sichuan Depression and Northern America Sandstone Gas Reservoirs , we find that the both have similar characteristics and differences in foreland basin feature, rock tightening, abnormal pressure and reservoir formation. Sandstone gas formation mechanism of Northern America Rocky Mountain region is simple but is complex in Western Sichuan Depression. Under the background of multiple phases and tectonic activities, cored at the overpressure gas source of Xujiahe Formation in upper Triassic, with the progress difference of lithology and densification in 3D space, the change of deformation structure and fracture distribution, multiple-phase and multiple-mode adjustment of overpressure, the distribution pattern of subsystem longitudinal overlay of many gas mineralization and multiple gas reservoir type thus formed.


Xu S.,Jilin University | Zhang G.,Jilin University | Zhang Y.,Sinopec | Zhao C.,Jilin University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

A series of novel poly(ether ether ketone) copolymers containing methyl groups on the side chain were prepared based on a new monomer (3,4-dimethyl)phenylhydroquinone. Then a series of hydroxide exchange membranes with different IEC values were obtained through bromination and quaternary amination of the copolymers. By adjusting the contents of methyl groups in the copolymers, we could control the final structures of the membranes. The chemical structures of the monomers and copolymers were analyzed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. After that, for the purpose of enhancing the dimensional stability and methanol resistance of the membrane, we prepared cross-linked membranes through a Friedel-Crafts reaction between bromomethyl groups and aromatic rings. The properties of the membranes related to fuel cell application were evaluated in detail. All the membranes showed good thermal and mechanical stabilities and conductivities. Moreover, the cross-linked membranes exhibit better dimensional stabilities and selectivities. Among those membranes, xPEEK-Q-100 showed a high conductivity (0.036 S cm -1 at 80 °C), a low swelling ratio of 6.6% and a methanol permeation coefficient of 2.9 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1. The outstanding properties indicated that the application of PEEK-Q-xx membranes in fuel cells was promising. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Wu Y.-S.,Colorado School of Mines | Di Y.,Peking University | Kang Z.,Sinopec | Fakcharoenphol P.,Colorado School of Mines
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering | Year: 2011

The existence of vugs or cavities in naturally fractured reservoirs has long been observed. Even though these vugs are known for their large attribution to reserves of oil, natural gas, or groundwater, few quantitative investigations of fractured vuggy reservoirs have been conducted. In this paper, a multiple-continuum conceptual model is presented, based on geological data and observations of core samples from carbonate formations in China, to investigate single-phase and multiphase flow behavior in such vuggy fractured reservoirs. The conceptual model has been implemented into a three-dimensional, three-phase reservoir simulator with a generalized multiple-continuum modeling approach. The conceptual model considers fractured vuggy rock as a triple- or multiple-continuum medium, consisting of (1) highly permeable and well-connected fractures, (2) low-permeability rock matrix, and (3) various-sized vugs. The matrix system may contain a large number of small or isolated cavities, whereas vugs are larger cavities, indirectly connected to fractures through small fractures, microfractures or matrix. Similar to the conventional double-porosity model, the fracture continuum is primarily responsible for the occurrence of global flow, while vuggy and matrix continua, providing storage space, are locally connected to each other and interacting with globally connecting fractures. In addition, flow in fractured vuggy reservoirs may be further complicated by occurrence of non-Darcy's and other nonlinear flow behavior, because of large pore space and high-permeability flow channels. To account for such complicated flow regime, our model formulation includes non-Darcy flow using the multiphase extension of the Forchheimer equation as well as flow according to parallel-wall fracture and tube models, based on solutions of flow through a parallel-wall, uniform fracture and Hagen-Poiseuille tube flow. © 2011.


Pan W.,Sinopec
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2012

The pressure is the soul of gas reservoir/well production performance analysis. Many dynamic analysis method has a direct link with pressure. However, it is very difficult to obtain the bottom hole flow pressure and formation pressure data of tight and low permeability gas reservoir in the production process, due to the low yield, quick decrease in the formation pressure, slow increases in the shut-in pressure and constraints of the mode of production. The pressure drop method, production uncertainty analysis and production decline curve analysis method are generally used to produce gas reservoir dynamic analysis, but due to the lack of pressure data, the pressure drop method and production uncertainty analysis meet very big limitation. Based on the modified attenuated decline curve analysis method, we got rid of the limitation of pressure data. It is also verified to be reliable by comparisons with pressure drop method.


Wang S.,Sinopec
Shiyou Diqiu Wuli Kantan/Oil Geophysical Prospecting | Year: 2012

Seismic curvature attribute analysis is a new method for fracture prediction based on the bend degree of seismic reflected events on the interface of compact and brittleness stratum. Curvature can be expressed in term of mathematics as dip and the derivation of dip, so seismic curvature cube can be obtained by two time derivations on original seismic cube. We put forward a new twice scan method respectively on plane and curve plane combining with multi-windows scan technology which possess the edge preservation characteristic, to obtain higher precision curvature cube. This method can extract the bend degree of seismic reflected events both continuity with little strain and discontinuity with faults. Example results of real data prove that our method shows better low relief structures from seismic reflections, and highlights details of fault edges and fractures.


Kang Y.,Sinopec
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2012

Tight oil and gas is one of unconventional hydrocarbon resources and is widely distributed all over the world. Although it is also in wide distribution and with a great exploration prospect in China, its exploration degree is rather low at present. In view of this, this paper discusses and summarizes the main characteristics of Chinese tight oil and gas reservoirs in such compacted rocks as sandstone, marl, mudstone, etc. (1) Under the condition of low porosity and low permeability, the compacted rocks and source rocks are mostly interbeded and gas pools were formed in a large area and overlaid by rocks with multiple time periods and multiple layers. (2) Such tight hydrocarbon reservoir combinations have many different types which are dominated by self-generating and self-preserving reservoirs. (3) Such tight hydrocarbon reservoirs with complex relationship between oil, gas and water often co-existed with shale gas or coalbed methane gas, and the hydrocarbon charging and expulsion occurred at different beds and different points. It is concluded that among those unconventional hydrocarbon resources, the tight oil and gas has the greatest potential for exploration because its recovery is less difficult than dark shale gas or coalbed methane gas, thus it can be one of the most important and most practical alternative energy resources for present and future hydrocarbon resource exploration and development.


Fu C.,Sinopec
Energy Exploration and Exploitation | Year: 2014

China is in a unique period of strategic opportunity for shale oil and gas development now. There are many favorable factors such as expanding domestic natural gas market, rich resources, stimulus from the government as well as experiences and advanced technologies imported from America. State-owned large oil companies, such as SINOPEC and PetroChina as well as Yanchang Petroleum (a provincial government company), lead shale gas exploration in China. Local state-owned and private companies are also active players. Breakthroughs have been made in development of shale resources, especially shale gas. By the end of the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan", Jiaoshiba pilot project will become the first large shale gas field of China with an annual production capacity of about 5 bcm and annual shale gas output of 3.2 bcm. However, there are also big challenges facing shale resource development in China, such as complex geological conditions, technical bottlenecks and poor infrastructure. These difficulties can be overcome through strengthening resource assessment, technical innovation and international cooperation. © 2014 Energy Exploration & Exploitation.


Zhai X.,Tsinghua University | Ding S.,Tsinghua University | Ding S.,Sinopec | Chang Y.,Tsinghua University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

micro-reactor has drawn more and more attention in recent years due to the process intensification on basic transport phenomena in micro-channels, which would often lead to the improved reactor performance. Steam reforming of methane (SRM) in micro-reactor has great potential to realize a low-cost, compact process for hydrogen production via an evident shortening of reaction time from seconds to milliseconds. This work focuses on the detailed modeling and simulation of a micro-reactor design for SRM reaction with the integration of a micro-channel for Rh-catalyzed endothermic reaction, a micro-channel for Pt-catalyzed exothermic reaction and a wall in between with Rh or Pt-catalyst coated layer. The elementary reaction kinetics for SRM process is adopted in the CFD model, while the combustion channel is described by global reaction kinetics. The model predictions were quantitatively validated by the experimental data in the literature. For the extremely fast reactions in both channels, the simulations indicated the significance of the heat conduction ability of the reactor wall as well as the interplay between the exothermic and endothermic reactions (e.g., the flow rate ratio of fuel gas to reforming gas). The characteristic width of 0.5 mm is considered to be a suitable channel size to balance the trade-off between the heat transfer behavior in micro-channels and the easy fabrication of micro-channels. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Productivity evaluation for infill horizontal well should take into account the interference of other oil or water wells in the flooding pattern. On the basis of the mirror-image method and source-sink theory, a semianalytical model of productivity evaluation for infill horizontal well in different types of reservoirs was built, in which the effect of boundary, the interference of other wells, the randomicity of flooding pattern, and the pressure drop along the horizontal lateral were taken into account. Application of the novel semianalytical model has demonstrated its reliability and usefulness. It is an effective method for the productivity evaluation for infill horizontal well in different types of reservoirs. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Guo L.-L.,Sinopec
Zhongguo Shiyou Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal of China University of Petroleum (Edition of Natural Science) | Year: 2012

In order to investigate the multiple flow regime characteristics of the foam system with a low tension, the flow characteristics of the transient and steady state of the foam system were analyzed by using foam flooding experiments. The characteristics in flow regimes with high and low quality respectively were observed during the process of foam flooding. The conditions for transforming from one flow regime to the other flow regime were also obtained. The experimental results show that the foam generates gradually in the core, and the piston-like displacement process appears when the foam system reaches steady state. Foam flooding has multiple flow regimes characteristics. In the high-quality flow regime, the pressure gradient increases with the liquid flow rate increasing. The logarithm of the pressure gradient has a good linear correlation with the liquid flow rate, while it has little relation with the gas flow rate. However, in the low-quality flow regime, the pressure gradient increases with the gas flow rate increasing. The logarithm of the pressure gradient has a linear correlation with the gas flow rate, while it has little relation with the liquid flow rate.


The Yuanba Gas Field in the northeastern Sichuan Basin is the deepest large lithologic gas field dominated by reservoirs of reef-bank facies on the platform margin. The major pay zones in the Upper Permian Changxing Formation and in the Lower Triassic Feixianguan Formation are quite different in the scale of gas reservoirs. In order to find out the causes of this difference, we performed a comprehensive analysis of geological data and image logging data in respect of reservoir, carrier system, pressure system, reservoir-source correlation, etc. The following conclusions were obtained. First, the salt layer in the Lower Triassic Upper Jialingjiang Formation - the Middle Triassic Leikoupo Formation is a quality seal with stable distribution, and the Changxing and Feixianguan formation gas reservoirs share the same source rock, i. e. the Wujiaping and Longtan formations. Second, it is the differences in reservoir poroperm characteristics that result in the Changxing Formation gas reservoir being highly productive while the Feixianguan Formation gas reservoir being lowly productive. Finally, the differences in carrier system, pressure system and reservoir - source relationship also play their part in influencing the degree of gas accumulation.


Guo W.,Sinopec | Guo W.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Honghai F.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Gang L.,China University of Petroleum - East China
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2011

Bottom hole pressure can be maintained in a reasonable range by using the managed pressure drilling (MPD) technique with special equipment. A calculation model is established for the back pressure and drilling fluid density of constant bottom hole pressure MPD, which are calculated by iterative method. The calculation model is applied to the Well Kela 201. In the comparison of the annulus pressures at 3 314 m in the well, the conventional drilling method cannot provide the appropriate drilling fluid density, but the constant bottom hole pressure MPD technique can make the annulus pressure within the pressure window. The design result of back pressure and mud weight of the narrow pressure window illustrated that the well can drill the target zone at 2 800 m directly by using the MPD technique. It can simplify casing program and save drilling cost. The calculation example demonstrates that this technique not only reduces mud density, but also meets the demand of annulus pressure control. Narrow pressure window can be drilled safely. It provides a technical basis for optimizing well profile. © 2011 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.


Bai Y.,Sinopec
Speciality Petrochemicals | Year: 2011

A cetaine number (CN) improver for diesel fuel, oxalic acid diisopentyl ester, was synthesized. Compared experiment in the FCC diesel oil with various CN improver indicates that with a dosage of 0.1% the CN can enhance 4.6 units. Industry application shows the CN will raise 4 units when oxalic acid diisopentyl ester was added in diesel fuel produced by different devices with a dosage of 0.1%.


Wang J.,Sinopec
Speciality Petrochemicals | Year: 2011

The effects of reaction parameters such as temperature, WHSV and pressure to isomerization of 2-butene with Thong yuan C 4's cut fraction over silicate catalyst was investigated in a fixed bed reactor, and the stability and regeneration of the catalyst was discussed. Results showed that the catalyst has a high conversion of 2-butene and a high selectivity to 1 butane at reaction conditions of 250-300 °C, WHSV 6-15 h -1 pressure 0.5-2.0 MPa. The catalyst had been run steadily for l800 h without regeneration. 3 × 10 4 t/a isomerization industrial test of 2-butane showed that the reactivity and stability of the catalyst is excellent. The catalyst has high yield and high selectivity of 1-butane at high WHSV and long catalyst regeneration period.


Cao W.,Sinopec | Yang D.,East China Normal University
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2014

An optimal control approach is proposed to solve the fourth-order elliptic variational inequality with curvature obstacle. It is proved that the variational inequality is equivalent to the constrained optimal control problem. The finite element approximation of the optimal control problem is constructed and the a priori error estimates and the equivalent a posteriori error estimators are derived. Some numerical experiments are performed to confirm a priori error estimates and demonstrate the effectiveness of the a posteriori estimators. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hu X.,Nanjing University | Huang Z.,Nanjing University | Wang J.,Nanjing University | Yu J.,Nanjing University | And 3 more authors.
Gondwana Research | Year: 2012

The age and composition of the basement rocks underlying the Mesozoic volcanic rocks in southeastern China have been long debated. New field investigation, stratigraphical and sedimentological studies of the Fuding inlier in eastern Cathaysian block have identified the presence of three stratigraphic units. The Upper Carboniferous carbonate unit, composed of silicified limestone, deposited on carbonate platform in a continental shelf environment. The Lower Permian siliciclastic unit, consisting of slate and phyllite with minor arenites, deposited on shallow semi-restricted shelf. The third unit is a suite of Jurassic conglomerates and sandstones deposited in alluvial fan environment. Provenance data indicate that the Fuding inlier was part of the Wuyishan terrane in the eastern Cathaysian block. The U-Pb age and Hf isotope of detrital zircons indicate that extensive magmatic activity happened during 280-360Ma in the source area. The ε Hf values of detrital zircons point to magmatic mixing of juvenile material and Precambrian crust. The similarities in rock compositions and detrital zircon ages among the Yeongnam massif in the Korean Peninsula, the Tananao complex in Taiwan and the Fuding inlier have led to the conclusion that these three regions most likely belonged to the Wuyishan terrane, eastern Cathaysia during the late Paleozoic. © 2011 International Association for Gondwana Research.


Xu D.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2016

This paper investigates components and location of off-gas in the process of polypropylene production as well as the feasibility of whole recovery by liquid extraction, membrane separation, and impurity separation refining. The results show that a small amount of liquid taken off helps to reduce the propane in the reactor, so as to keep the concentration of the propane. The off-gas in purge bin is recovered by membrane separation to obtain liquid hydrocarbon by condensation and sent to the bleed liquid purification unit; nitrogen is recovered with purity of 99% on the other side of the membrane. The bleed liquid purification unit is used to inactivate the triethylaluminium in hydrocarbon, and separate the PP fines in off-gas, which provides clean and safe feedstock for downstream plants as well as the whole reuse of tail gas. © 2016, Research Institute of Beijing. All right reserved.


Liu Z.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2016

This paper introduces polyolefin business status and technical progress of SINOPEC, the challenge and opportunity is analyzed. Some suggestions are given, the production and marketing cooperation should be strengthened, process optimization and application of new technology and organizing predictive maintenance of great equipments are important, adusting structure of polyolefin products need be promoted quickly, strengthening technology management. All of these measures will enhance the competitiveness of polyolefin business of SINOPEC. © 2016, Research Institute of Beijing. All right reserved.


A headspace gas chromatography for the determination of CO2 and H2S in desulfurizing amine liquid (30% N-methyl diethanolamine (MDEA) solution) was established. The effects of treatment of samples, preparation of standard solution, adsorptivity of headspace vial septum and CO2 in environment on the determination were investigated. The results showed that the addition of excess dilute sulphuric acid to the samples were beneficial to the separation of CO2 and H2S from the desulfurizing amine liquid. The optimized treatment conditions for the samples were n(sulfuric acid):n(MDEA) 2, ambient temperature, reaction time 2 min and equilibrium time 1.0 min. The standard solutions similar to the samples could be prepared by the absorption of CO2 and H2S in standard gas samples with the desulfurizing amine liquid. The relative standard deviations, quantitative limits and analysis time of the method were less than 4%, 0.1 g/L and 6 min, respectively. The analysis results were not interfered by sulfite, and the column and the sampling inlet were not polluted by the desulfurizing amine liquid.


Gao A.-D.,Sinopec
Corrosion and Protection | Year: 2013

AC interference mitigation of a crude oil pipeline was applied using DC decoupler within grounding system Inspection results of on-site survey have been analyzed to evaluate the performance of AC mitigation system and decoupler. The parametess involved in the inspection include AC interference magnitude before and after mitigation, operation data of DC decoupler, etc. This study could be helpful for design and application of DC decoupler in AC mitigation.


Xu Y.,Sinopec
Geophysical Prospecting for Petroleum | Year: 2014

Ordovician fracture-cave reservoirs are developed in Tahe Oilfield, high-precision 3D seismic exploration is an important means to improve the identification ability on the small-scale fracture-cave bodies. It is significant to save the cost of high-precision 3D exploration through acquisition parameters optimization. The bins of the high-precision 3D geometry for testing can be subdivided in Tahe Oilfield. Therefore, degradation test is carried out to divide the original geometry into several sub-geometries, including same bin size & different folds and same folds & different bin size. With stack, poststack migration and prestack migration, we evaluate the processing effect of the sub-geometries data from the aspects such as signal-to-noise ratio, resolution, number and clearness of "string" reflections, characterization on channels. By balancing the relationship between exploration cost and the identification ability on the Ordovician fracture-cave reservoirs, we proposed suggestions on key acquisition parameters for the high-precision 3D seismic exploration and displayed the acquisition effect acquired by the suggested parameters in a neighboring area.


Wang Y.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong Gaodeng Xuexiao Xuebao/Journal of Petrochemical Universities | Year: 2013

The crude oil fractions (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) were obtained by classic SARA method. The acidic components were extracted from Dongxin crude oil by using NaOH/EtOH mixed solution. The interfacial tension and dilational rheological properties of all crude oil components were investigated at the kerosene-water interface by means of oscillating drop method. The results show that all crude oil components have interfacial active and can reduce the interfacial tension, and saturates can reduce interfacial tension dramatically at high bulk concentration due to the hydrolysis of esters. Their interfacial dilational elasticity passes through a maximum with increasing bulk concentration. The order of maximum values of elasticityis saturates>aromatics≈asphaltenes>acidic components≈resins. Wax precipitates from saturatesat high concentration, which greatly enhances the strength of interfacial film and provides high value of elasticity, and interfacial reaction results in high value of viscosity.


The lean sulfolane resulted from liquid-liquid extraction and extract-distillation process must be purified for recycling. The purification efficiencies of lean solvent sulfolane by macroporous weak basic anion-exchange resin were investigated for both cases in this paper. After purification, the gum and chloride ion in lean solvent are removed, the pH value of the solvent is above 6. 0 and the acid value decreases. In the case of liquid-liquid extraction 85. 5% of gum and 79. 94% of chloride ion can be removed due to lower colloid content in solvent. However, only 28. 7%-32. 6% of gum and 54. 98%-59.95% of chloride ions can be removed, respectively, because of higher gum content in extract-distillation lean solvent. It can be concluded that higher gum content has inversely influence on the purification efficiency of lean solvent sulfolane in extract-distillation case.


Jian J.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

In order to produce high flash Point jet fuel from the hydrocracking unit, from where only No. 3 jet fuel can be produced in original design, the distillation part of the unit needs revamping. Several solutions were compared by simulation software, and finally a simple and feasible revamping scheme, consisting of increasing the reboiler duty and adding a side cut line in chief product distillation tower, was selected. After revamping, the high flash Point jet fuel can be produced; meanwhile the EBP of heavy naphtha can be less than 180 °C.


Zhang Y.-H.,Sinopec
Petrochemical Equipment | Year: 2013

The basic principles of the γ-ray scan to detect the corrosion condition of the vacuum tower internals (packing layer), technical characteristics, and the operation on the part of the vacuum tower were introduced.


Liu B.,Sinopec
Geophysical Prospecting for Petroleum | Year: 2014

As a typical low permeability gasfield, the Daniudi Gasfield is characterized by strong heterogeneity, dramatically variable lateral lithology with vertically overlaying sand and mud. In 2012, in order to produce nature gas effectively, the overall deployment of horizontal wells has been carried out in Daniudi Gasfield. Since that, the stochastic stimulation inversion in depth domain for horizontal well is developed, which can be used for the design of well trajectory based on fine characterization of single sandstone. By technical research, we proposed stochastic stimulation inversion in depth domain for horizontal well trajectory design. With our method, the accurate depth information of logging data can be applied to compensate the deletions measured depth of the logging data for A point-target and pilot hole, and eventually to obtain precise calibration results. With the verification of hundreds of horizontal wells in the area, the technology can improve the accuracy of depth prediction and reduce the crosswell synthetic seismogram calibration error. Meanwhile, the extrapolation ability of inversion results is enhanced obviously. Based on the technology, 1 billion and 900 million cubic meter nature gas production capacity have been established in 2012 and 2013.


Cheng L.,Sinopec
Geophysical Prospecting for Petroleum | Year: 2014

During the migration of VSP data, the accuracy of velocity model has influence on the quality of migration seismic images(especially reverse-time migration). Aiming at this problem, a local reverse-time migration method of VSP data, which is free of the impact of overlying complex structure, is studied. A key component of the method is direct-wave traveltime reconstruction technique that uses first arrival of VSP direct-wave through a local velocity model to reconstruct the direct-wave traveltime field in the range of the downhole geophone coverage. The reconstructed traveltime field serves for reverse-time migration based on the excitation-time imaging condition. A local reverse-time migration of VSP data could get closer to the imaging target and avoids the interference of the structure upon the shallowest geophones and shoot-side statics correction. It can be more efficient and obtain higher imaging accuracy in the local region that direct-wave traveltime could reconstruct. Numerical simulation and practical experiments demonstrate this method can get image of better quality than the one of conventional VSP reverse-time migration, even if the velocity model is inaccurate.


Wang Z.,Beijing Normal University | Qi Y.,Beijing Normal University | Wang J.,Sinopec | Pei Y.,Beijing Normal University
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Both β-proteobacterial aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (ANAMMOX) bacteria were investigated in the hyporheic zone of a contaminated river in China containing high ammonium levels and low chemical oxygen demand. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloning-sequencing were employed in this study. FISH analysis illustrated that AOB (average population of 3. 5 %) coexisted with ANAMMOX bacteria (0. 7 %). The DGGE profile revealed a high abundance and diversity of bacteria at the water-air-soil interface rather than at the water-soil interface. The redundancy analysis correlated analysis showed that the diversity of ANAMMOX bacteria was positively related to the redox potential. The newly detected sequences of ANAMMOX organisms principally belonged to the genus Candidatus "Brocadia", while most ammonia monooxygenase subunit-A gene amoA sequences were affiliated with Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas. These results suggest that the water-air-soil interface performs an important function in the nitrogen removal process and that the bioresources of AOB and ANAMMOX bacteria can potentially be utilized for the eutrophication of rivers. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Xu H.,Sinopec
Shiyou Diqiu Wuli Kantan/Oil Geophysical Prospecting | Year: 2013

Complicated foothill areas have some geological characteristics such as undulating surface, large angle of underground overthrust nappe structure, stratigraphic inversion overlap and complex fault formation. On seismic data, we see mainly low signal-to-noise ratio and huge velocity vertical and horizontal variation. It is difficult to build high precision velocity modeling, and conventional seismic imaging method does not work. Therefore, we have adopted some approaches. We use constrained velocity inversion (CVI) to establish the initial velocity model for solving the problem of unstable velocity field. We build velocity model with 3D tomography and well constrained velocity modeling. We use shot domain wave equation prestack depth migration to the full aperture migration in order to solve the structural imaging problem in complicated foothill area.


Hu G.,Sinopec
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2013

On the basis of Zhang Jinqing's water drive characteristic curve and the basic principle of material balance, and using displacement efficiency expressions of water flooding, volumetric sweep efficiency expressions of water drive and the relationship between average water saturation and exit-end water saturation, this paper deduce the theoretical relationship formulae between displacement efficiency, volumetric sweep efficiency and water cut in a water-flooding oilfield, and puts forward a new method to calculate displacement efficiency and volumetric sweep efficiency with dynamic data in a water-flooding field. A case study shows when water cut is 100%, the volumetric sweep efficiency calculated with Zhang's water drive characteristic curve is 99.7%, and that calculated with Sipachev's water drive characteristic curve is 100%, which proves that the method with Zhang's water drive characteristic curve can more accurately reflect the actual field situation, and is more rational. Study shows the method is simpler, more efficient and cost-saving than conventional core test, reservoir engineering and numerical simulation methods, moreover, it overcomes the narrow application scope of the aforementioned methods.


Unconventional oil and gas exploration and development have become highlights but new challenges in present oil and gas sector in China. In order to get a better understanding of some basic concepts concerned, exploration orientation, as well as guidance for better exploration strategies, a brief review was made of unconventional oil and gas geology in China. Because the qualitative changing process of clastic rocks densification is closely related to hydrocarbon pooling and enrichment, which have always been ignored by scholars, various hydrocarbon pooling modes were first discussed of conventional sandstone, dense sandstone, and super tight sandstone reservoirs. Then, a brief analysis was made of unconventional oil and gas geology in China, focusing on the importance of geological history. Finally, through a comparative analysis of unconventional hydrocarbon geological characteristics between the USA and China, it was discovered that apart from such innovative technologies as horizontal drilling and multi-stage fracturing treatment, rapid progress in the US shale gas is also attributed to the peculiar but favorable geological conditions with continuously steady tectonic movement after the marine shales were deposited in the continental margins and inland basins in North America. It is concluded that the primary unconventional hydrocarbon resources are better than those in the USA, but due to the later-period depression, strong structural deformation, and even being superimposed and buried deep over and over again, the exploration and development of unconventional hydrocarbon resources in China have become much complicated. On this basis, it is recommended that such geological features should be better understood, technological innovation should be highlighted, and exploration work should be done gradually in levels from the easy to the difficult.


Cai B.,Sinopec | Wang J.,Beijing Ruicheng Technology Co.
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2013

The pipeline integrity management (PIM) platform established with the 3D GIS technology can provide visual basis for the decision-making of oil and gas pipeline integrity management. This paper first introduces 3D GIS technological developments and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of leading 3D GIS products applied in digital pipelines at home and abroad, including universal GIS platform, 3D design products, and real-time visual driver. And the significance was analyzed of the independent 3D GIS products for oil and gas storage's security assurance from the information security perspective. Also, it introduced in detail the design idea, framework and functional features of the Professional Pipeline 3D GIS Platform (RAY-PIPE) with independent intellectual property rights. Based on case histories in the Sinopec's Sichuan-to-East China Pipeline Project, the functions and their characteristics of this platform were discussed in the following aspects: integrity data management, station visual management, production visual monitoring with alarm linkage, pipeline integrity assessment result display, safety and emergency management. Then it summarizes the significantly strategic promotion effects brought about by the independently-developed 3D GIS technology applied to oil and gas pipeline integrity management. In addition, it also points out that information integration, dispatch control, rsource allocation, risk control and emergency rescue can be all realized on the same platform. With this tool, the management level and working efficiency are both significantly improved; also, mass data can be collected for the PIM and thereby huge lessons and experience will be provided for cutting down the engineering cost and preparing for the following optimized pipeline management. Finally, from the perspectives of Big Data and Internet of Things (IoT), a broad prospect was described for the 3D GIS platform applications in the field of oil and gas storage and transportation.


In order to enhance the oil recovery after polymer flooding, the heterogeneous phase combination flooding system(HPCF) consisting of surfactant, polymer and preformed particle gel (PPG) was designed for the strong heterogeneity of reservoir and the widely distributed remaining oil. The dilative capacity, viscoelastic properties, filterability and migration in cores for a series of synthesized PPG, and the interactions between PPG and polymer and the influences of PPG plus polymer on IFT were investigated. The results showed that PPG was a kind of viscoelastic dilative particle in brine and could be migrated under injection pressure in cores. The effective HCFS used for high temperature and salinity reservoir and post polymer flooding reservoir was as 1000 mg/L PPG +1000 mg/L polymer + 0.3% Shengli petroleum sulphonate +0.1 nonionic surfactant 1709. The enhanced oil recovery was 13.6%(OOIP) after polymer flooding when 0.3 pore volume HPCF fluid was injected at water cut of 98%.


Wang M.,Sinopec
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2013

In order to understand the current situation of carbonate reservoir water saturation models, and to offer basic information for saturation evaluation in heterogeneous reservoir, this paper summarizes the current saturation interpretation models. According to study objects, conductive mechanism and study methods, the carbonate reservoir saturation interpretation models are divided into four types: Archie and its extended empirical saturation models, saturation models of dual and triple porosity system based on different porosity types, saturation models of dual and triple porosity system based on different porosity size, and saturation models based on effective medium theory. The conductive mechanism, assumption and application of different saturation interpretation models have been discussed. It points out that the Archie formula is concise, and always equivalent in the numerical sense after scaled by the data of experimental analysis and the triple-model will be the most conventional one that we expected currently, and based on the discussion we suggests that rock conductive mechanism, petrophysics experiment and the calculation of model parameters need further research, and that the pore network model based on digital core is an important research subject in carbonate reservoir evaluation.


Song J.,Sinopec
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2013

Cementing quality is often poor in Daniudi Gas Field in the beginning of exploration, so we carried on the analysis of the engineering geology, drilling fluid and mud, and so on, and got the main factors which influence on the cementing quality with the method of experiment comparison. Measures were taken to improve the bonding quality through optimization of cementing method, mud performance and cement slurry. Based on the grain composition theory, cement additives were changed to improve the cement performance. By enhancing the gas migration control of cement slurry, excellent performance of slurry was achieved. Cement slurry test procedure were rearranged to eliminate the influence of mixing energy. To improve the displacement, the drilling fluid was optimized to get a stable and regular borehole. Cementing operation was developed and excellent bonding quality achieved.


Pan X.,Sinopec
Shiyou Diqiu Wuli Kantan/Oil Geophysical Prospecting | Year: 2013

Many sets of red clastic rock formations are developed in Ek3 to Es4 s in the southern part of Dongying Depression. They are inter-beds of sandstone and mudstone interspersed with multi-period basalt. Low seismic data resolution and small velocity difference between the deeply buried inter-beds make reservoir prediction very difficult. Based on the rock physics analysis, we obtain the reflection characteristics by well logging and seismic calibration, and choose sensitive seismic attributes by the forward modeling. As the result, a series of seismic reservoir prediction approaches are formed for red layer with different facies in different plays. Based on our research, using multi-attributes can identify reservoirs from the surrounding rocks in the basin. On slope denuded belts, the sandstone velocity is obviously higher than the mudstone velocity, and the instantaneous amplitude reflects the distribution pattern of sandstone. On step-fault belts and sags, the prestack attribute such as the velocity ratio between P-wave to S-wave reflects sandstone features, and the sandstone distribution is predicted with prestack AVO attributes and other information.


Liu L.-B.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Liu L.-B.,Sinopec
Zhongguo Shiyou Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal of China University of Petroleum (Edition of Natural Science) | Year: 2012

An angle-domain Kirchhoff prestack time migration approach in VTI media based on ray-tracing was presented to provide more powerful supports for AVO/AVA technique. Starting from the relationship between travel time and path length of the reflection waves in VTI media, a robust ray-tracing algorithm is developed to construct the numerical table for the travel time and incidence angle of the reflection waves on the interfaces, and then the two-way travel time and incident angle corresponding to the ray path can be estimated. As the result of a prestack time migration by using the impulse response superposition method, the structural image and the angle domain common image gathers can be obtained. During prestack time migration, impulse responses are stacked to obtain the migrated profile and angle-domain common-image gathers. This imaging method preserves the amplitude better than the traditional methods, because it includes ray bending in the calculations of the weighting factor for amplitude preserving. The angle-domain common image gathers of this method have straight in-phase axis and a wide range of the effective incidence angle, which is beneficial to the subsequent AVO/AVA and inversion processing. The synthetic and real data tests demonstrate the validity of this approach.


Chuanqin L.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The 900,000 TPY S-Zorb unit for gasoline desulfurization in SINOPEC Qilu Company is introduced, including design conditions, performance tests, tail gas treatment, utilization of absorbent and production of Jing V gasoline, etc. The problems are analyzed such as abnormal operation of reactor receiver, leaking of flanges in hydrogen HT services, rapidly increased pressure difference of filter at outlet of reactor, coking of absorbent at bottom of regenerator, great catalyst consumption and product off-specification due to the reduction of absorbent activity and abnormal absorbent recycle resulted from troubles in closed-lock hopper, and countermeasures are recommended.


Jiren S.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

There are many types of thermowells, such as tapered, straight and step-shank for engineering applications. However, the tapered and straight ones are commonly used. Although the step-shank thermowell is favored because of its good temperature performances, the application of step-shank thermowells is limited due to the lack of calculation and evaluation methods of vibration frequency and stress analysis under resonant and non-resonant conditions. Based on ASME PTC19. 3 TW-2010 "Thermowells Performance Test Codes", the relevant limits of frequency are established by analyzing the vibration frequency, steady-state static and dynamic stress analysis of step-shank thermowells. An appropriate design method of step-shank thermowells for engineering application is presented. Specific design procedures are described from design information preparation to calculations of various limit conditions. A case study is illustrated for engineering application, and this method can be directly applied in engineering design.


Zhenhua W.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The required blowing time of coker drum of No. 1 delayed coking unit in SINOPEC Tahe Company was 2. 5 hours and 1. 0 MPa steam requirement was 8 t/h. As the large blowing was performed in drum switch-over operation and steam should be supplied intermittently, the peak steam requirement in large blowing operation had a great impact on the capacity of plant reboiler. After revamping of the No. 1 delayed coking unit, the condensate water was successfully used in large blowing operation at an optimized steam to condensate water ratio, and 60% of steam was saved. All process parameters were normal, (the bottom temperature of coker drum was maintained at 100 °C and overhead pressure was kept at 0. 04 MPa), no abnormal operation was experienced, coke was within required specifications, and volatile matter was controlled at about 9. 5%. After revamping, the 1. 0 MPa steam for blowing is reduced by 60%, the energy consumption of the unit is saved, the fluctuation of steam supply pipe network is reduced and low-temperature heat is recovered from condensate water of the unit.


The process flow and energy requirement of isomerization unit of the aromatics complex in SIN-OPEC Luoyang Company were studied. It was concluded that the heat exchange efficiency of the existing tubular heat exchangers for the reactor feed and reactor effluent was poor, and the inlet temperature of feed to the furnace is low. It was recommended to replace the existing tubular heat exchangers with plate-shell heat exchangers. The calculations of energy saving of high-efficiency plate-shell heat exchangers by Aspen Plus software show that, the replacement of existing tubular heat exchangers with high-efficiency plate-shell heat exchangers can elevate the temperature of reactor feed to reactor furnace by 32. 88 °C and reduce furnace thermal duty by 11 537. 54 MJ/h. When the aromatics complex is operated at a capacity of 42 t/h of BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) products, the energy saving of the unit is 274. 65 MJ/t of products.


Niu C.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

In order to improve the economic benefits of the FCCU in Yanshan Petrochemical Company, several technical reform measures for No. 2 FCC unit processing heavy oil have been adopted. The operation changes after the reforming are discussed in detail. The technical measures include revamping the waste heat boiler(WHB) for energy saving and anti-corrosion, applying an airlift loop hybrid stripper, installing the fourth cyclone separating device and a new type of critical flow velocity injector, and a mid-reboiler in desorption tower. These measures enable the unit to have a long-term stable running. The economic benefits can be increased by more than 37 million yuan per year.


Zang G.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

The performance of various molecular sieve catalysts on the removal of trace olefins from reformate was investigated. Results of catalyst evaluation show that the pore structure of molecular sieve, acidity of catalyst and heavy components in reformate have great influence on removing trace olefins from reformate. Compared with clay, catalyst containing a suitable amount of modified REY molecular sieve exhibits good activity, stability and regeneration property.


Jianqiu Z.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The impact of high-concentration and mid-concentration contamination metals on the performances of commercial equilibrium catalysts (E-cats) were studied by physical and chemical analysis and evaluation of reaction performances. The metal equivalent index (R. C. I) of E-cats was defined. The results show that the contamination metals, mainly Fe, can block the larger pores of catalysts, reducing the specific area of matrix and having a little impact on catalyst activity. Whereas, the increase of Na and V contents will aggravate the destruction of structure of catalyst zeolite and apparently reduce the specific area of catalysts, which will greatly affect the performances of catalysts. The application of metal equivalent concept can well reflect the actual operation of FCC unit.


Luoqi P.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The heat integration of RFCC unit and styrene unit was proposed based upon the analysis of energy requirements of the two units and surplus heat in RFCC unit and higher energy consumption in styrene unit. The appropriate technical revamping was executed to recover surplus heat from RFCC unit to be supplied to the styrene unit in the form of steam to meet its energy requirement. This not only debottlenecked the heat removal of RFCC unit and reduced the comprehensive energy consumption of the refining unit but also met the requirement of styrene unit for steam, optimized the costs of styrene production and saved the energy requirement. The operation of the two process units after heat integration shows that: 11 t/h of additional 3. 5 MPa steam is produced in RFCC unit, 26. 5 t/h of additional 3. 5 MPa steam and 16. 5 t/h of 1. 0 MPa steam are optimally utilized. The energy consumption of the refining units is reduced by 291. 82 MJ/t crude oil and annual economic benefit from energy saving is 25.07201 million Yuan (RMB).


Without changing the pump, motor and piping system, the theoretical three dimensional flow of jet and wake pump design method was used in the first and second circulating water pump renovation in Qingdao Petrochemical. The energy saving effect is observable.


Guo J.-L.,Sinopec
Petrochemical Equipment | Year: 2013

Based on the test data of thermal insulation effect on propylene spherical tank coating new space thermal insulation T-l, cooling and decompressing of the new coating tank for replace the watering effect were analyzed. The results showed that by using new space thermal insulation T-l coating, with 8 a for calculation cycle, the rate of return on investment was achieved by 29. 44%.


Xu Q.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2013

The characteristics, production technology and development prospect of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer(EVA) were reviewed. EVA products(namely resins, elastomers and latexes), related production technology and the applications of the products were introduced. Building medium-pressure installation for product differentiation, improving EVA production technology and expanding the varieties of EVA products are the development directions in future.


Sun J.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

Windmill style physical separation technology was applied at the CCR unit of SINOPEC Jinling Company for grading withdrawn CCR catalyst based on catalyst density varied with coke content. Non-porous beads and fine catalyst particles were separated from normal catalyst. After separation, the maximum coke content of the usable catalyst was 4. 5%, which is lower than the control index of less than 6 %. The low coke catalyst beads were reused in CCR unit and the operation results showed that the reused catalyst not only well met the requirements of reaction and regeneration, but also shortened the black burning time during the start-up of regeneration system.


Wang C.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2013

NiWO4 nanoparticles were prepared by a hydrothermal approach. The NiWO4 nanoparticles and their sulfided product were characterized by using different methods, such as X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and N2 adsorption. The hydrodesulfurization activity of NiWO4 nanoparticles was evaluated on micro device. The results showed that NiWO4 nanoparticles had an extremely high hydrodesulfurization activity for 4, 6-dimethyldibenzothiophene. The NiWO4 phase and nano size were the keys to the high hydrodesulfurization activity of NiWO4 nanoparticles.


China has already listed shale gas as a new independent mineral resource and two rounds of exploration bidding have been completed. However, there are still two schools of thought on how to develop shale oil and gas in China: One is to create good e-nough conditions, like the United States, for attracting those small- and medium-sized companies to participate in it; The other is to push those state-owned oil and gas companies forward as pioneers or the main force in the early development, meanwhile to push a-head with economic reform to attract more and more small- and medium-sized companies to enter the increasingly mature oil and gas market. In view of this, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of the latter school of thought and based on the analysis of the present status of China, presents the corresponding countermeasures. More than one decade ago, according to the national laws and regulations, only state-owned petroleum companies were qualified for the right of operating hydrocarbon exploration and development zones and would be ordered off if not completing the required work on schedule. But the fact is that all those favorable zones with bright prospects have been occupied by the four giant state-owned oil companies at present. Another fact is that oil services have not been completely separated from the state-owned companies and a number of independent small- and medium-sized companies and many other oil service companies are still in their development infancy. One more fact is that state-owned oil companies have possessed a great amount of information and experience as well as numerous talents over the past decades. In one word, in terms of the occupied zones, technologies, data, talents, abundant capital, etc., state-owned oil companies have such obvious advantages that they should take the responsibility of pioneers and become the main force in the initial exploratory stage of high-risk shale oil and gas exploration and development. Only by promoting diversified development of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon resources, can we turn the corner on oil and gas production in China.


Fractures and caverns are well developed in the reservoirs of reef-shoal facies in the Upper Permian Changxing Formation in the YB area, northeastern Sichuan Basin. The reservoir space is of dissolution cavern type or fracture-vug types and water-gas contact is very complicated. Identification of effective reservoirs, determination of fluid property and prediction of gas deliverability are all big challenges during reservoir evaluation. In view of the reservoir features of reef-shoal facies, this paper presents image logging and dipole logging as the most direct methods for identifying fractures, caverns and effective reservoirs. Cross plotting of resistivity vs. porosity at different saturations and integration with NMR logging data are the most effective ways to determine the fluid property of reservoirs of reef-shoal facies, and in particular to solve the problem of fluid property discrimination when there exist deep- and shallow-lateral negative differences caused by fractures. The sum of products of net thickness and porosity can be used as the criteria for evaluating the deliverability of gas reservoirs of reef-shoal facies. The logging evaluation technology for reservoirs of reef-shoal facies will provide robust technical support for economic and effective development of gas reservoirs in the Changxing Formation in the YB area.


Pang Z.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Liu H.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Ge P.,Sinopec | Han L.,Petrochina
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

According to the similarity criterion of 3D physical simulation of thermal recovery, experimental parameters of 3D physical simulation of steam flooding and thermal foam compound flooding in extra-heavy oil reservoirs of the Gudao Oilfield were calculated, and relevant experiments were carried out. Based on the experimental results, 3D fine numerical simulation was carried out to analyze the steam flooding and thermal foam compound flooding in heavy oil reservoirs. The results show that thermal foam compound flooding could effectively inhibit steam channeling and improve sweep efficiency, and thus enhance the oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs after steam flooding. Technological parameters of thermal foam compound flooding were optimized according to the results of fine numerical simulation. The optimum injection method is foam-slug injection, the optimal steam injection rate is 25 mL/min, nitrogen injection rate is 1 000 mL/min (standard conditions), the time of foam-slug injection is 1.0 min and the interval between foam-slugs is about 10-20 min during thermal foam-slug injection. At last, the similarity criterion was employed for inversion calculation of the optimization results. Based on the results, optimal field injection and production parameters can be confirmed. The ultimate recovery ratio of thermal foam compound flooding in super-heavy oil reservoirs could reach 42.15%, which is 12.50% higher than steam flooding. © 2012 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.


Chen S.,Zhejiang University | Wang H.,Zhejiang University | She D.,Sinopec
Shiyou Diqiu Wuli Kantan/Oil Geophysical Prospecting | Year: 2012

Based on the generalized synthesis of seismic data, a one-way wave equation migration method for generalized random synthetic gathers is proposed in this paper, through taking the generalized synthesis function in the generalized synthesis of seismic data as a time random function, and getting generalized random synthetic gathers and generalized random synthetic sources. According to the difference of the coordinates of the source points in these common-shot gathers, we take the generalized synthesis function as the random time function related to the coordinates of source points, so that the time delay of sources in the random synthetic gathers have the characteristic of random, avoiding coherent wavefield generated in the synthetic gathers, and guaranteeing the migration effects of random synthetic gathers and the flexibility to subsurface complex structures. The migration processing results from the numerical test and field data show that the migration method introduced in this paper gets the same migration result as that of conventional common-shot migration method, and has high calculation efficiency.


Wang J.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Liu H.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Xu J.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Zhang H.,Sinopec
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

Drilling and dewaxing methods are used to create the quantitative model and stochastic model for fracture-cavity reservoirs respectively, which are used to investigate oil displacement in full diameter cores and to study the formation mechanism and distribution law of remaining oil in fracture-cavity reservoirs. The density difference between displacing phase and displaced phase and the connection position between fractures and cavities determine the fluid distribution in the cave. After the first water flooding, the remaining oil is composed of the following parts: the "attic oil" caused by the density difference between oil and water, the "occlusion oil" formed because the oil-to-water replacement is not instantaneous, the "corner oil" caused by the irregularity of the cave, the "blind cavity oil" formed because of the complex connection or low connectivity of the fracture-cavity system, and the "oil film" caused by the wettability of rocks. When the connection is higher, the amount of the "attic oil" is less. When the injecting velocity is lower and the viscosity of crude oil is lower, the amount of "occlusion oil" is less. The content of "corner oil" will become less when the cave figure is more regular, and the amount of corner is less. The amount of "blind cavity oil" is less when the connection is simple or the connectivity is high. In addition, on the water-wet rock surface, the content of "oil film" is less.


Zhang L.,Sinopec
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2012

Owing to the advantages such as improving ROP, discovering and protecting reservoir, gas drilling is widely used in drilling industry. However downhole explosion in gas drilling process is high likely to occur when the gas entering the wellbore in underbalanced condition. This paper introduces the research process in downhole explosion and analyzs the reason for explosion and presents the influence factors such as mixed combustible gas component, temperature, pressure and inert gas content in the examples of gas drilling. We also discuss how to avoid explosion by means of restricting the range of oxygen contents. Nitrogen injection drilling is recommended at the end.


Calcarenaceous sandstones are generally believed to be tight and thus non-reservoirs. In February 2012, after well test was done on the X7 well in the YB area of the Sichuan Basin by the Sinopec Southwest Branch Company, a high-rate industrial gas flow was obtained in the 3 rd member of the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation. Thin-section observation showed that the reservoirs are mainly composed of calcarenaceous sandstones. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the petrophysical features, reservoir space characteristics, poroperm characteristics, electrical properties, and seismic responses, a gas accumulation pattern is recognized, i. e., calcarenaceous sandstone distribution plus favorable diagenesis (early short period exposure and dissolution and late organic acid dissolution) plus structural fracture development zone plus suitable timing of faulting. Reservoir prediction was also made through the integrated analysis of sedimentary facies, seismic attributes, and fracture distribution. It shows that hydrocarbon accumulation mainly occurs in the areas where both calcarenaceous sandstones and structural fractures are highly developed. Proposals were presented for the emplacement of three wells based on these understandings.


Li L.,Southwest Petroleum University | Tan X.,Southwest Petroleum University | Zhou S.,Petrochina | Zou C.,Sinopec
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2012

The inconsistence in different mining areas of the stratigraphic division schemes of Leikoupo Formation, Sichuan Basin, and the fact that on the karst zone strata sloughed off effected by Early Indosinian movement, brings about a problem of stratigraphic classification and lithofacies paleographic reconstitution. Guided by sequence stratigraphy theories and methods, this paper collates and stipulates the stratigraphic division schemes of Leikoupo Formation on the basin interior and reconstructs stratic lithofacies paleography by using quarternary bedding as constructive units. High precision lithofacies paleographic study demonstrates that Sichuan Basin of Leikoupo stage was in restricted-evaporated sea environment and that platform edge developed near Songpan-Ganzi oceanic trough in northwest Sichuan, where the grain bank of platform internal and fringe constitutes the main prospecting parts of Leikoupo Formation. The evolution of lithofacies paleography indicates that the bed form of basin transformed from dipping eastward to westward by the way of "seesaw" in the period of Leikoupo Formation deposition. Even in the early stage of sequence Ideposition, it still remained what the topographic configuration took on as in early Triassic, which was high westward and low eastward, while the eastward dipping trend disappeared gradually in sequenceIII depositional period. Yet, after that period there presented a miniature of uplift-hollow framework in the sequence IV-V depositional period on the basin interior. From sequence VI on, the bed form uplift-hollow framework differentiated intensively accompany with the intensity of the tectonic compression movement, forming macro-thick gypsolyte basin, whose depocencer had an apparent westward dipping trend in the depositional period of sequence VI-X.


Yan J.,Southwest Petroleum University | Zheng S.,Sinopec
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2012

The drilling core is precious geological material for the study of hydrocarbon zone and hydrocarbon reservoir. Core image is the surface image of drilling core by using high resolution core image acquisition instruments. When image resolution is high enough, the sediment characteristics in core image can be clearly recognized. The paper introduces the application of core image in sandy conglomerate core diameter, area and psephicity calculation, and so on. It is expected to provide some help for exploration of subtle reservoirs gradually deepen.


Yang X.-M.,China University of Geosciences | Yang X.-M.,Sinopec
Zhongguo Shiyou Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal of China University of Petroleum (Edition of Natural Science) | Year: 2012

According to the tested and calculated formation pressure data, the distribution pattern of Paleogene formation pressure in Zhanhua sag was investigated. Combining with tectonic, sedimentary and diagenesis information, the controlling factors of formation pressure distribution pattern were researched. The results show that there are vertically three abnormal high pressure systems named as Ed 3-Es 1, Es 3 z-x, Es 4 systems from the top to down, and the three pressure systems are parted by two pressure-falling zones of Es 2-Es 3 s and upper Es 4. Horizontally, the pressure field is divided by faults and uplifts into many pressure centers (sub-field) which are consistent with sedimentary centers. The formation pressure, surplus pressure and pressure coefficient reduce from center to margin. The distribution pattern of formation pressure is controlled by tectonic, sedimentary and diagenesis processes. The tectonic pattern determines the station of formation pressure centers, and the pressure system is divided by faults pressure-falling action. The property of sedimentary materials determines the depth of abnormal pressure, which is related with deposition velocity. With the deposition velocity exceeding 220 m/Ma, the abnormal high pressure could appear. The abnormal pressure produced by incompaction is direct ratio to deposition velocity. Contribution of hydrocarbon generation to the abnormal high pressure results in the distribution consistent of abnormal pressure with source rocks. Translation of some minerals such as montmorillonite and illite could induce abnormal pressure in specifically depth.


Wang Q.,Sinopec
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2012

In this paper, the reservoir of Gudao second district is a target area, and low interfacial tension foam flooding system to adapt to reservoir condition is developed. Through performance evaluation of foam, foam system interfacial properties and simulation test, foam performance, oil-water interfacial properties and block pressure in porous media, the ability to enhance oil recovery, different pressure changes and cut water changes are studied. Testing proves that the low interfacial tension foam flooding system has the characteristic of foam and surfactant. It can be on the double action of powerful washing and adjusting. Foam selective plugging and high apparent viscosity increase flooding systems affected area, and the activity of low interfacial tension foam system increase the displacement efficiency, and reduce the presence of residual oil, so that the foam system is more stable after injecting the foam system, the integrated oil recovery increased by 28%.


Zhu X.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

In this paper, the operation status of the 1. 4 Mt/a hydrocracking unit at SINOPEC Shanghai Gaoqiao Company is discussed including matters occurred and might happen. The effect of processing high sulfur feed on the process conditions, equipment corrosion and product quality is analyzed, so that, some suggestions for maintaining long-term production are put forward. It can be seen that with appropriate revamping, this unit could process feed having sulfur mass fraction below 1. 96%, yet it should avoid processing high sulfur and high acid feeds heavily, optimization of feed constitution is appreciated. Monitoring the corrosion of pipeline and equipment should be carried on routinely. When processing high sulfur feed, the sulfur content of tail oil should be checked more often to provide reference data for increasing the temperature of post treating catalyst.


According to the fouling principle of transfer line exchanger in cracking furnace, the causes of the fast increase in coil outlet temperature (COT) in cracking furnace BA106 at Tianjin Ethylene Plant were analyzed. Other influential factors were eliminated based on the mathematical model set up by Beijing Institute of Chemical Technology, and some suggestions are put forward for future operation.


Cui L.-X.,Sinopec
Journal of Chengdu University of Technology (Science and Technology Edition) | Year: 2012

Through the statistics of the permeability, the author again recognizes and classifies the main layer and non-main layer of the north block in the Baolang oilfield. The author uses the advanced constant-rate intruding mercury technology and nuclear magnetic resonance technology to evaluate and classify again the reservoirs in the north block. The author uses the nuclear magnetic resonance technology to research the water drive efficiency and the movable extent of the fluid in different pores. In the micro-economic theory, he researches and explains the low recovery degree of big pores and the high recovery degree of small pores in the low permeable cores, and the high recovery degree of big pores and the low recovery degree of small pores in the high permeable cores in order to provide a theoretical basis for researching and understanding the policy limits of the follow-up development technology.


The abnormal operation of visbreaker is the main reason for the sharply increased viscosity of quench oil in the ethylene plant in Yangzi. Based on detailed operation analysis, effective methods for optimizing the operation of quench oil system are identified and various suggestions are put forward for improvement, so as to ensure a stable and efficient operation of the quench oil system.


Gao J.,Sinopec
Ethylene Industry | Year: 2013

Based on some principles stipulated in ISO 14064 and the actual situations in petrochemical enterprises at home, this article comprehensively and systematically discusses the category of greenhouse gas emission, the calculation principle, calculation method and formula, the petrochemical equipment involved in calculation and the scope of calculation, the source of data cited in calculation, some experiences in calculation and the items to be noted, and points out the shortcomings, improvement methods and future development of the calculation of greenhouse gas emission.


Hu T.,Sinopec
Ethylene Industry | Year: 2013

After explaining the necessity of energy-saving modification of Yangzi No. 1 ethylene cracking furnace and the reasons for selecting CBL furnace, this paper introduces the energy-saving modification of 5 cracking furnaces in Yangzi, the application of new energy saving technology and the operating conditions of these modified cracking furnaces. The results show that the SRT-III furnaces in Yangzi are successfully modified into CBL furnaces, and the expected energy saving objective is fulfilled, for all the main performance parameter indexes are up to the design value.


With small capacity and high energy consumption, the ethylene plant at SINOPEC Tianjin Company was behind large-scale ethylene plants in comprehensive operation level. Through technical modification, operation optimization, cost reduction and efficiency increase in recent years, its capacity was improved, energy consumption was continuously reduced, and technical and economic indexes were improved significandy, showing that good effect has been achieved in the stable and optimized operation of the ethylene plant in Tianjin.


Li S.,Sinopec
Ethylene Industry | Year: 2013

This article summarizes and analyzes the failure forms of radiant coils in cracking furnace, including the damage resulted from carburization, thermal impact, thermal fatigue, erosion, high temperature creep and bending, and proposes some improvement and preventive measures from aspects of material selection, mechanical design, fabrication, packaging, field installation and operation management of cracking furnaces, so as to extend the service life of radiant coils.


Zhang Y.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

Nitrogen compounds were extracted from coker gas oil and straight run diesel oil by chromatography with neutral silica adsorption column. Then the nitrogen compounds were concentrated and separated into basic and non-basic types using acid-modified silica column. The identification of nitrogen compounds in the extracts was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (GC-NCD), as well as verification of peak assignments with those reported by others. Results showed that in straight-run diesel, neutral nitrogen compounds, mainly benzocarbazole nitrogen compounds, occupied more than 70% (mass fraction) of the total nitrogen compounds; in coker gas oil, nitrogen compounds including pyridine, aniline, indole, quinoline, and carbazole were found, and the mass fraction of total neutral nitrogen compounds was slightly over that of basic nitrogen compounds occupied more than 50% of the total nitrogen compounds.


Shi Q.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong Gaodeng Xuexiao Xuebao/Journal of Petrochemical Universities | Year: 2013

The steam quality is a major factor during the steam drive process. The reasons of the lower steam quality for the conventional once-through steam boiler in the oilfield were analyzed and discussed. The superheat, the steam separator and the fizzy mixer were added and designed in the former and conventional producing steam structure. And then, the efficiency of heavy oil recovery increased when the steam quality increased to 100% or more under the normal water quality, and the new process reached the requirement of steam quality during the steam drive process.


Zhang Y.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

The basic and non-basic N compounds in FCC diesel fraction were directly separated by acid-modified silica column and then quantified by gas chromatography-nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (GC-NCD) based on the established database obtained by following steps: firstly nitrogen compounds were extracted by neutral silica adsorption column, then the nitrogen compounds were concentrated and separated into basic and non-basic types using acid-modified silica column, and these two kinds of N compounds were finally analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to i-dentify N compounds. Four kinds of FCC diesels were tested. The results showed that the neutral nitrogen compounds including indole and carbazole in FCC diesels fraction occupied more than 90% (mass fraction) of the total nitrogen compounds. FCC diesel fraction from different sources have different types and distributions of the neutral nitrogen compound. Basic nitrogen compounds, mainly including aniline, quinoline and benzoquinoline, occupied about 10% (mass fraction).


Zhong Y.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

Back-Propagation Neural Network was used to develop the gasoline blending mathematical model for a specific petroleum refinery. Based on the characteristics of its gasoline production units, the topological structure of the neural network was decided. By using real gasoline production data of the refinery, the learning function of the network and the number of neurons in the hidden layers were selected, the model was trained, and a gasoline blending model with reasonable fitting and predicting ability was established. Compared with other blending models, the model established in this paper is much more adaptive because it does not require knowing blending mechanism. Application results showed that the neural network model could precisely predict those nonlinear parameters like octane number, induction period, etc., and also provide optimized gasoline blending schemes according to real production data.


Pan L.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

MTBE is an important additive of gasoline product and manufactured from refined LPG. The sulfur remained in the refined LPG influence the sulfur content of MTBE. It is found that the sulfur in refined LPG mainly comes from oxidized sulfonated cobalt phthalocyanine where the sulfide is in the form of disulfide and/or polysulfide. Based on these findings, the sulfur removal technologies from LPG and MTBE are tentatively proposed, respectively. Sulfur can be effectively removed from oxidized sulfonated cobalt phthalocyanine by organic solvent extraction to decrease the sulfur content in refined LPG and the MTBE with less than 10 μg/g sulfur can be produced by distillation.


Guo L.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2013

A novel process for 1,3-butadien extraction with acetonitrile was proposed. C4 fraction was hydrogenated selectively, which led to the total content of the alkynes was lowered to 15×10-6(w), and then the 1,3-butadien was extracted out. The 1,3-butadiene extraction process with acetonitrile was simulated by Aspen Plus software. The results showed that the second extractive distillation column system could be canceled in the new process. Compared to a conventional process, the ratio of solvent to C4 fraction decreased from 6.6 to 6.2 in the new process, and the steam, cooling water and electricity consumption were saved by 14.8%, 11.9% and 17.1%, respectively. The side-draw of the stripper was canceled, which resulted in increasing the butadiene recovery and heightening the security of the process.


Zhu B.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao, Shiyou Jiagong/Acta Petrolei Sinica (Petroleum Processing Section) | Year: 2013

Based on the characteristic of propylene oxide preparation reaction from propylene with hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, catalytic material HTS was investigated thoroughly, including the optimization of preparation conditions for titanium silicalites used in hydrogen peroxide-propylene oxide (HPPO) process, the modification of HTS, the preparation of the catalyst with modified HTS as active component, and the evaluation of HPPO pilot with the prepared catalyst. The results showed that with the suitably modified HTS as the active component of catalyst for HPPO the conversion of hydrogen peroxide and the selectivity to propylene oxide both above 95% could be obtained, and active stability of the catalyst was good enough for propylene epoxidation.


Wang W.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2013

The researches of single-site catalysts, namely metallocene catalysts, non-metallocene catalysts and late transition metal catalysts, for olefin polymerization were reviewed. The synthesis of some special polyolefins by non-coordination polymerization (e. g. ring-opening metathesis polymerization) was also involved. Some commercially available polyolefin materials based on these kinds of catalysts were focused on. The types, structures and applications of the polyolefin resins were summarized. And the uncommercialized functional polyolefins which had strong potential market value were also discussed. The development trends of polyolefins based on the single-site catalysts were proposed.


Zhang Z.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The analysis of statistics of unscheduled shutdown of the FCC unit concluded that the unscheduled shutdown were mainly caused by coking in the settler, accidents or failures of main air blower, special valves and equipment and inappropriate operation methods, etc. After the unit was revamped with MIP-CGP process, the number of unscheduled shutdown has been greatly reduced. In addition, a series of effective measures based upon years' operation and management experience have been adopted, such as optimization of feedstock and operating conditions to mitigate coking in settler, replacement of control system of main air blower train, reduction of flue gas expander accidents, upgrading of materials, optimization of oil slurry system, lowering of pressure drop of heat exchanger, improvement of management, strengthened routine monitoring of the unit operation, etc., 3 ∼4 years' operating cycle has been ensured as the result.


Quo X.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

The continuous upgrading of gasoline specifications has an increasing requirement for desulfurization technologies in petroleum refineries. The proprietary S-Zorb technology applied in the 1. 5 MM TPY FCC gasoline desulfurization unit in SINOPEC Zhenhai Refining & Chemical Co., Ltd is high in desulfurization efficiency and low in octane loss, and can continuously produce ultra low sulfur gasoline meeting Quo V specifications. When S-Zorb technology was used in the commercial unit in the United States, the operating cycle of the unit is only 3-6 months. Whereas, the S-Zorb unit in Zhenhai Refining & Chemical Co., Ltd. has inn continuously and reliably for 26 months before scheduled turnaround. Based upon the operation of first operation cycle, the factors affecting the long-term operation of the unit are analyzed and countermeasures are recommended.


The application of open-loop circulating heating water preheating technology to control dewpoint corrosion of economizer is introduced. The open-loop circulating heating water preheating system consists of HT and LT economizers, feed water preheater, etc. The boiler feed water (BFW) is used as heating media. In the open-loop circulating system, the high-temperature flue gas is emitted to stack after temperature reduction from 315 °C to 170 °C by heat exchange with heating water in HT and LT economizers. In the LT economizer, the temperature of boiler feed water is elevated to 190 °C by absorbing the heat from flue gas, and part of water flows to feed water preheater. The 102 °C boiler feed water is heated up to 140 °C before entering LT economizer so that the temperature of boiler feed water is higher than the acid dew point temperature to avoid the dew point corrosion. The operation shows that the installation of feed water preheater in the openloop circulating heating water preheating system has raised the feed water temperature of economizer, which has effectively controlled the corrosion of economizer and ensured long-term reliable operation of waste heat boiler of hydrogen generation plant.


Li H.,Sinopec
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2013

There has been a rapid development of S-Zorb technology with the rapid development of clean gasoline upgrading in China. Therefore, the continuous optimization and innovation have been made in the start-up process of S-Zorb units. The general procedures of start-up of S-Zorb unit are introduced. Based upon the problems and difficulties encountered in the start-up, the solutions and start-up experience are described in respect of operation preparation, hydraulic test and drying of reactor and regenerator system, catalyst loading and operation of feedstock and regeneration systems to provide a good reference for the future S-Zorb units.


Li Y.,Sinopec
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2013

Represented by the Tahe oilfield, the carbonate fractured-cavity reservoir is a special type of reservoirs that have large caves and fractures as the major accumulating space. The reservoir distribution is complex and the fluid flow in main fractured-cavity media is incompatible with the Darcy seepage flow law, so that the reservoir development can not use the mature development theory and technology of clastic rock reservoirs for reference. Through scientific and technological researches in recent years, some theoretical problems on the formation mechanism of fractured-cavity reservoirs and the related fluid dynamic mechanism have been solved, and three key technical achievements have been obtained, including the geophysical description of ultra-deep fractured-cavity reservoirs, the fractured-cavity reservoir modeling under the multiple-scale karst-facies control and the numerical simulation of fractured-cavity reservoirs, all of which have effectively guided the water injection development and enhanced the development effect of fractured-cavity reservoirs in the Tahe oilfield.


Due to the high viscosity of residue feedstock, in residue hydrotreating unit the distribution of feed along the catalyst bed could be non-uniform sometimes, which might lead to a great radial temperature difference of the catalyst bed and even hotspot occurred during the early stage of start-up. The performance of the catalyst could be affected and it also could be a hidden danger in operation. Thus, countermeasures should be conducted in time. By optimizing startup procedure and operation, adopting a more efficient feed inlet distributor, the fluid distribution in the residue hydrotreating reactor of SINOPEC Hainan Petrochemical Company was improved significantly, so that the radial temperature difference of the catalyst bed was less and the catalyst could be used more efficiently.


The optimization of raw materials for steam cracking to ethylene with the advantage of refining-chemical integration at Zhenghai Refining & Chemical Company was introduced focusing on expanding the raw material resources. The advantages of using light feedstock for ethylene production were discussed and feasible scheme of producing appropriate blending components for steam cracking and reforming were proposed. Since optimization the ratio of light naphtha in ethylene feedstock reduced, gaseous feeds and high quality hydrocracked tail oil increased, thus the mass fraction of paraffin in ethylene feedstock increased 1. 8 percentage points. About 15%-25% of low value products were converted to high value products in the refinery.


Chen J.,Sinopec
Huagong Xuebao/CIESC Journal | Year: 2013

Remarkable progress has been made in petroleum refining industry in China during the past fifty years. Not only refining capacity ranks the second place in the world, but also refining technology has basically attained the world advanced level. In the path of continual progress of petroleum refining technology, domestic innovations played an important role. Some important refining processes, such as fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking and hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, delayed coking since the sixties in the last century are reviewed. Some valuable experiences and recommendations are presented. © All Rights Reserved.


Su J.,Southwest Petroleum University | Xiao Y.,Chengdu University of Technology | Ren M.,Sinopec
Catalysis Communications | Year: 2014

BiOI flowerlike hierarchical structure was synthesized via direct hydrolysis from BiI3 and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As-synthesized BiOI showed higher photocatalytic activity in aqueous RhB photodegradation system than P25 TiO2 under simulated sunlight irradiation. The trapping experiments of active species and electron spin resonance (ESR) experiment during the photocatalytic reaction showed that the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in BiOI system proceeds through direct hole transfer and O2 - rather than OH. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Qian Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li Z.-H.,Sinopec | Guo K.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2012

For the simultaneous absorption of H 2S and CO 2 into methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solution, MDEA in fact is selective toward both H 2S and CO 2. It is kinetically selective toward H 2S and thermodynamically selective toward CO 2. Selective H 2S removal using a rotating packed bed (RPB) solves the problem that a large amount of CO 2 accompanying H 2S is simultaneously removed in the conventional desulfurization process. An RPB highlights that MDEA is kinetically selective toward H 2S and restricts its thermodynamically selectivity toward CO 2. In this work, an industrial test for MDEA selective absorption of H 2S was performed. Compared with a conventional tower the RPB has a substantial advantage in selective absorption of H 2S. A reaction-equilibrium-mass transfer model based on penetration theory is developed to describe the selective absorption process and the inhibition effect on H 2S absorption from the CO 2-MDEA reaction in the liquid film. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Liu J.,Sinopec | Liu J.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Jiang Y.,China University of Petroleum - East China
Natural Gas Industry | Year: 2012

The Paleogene evaporation beds in the northern part of the central uplift in the Dongpu sag, Bohai Bay Basin, provide favorable conditions for the preservation of abnormally high pressure. Meanwhile, the complex faults provide passages for the release of the abnormally high pressure. These two factors make the dynamic process of hydrocarbon accumulation there so complicated that the relationship between the abnormally high pressure and hydrocarbon accumulation is still unclear at present. According to the measured data, we analyzed the vertical distribution of formation pressure in the Paleogene, restored the paleo-pressure by using the fluid inclusion method, discussed the hydrocarbon charging dynamics in the deep and shallow sequences, and built models of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in this area. The following conclusions are drawn. (1) Vertically, there are 3 types of pressure systems in the study area, including normal pressure system, overpressure system and abnormally high pressure system. Wenmingzhai - Guyunji areas are dominated by the normal pressure system, Weicheng, Pucheng and Qiaobai areas by normal pressure and overpressure systems, while normal pressure, overpressure and abnormally high pressure systems are developed in the Wenliu area and its contacting area with the Weicheng and Pucheng areas. (2) The hydrocarbon charging system in deep sequences is of high pressure system or relatively high to high pressure systems. In contrast, the hydrocarbon charging system in the shallow sequences is dominated by episodic charging. (3) The hydrocarbon pooling models in the slope zone of the sag include lateral migration accumulation and indigenous accumulation, while those in the major part of the structure include vertical episodic migration and accumulation in the reservoirs above salt layers, inter-salt layer compound migration and accumulation, as well as vertical continuous migration and accumulation in the areas without salt layers.


Advances in studies of formation and accumulation mechanisms of oil and gas in marine carbonate sequences have led to continuing breakthroughs of petroleum exploration in marine carbonate sequences in Chinese sedimentary basins in recent years. The recently discovered giant Tahe Oil Field and Puguang Gas Field have provided geological entities for further studies of the formation and accumulation of oil and gas in marine carbonate sequences. Marine carbonate sequences in China are characterized by old age, multiple structural deformation, differential thermal evolution of source rocks, various reservoir types (i. e. reef-bank complex and paleo-weathered crust karst reservoir), uneven development of caprocks, especially gypsum seal, and multi-episodes of hydrocarbon accumulation and readjustment. As a result, the formation of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Chinese marine carbonate sequences has the following features: (i) the high-quality marine source rocks of shale and calcareous mudstone are often associated with siliceous rocks or calcareous rocks and were deposited in slope environments. They are rich in organic matter, have a higher hydrocarbon generation potential, but experienced variable thermal evolutions in different basins or different areas of the same basin. (ii) High quality reservoirs are controlled by both primary depositional environments and later modifications including diagenetic modifications, structural deformations, and fluid effects. (iii) Development of high-quality caprocks, especially gypsum seals, is the key to the formation of large- and medium-sized oil and gas fields in marine carbonate sequences. Gypsum often constitutes the caprock for most of large sized gas fields. Given that Chinese marine carbonate sequences are of old age and subject to multiple episodes of structural deformation and superposition, oil and gas tend to accumulate in the slopes and structural hinge zones, since the slopes favor the development of effective assemblage of source-reservoir-caprock, high quality source rocks, good reservoirs such as reef-bank complex, and various caprocks. As the structural hinge zones lay in the focus area of petroleum migration and experienced little structural deformation, they are also favorable places for hydrocarbon accumulation and preservation. © 2011 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wang Y.-Q.,Sinopec
Zhongguo Shiyou Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal of China University of Petroleum (Edition of Natural Science) | Year: 2012

Continental sedimentary oilfield is characterized by severe heterogeneity, high crude viscosity and generally low recovery efficiency. Extra-high water cut period is an important stage for oilfield development. Based on the equation of fractional flow and relative permeability curve, a theory of immobilizing movable water and increasing oil production was proposed. It is assumed that partial movable water may be immobilized to unmovable water by the physical or chemical methods. The saturation of water phase in oil-water system may be decreased and the flow of the crude oil may be improved by rebuilding the dominant oil phase. The computing approximate methods of physical property of reservoirs, oil-water saturation and relative permeability curve for the immobilizing system were introduced. The case indicates that water flooding for the second times in the immobilizing system may bring water cut decreased and oil recovery enhanced as the change of the factors of the immobilizing moveable water. The immobilizing movable water and increasing oil production is feasible on the theory for the extra-high water cut oilfield or nearly abandoned oilfield. Ultimate recovery efficiency may be enhanced and oilfield life may be prolonged after inefficient production turned into efficient one.


Yang X.,Sinopec
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2012

On the basis of the sedimentary microfacies and the analysis of reservoir physical properties, a series of parameters such as the porosity, permeability, flow zone index, etc, were selected for the classification of the flow units of oil formation of Bi-301 wellblock H3 Member in the Zhaowa Oilfield of Biyang Depression were classified. According to the value of flow zone index, the studying area has been divided into five flow units, named FU-A, FU-B, FU-C, FU-D and FU-E. The result shows that all kinds of flow units have good corresponding relation with physical property, lithology, sedimentary microfacies. Besides, the productivity of different flow units is analyzed. The results mainly indicate three respects. First, flow units' classification objectively reflects the geological characteristics of poor reservoir property and strong heterogeneity. Second, there exists very significant power correlation between the single well productivity and flow zone index. Finally, the productivity differences of different flow units are obvious, and FU-A with the best physical properties has the highest productivity while E flow unit with the worst physical properties has the minimum productivity.


Wang J.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Liu H.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Xu J.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Zhang H.,Sinopec
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

Drilling and dewaxing methods are used to create the quantitative model and stochastic model for fracture-cavity reservoirs respectively, which are used to investigate oil displacement in full diameter cores and to study the formation mechanism and distribution law of remaining oil in fracture-cavity reservoirs. The density difference between displacing phase and displaced phase and the connection position between fractures and cavities determine the fluid distribution in the cave. After the first water flooding, the remaining oil is composed of the following parts: the " attic oil" caused by the density difference between oil and water, the " occlusion oil" formed because the oil-to-water replacement is not instantaneous, the " corner oil" caused by the irregularity of the cave, the " blind cavity oil" formed because of the complex connection or low connectivity of the fracture-cavity system, and the " oil film" caused by the wettability of rocks. When the connection is higher, the amount of the " attic oil" is less. When the injecting velocity is lower and the viscosity of crude oil is lower, the amount of " occlusion oil" is less. The content of " corner oil" will become less when the cave figure is more regular, and the amount of corner is less. The amount of " blind cavity oil" is less when the connection is simple or the connectivity is high. In addition, on the water-wet rock surface, the content of " oil film" is less. © 2012 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.


Zhang K.,Sinopec
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2012

Sustainable development of petroleum industry depends on tactic and strategic replacement of production, in which the exploitation of new oil and gas production areas has a profound and lasting significance. After first and second strategic development, the existing oil and gas areas in China have been in a relatively stable and mature stage of their life cycles, there is an urgent need to start a new strategic replacement of oil and gas to guarantee stable and increasing production for China in the long term. Through production and research sponsored by government in the beginning of the 21 century, the targets of new oil and gas areas have been initially identified. They include (1) the Upper Paleozoic of north China, especially the Carboniferous and Permian underlying the Mesozoic and Cenozoic; (2) Qiangtang block which features in Paleozoic and Mesozoic marine strata, and Cenozoic rift system which has simple petroleum accumulation conditions in Tibetan plateau; (3) Mesozoic marine strata covered by the Cenozoic in the south sea and east sea of China; (4) unconventional hydrocarbons, especially tight oil and gas, shale gas, shale oil and coalbed gas. © 2012 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.


Li J.-B.,Sinopec | Jiang Z.-Q.,CAS Hefei Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion | Qian K.,CAS Hefei Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion | Huang W.-X.,CAS Hefei Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

Co 3O 4/SiO 2 catalysts for CO oxidation were prepared by conventional incipient wetness impregnation followed by calcination at various temperatures. Their structures were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Both XRD and Raman spectroscopy only detect the existence of Co 3O 4 crystallites in all catalysts. However, XPS results indicate that excess Co 2+ ions are present on the surface of Co 3O 4 in Co 3O 4(200)/ SiO 2 as compared with bulk Co 3O 4. Meanwhile, TPR results suggest the presence of surface oxygen vacancies on Co 3O 4 in Co 3O 4(200)/SiO 2, and XAFS results demonstrate that Co 3O 4 in Co 3O 4(200)/SiO 2 contains excess Co 2+. Increasing calcination temperature results in oxidation of excess Co 2+ and the decrease of the concentration of surface oxygen vacancies, consequently the formation of stoichiometric Co 3O 4 on supported catalysts. Among all Co 3O 4/SiO 2 catalysts, Co 3O 4(200)/SiO 2 exhibits the best catalytic performance towards CO oxidation, demonstrating that excess Co 2+ and surface oxygen vacancies can enhance the catalytic activity of Co 3O 4 towards CO oxidation. These results nicely demonstrate the effect of calcination temperature on the structure and catalytic performance towards CO oxidation of silica-supported Co 3O 4 catalysts and highlight the important role of surface oxygen vacancies on Co 3O 4. © 2012 Chinese Physical Society.


Zhang L.,Sinopec
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2013

Unipol process was a common technology to produce linear low density polyethylene and it was a combined technology of high efficiency catalyst and gas-phase fluidized bed. Condensing mode technology developed by Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) could greatly enhance the heat removal capacity of the reactor and thus improved the space time yield. Unipol II process developed by UCC could manufacture bimodal polyethylene by using two reactors in series, but the equipment investment and operation cost of the process were higher with lower efficiency. The production capacity of super condensing mode technology created by ExxonMobil Chemical company could reach up to 250% by means of adding high concentration of nonreactive condensing medium into the circulating gas. The mass fraction of condensate was 15%-50% in the operation. Univation Technologies developed a new type of catalyst, which realized the production of bimodal high density polyethylene in a single reactor, and the cost was reduced by about 40%. The metallocene linear low density polyethylene, which was manufactured by the second generation of metallocene catalyst, had excellent processing performance, optical performance, mechanical properties and heat sealing performance.


Dai H.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2013

The recent technology improvements worldwide for aromatics production are reviewed such as various aromatics separation, aromatics formation processes, toluene disproportionation and transalkylation, alkylation of methyl group, as well as combination of processes to maximize aromatics production. Following the analysis, the recent technology advances and innovations for aromatics production can be summarized as follows: 1) improvement of catalysts and adsorbents; 2)development and application of new reaction and separation processes; 3) implementation of combined process solution; 4)enhancement of energy and material utilization efficiency and 5)economy of scale. Then, recommendations to expedite the development of technology for entire aromatics complex with proprietary intellectual property and features like flexible feedstock, easy switch of product slate and lower consumption are presented. In order to face the challenge of feedstock shortage, aromatization technology of light hydrocarbons(LPG, light olefins and raffinate oil) should be developed. Finally, additional ideas for further increase of aromatics production are proposed, such as highly integration of refining-petrochemical-ethylene units for better utilization of feedstocks including FCC LCO, pyrolysis heavy gasoline components, heavy aromatics and coal tar oil for BTX production; integrating aromatics complex with coal chemical plant; and developing technology using unconventional feedstock, e. g. methanol, cellulose and so on.


Fang X.,Sinopec
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2013

Bio-based chemicals produced from lignocellulose are a kind of petrochemical feedstock substituting for fossil resources. In this review, the functional groups and utilization of biomass as well as its conversion to chemicals were discussed. The summarized data would provide a good starting point for the further developments and applications of the bio-based chemicals in chemical industry. A new route for producing biodegradable macromolecular materials with high performance was proposed in this paper, which could use bio-based macromolecules combined with synthetic macromolecules to produce semi-synthetic macromolecular materials according to the natural composition of the biomass materials.


The marine sequences in the unmodified foreland region of Tarim Basin had experienced multiple stages of hydrocarbon accumulation with alternative later adjustment, destruction and preservation processes. Consequently, the distribution of oil and gas reservoirs in the study area today is very complicated. The article proposed that both source rocks and cap rocks had played roles in controlling the distribtuion of oil and gas reservoirs and suggested that the interaction between favorable timing of hydrocarbon generation with formation of cap rocks as well as the sealing capacity of cap rocks are the key factors that had affected the distribution of oil and gas reservoirs. Macroscopically, different collocation of source/cap rocks had determined where and how the oil/gas-bearing formations were located. Based on this understanding, the paper also discussed the distribution pattern of oil and gas reservoirs and predicted potential exploration targets for middle-and large-sized oil and gas fields in the study area. ©, 2014, OIL & GAS GEOLOGY Editorial Board. All right reserved.


Xu Y.,Sinopec
Wutan Huatan Jisuan Jishu | Year: 2014

Combining the characteristics of karst cave reservoir in the Tahe oil field, the paper analyzes the characteristics of cave diffracted wave field, probes into the nature of vertical resolution and lateral resolution in depth, and quantitatively analyzes the influence of signal noise ratio (SNR) to cave imaging resolution through a large number of forward modeling. In the end, this paper also gives the concept and significance of the image resolution. The results as fellows: (1) The tail of diffracted wave of the karst cave is fairly long, so we need select a larger migration aperture to get a better convergent of diffracted wave energy; (2) The size of string beads is far greater than the real size of cave when cave is small, beads gradually close to real size increase with cave; (3) If karst caves which have different vertical height continuously line together, as a whole which actually similar to a sphenoid, its variety of amplitude presents tuning curve; (4) The traditional Fresnel zone radius should not be used as e-valuation parameters of the imaging resolution, the size of lateral and vertical resolution is appropriate to λ; (5) The improvable trend of the SNR of imaging is inversely proportional to the SNR of shot gather, caves identification can significantly improve after imaging process for low SNR shot data; (6) We should pay more attention to the concept of computer image resolution and the appropriate selection of trace interval in high-density exploration.


Huang T.,Sinopec
Oil and Gas Geology | Year: 2014

Based on accurate 3-D seismic interpretation, comprehensive analysis of the drilling and geological data, it is indicated that the fault systems of the Yubei region in Tarim Basin are dominated by thrust faults. These thrust faults occur in two horizons. One is the basement where the thrusts consist basement fault zone(or basement weak zones). The other is the Cambrian-Ordovician carbonates where a thrust zone occurs. The Yubei fault system consists of a series of NEE-trending thrust zones including Yubei No. 7, Yubei No. 1, Yudong No. 1, Yu-dong No. 2, Yudong No. 3 and Yudong No. 4.Each single thrust belt is often composed of one main thrust and a set of associated secondary thrust faults. The fault plane of the main fault dips steeply at the upper part and flattens towards the deeper part, and detaches in the Mid-Lower Cambrian salt la-yers. The main thrust and its associated secondary back-thrusts commonly form pop-up fault assemblage showing "fault-horse" geometry on profile. These fault zones in the Cambrian-Ordovician carbonate rocks were mainly formed in the mid-Caledonian, experiencing movement of the early-epoch(the Early Ordovician Penglaiba stage), I-epoch(the Mid-Early-Ordovician Yingshan stage), and III-epoch(the Late-Ordovician)of the mid-Caledonian. The fault movement was very weak in the Hercynian. The fault zones are characterized by significant segmented deformation. The fault system and major unconformities jointly control the vertical structural layering.


Limarino C.O.,University of Buenos Aires | Giordano S.R.,Sinopec
Journal of South American Earth Sciences | Year: 2016

The aim of this paper is to study the provenance of Late Cretaceous sandstones deposited along the south flank of the Golfo San Jorge Basin. For this purpose, detrital modes of three hundred thirty-seven sandstone samples collected in the Mina del Carmen, Bajo Barreal, and Cañadón Seco Formations were studied in ten oil fields. According to the modal composition of the sandstones, six petrofacies were defined allowing the identification of not only principal, but also secondary provenance areas. The QVM and VQM petrofacies are more than 20% metamorphic, sedimentary, and polycrystalline quartz clasts (Lm + Ls + Qpg > 20%), evidencing a secondary signal of basement supply masked by a predominant volcanic provenance. The petrofacies VP and VF are characterized by Lm + Ls + Qpg <20% and more than 20% total feldspar (Pm + Om >20%.), which indicate a supply of sediment from volcanic terrains and scarce derivation of materials from basement rocks. Based on the plagioclase/k-feldspar ratio, the VF petrofacies is interpreted to be dominated by the supply of sand grains from the Andean volcanic-arc, while VP is supposed have originated through the erosion of intermediate volcanic rock outcroppings in the Macizo del Deseado. Finally, both the VQ and QV petrofacies show Lm + Ls + Qpg <20% and Pm + Om<20%, indicating a provenance of volcanic areas coupled with minor contributions from basement rocks. During the Late Cretaceous, the Golfo San Jorge Basin underwent a sag phase that was characterized by very scarce volcanism and tectonic activity. Although these conditions did not favor defined patterns in the vertical stacking of petrofacies, the sandstones exhibit remarkable changes in their regional distribution, which were determined by the paleogeography of the basin and differences in basement composition within the source areas. Finally, a paleogeographic model for sediment circulation in the basin is proposed. This model recognizes the main fluvial dispersal trends that flowed northwest to southeast and transported large amounts of volcanic clasts (associated with petrofacies VF-VQ). To the extent that rivers flowed eastward, a secondary supply from the Precambrian basement, which were composed of low-to high-grade metamorphic rocks, was also important (petrofacies association VQM and QVM). The southwestern area of the basin is dominated by VP petrofacies that record the supply of plagioclase-rich volcanic clasts. This petrofacies likely corresponds to the erosion of Jurassic volcanic units that crop out in the Macizo del Deseado. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Xu Z.,Sinopec
Geophysical Prospecting for Petroleum | Year: 2014

The near-surface multiple in land seismic exploration displays low-frequency linear interference in the monitoring record, and is characterized by paralleling to the first arrival multi-phase continuity after first break, which has strong energy, occupies large record space and seriously impacts the effectiv