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Qiana G.,Inner Mongolia University | Qiana G.,Sino Us Center For Conservation | Guoa X.,Inner Mongolia University | Guoa X.,Sino Us Center For Conservation | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology | Year: 2011

The dairy industry is an important part of the global economy, and the rapidly developing dairy enterprises in China have become increasingly important to the rest of the world. Due to increasing demand for dairy products and support from the government, China's dairy industry has thrived in recent decades. But rapid growth has been accompanied by a suite of industry/structural problems associated with raw milk supply, processing enterprises, product retailing and profit allocation. Thus, a major dairy crisis took place in 2008, triggered by a notorious melamine-contaminated milk event. The dairy crisis has had devastating impacts on China's dairy industry, negatively affecting farmers, consumers, processing enterprises and even government agencies. The Chinese government has developed rigorous measures to prevent future incidents of this sort, including the enactment of the Food Safety Law and reinstatement of the no-exemption quality inspection of food products. In this paper, we analyse the wide-ranging impacts and root causes of the recent dairy crisis in China. We also examine how the crisis has been handled and what measures have been put in place in its aftermath. Then we discuss policy implications for promoting the sustainability of China's dairy industry. Lessons learned from this crisis, as well as implications for policy improvements, should be valuable for the development of a sustainable dairy industry in other regions of the world. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Cha N.,Inner Mongolia University | Cha N.,Sino Us Center For Conservation | Wu J.,Sino Us Center For Conservation | Wu J.,Arizona State University | Yu R.,Inner Mongolia University
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

For nearly forty years, the concepts, theories, and methods of sustainable development have continued to develop, and become one of the key issues that concern today's society around the world. In order to get a sense of how research on sustainable development has evolved in different disciplines, we carried out a cross-database search of published articles with keywords of "ecology", "economics", "sociology"and "sustainable development", using the CNKI network platform. Search results from 1995 to 2011 from six databases were then analyzed to identify research trends and directions. Our results indicate that sustainable development research in ecology, economics, and social science all has become increasingly interdisciplinary, integrative, multi-dimensional, multi-scaled, and quantitative. Ecology highlights research method.

Qin S.,Inner Mongolia University | Chao L.M.,Inner Mongolia University | Chao L.M.,Sino Us Center For Conservation
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2014

Tetraena mongolica Maxim.belongs to a monotypic genus in the Zygophyllaceae and is a super xerophyte and a relic sub-shrub of the Tethys.This species is endemic to a very limited area of West Erods region in the western part of the Ordos Plateau in China.The limited distribution of this sub-shrub makes it an important conservation target.It is ranked as a second-class national endangered plant species as defined by China忆 s Red Book (endangered species list) and has been considered unique from both a plant taxonomical and regional systematics points of view.Also,from a practical stand point, it plays an important role as a windbreaker and stabilizer of sand and contributes to soil conservation and the regulation of hydrological regimes. Populations of T. mongolica serve as an important element in ecosystem functioning and buffer local ecosystems against desertification. Deterioration of the environment and anthropogenic disturbance in recent years have resulted in a high degree of landscape fragmentation and habitat loss in the area.As a result,population size and density of T.mongolica have been decreasing dramatically. T. mongolica has become severely endangered. Anthropogenic disturbance caused by the industrial development and rapid urbanization were direct reasons for the T. mongolica population area reduction and landscape pattern change. So research on the anthropogenic disturbance of this species has attracted attention. Landscape is a heterogeneous area composed of many ecosystems. The different process on landscape scale has decisive effects on the formation of landscape pattern. Correspondingly, the pattern that has already formed controls the basic processes of landscape. The relationship between anthropogenic disturbance, pattern and process has become a research focus which landscape ecology is interested in. A comparative analysis in anthropogenic disturbance of T. mongolica is ecologically important and will help document the threats to T. mongolica and offer a scientific basis for establishing protective measures for this species. The present study explored the association of T. mongolica distribution with anthropogenic disturbance in Wuhai city. With the support of the geographical information system technology and the analysis software of landscape pattern, quick bird high-resolution images and community field survey data of T. mongolica were used to investigate the distribution of T. mongolica. The Result indicates: Be closer to urban area or anthropogenic disturbance from mining, the T. mongolica landscape gets involved in more terrible situation by the increase of anthropogenic disturbance. Moreover, under the influence of anthropogenic disturbance, the canopy size of T. mongolica will decrease and the height of T.mongolica tends to decrease as well. In case of located in those regions where may generate significant strong anthropogenic disturbance, the species richness index and biodiversity are lower than which from other areas.When the anthropogenic disturbance changes, Pielou evenness index typically stays between 0. 77 and 0. 90. It is indicated that the industrial development and rapid urban expansion caused by irrational land use were direct reasons for the T.mongolica population area reduction and landscape pattern change of the research region. © 2014, Science Press. All rights reserved.

Yang Y.,Inner Mongolia University | Niu J.,Inner Mongolia University | Niu J.,Sino Us Center For Conservation | Zhang Q.,Inner Mongolia University | Zhang Y.,Inner Mongolia University
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Abstract: The development and testing of regional sustainable development indicators is an active research area. This study uses quantitative indicators to determine whether nature's ecological carrying capacity can satisfy the needs of humans. There are many quantitative measuring methods for sustainable development, but the ecological footprint analysis has a more widespread application. This method is used to calculate ecological footprints by looking at need and the ecological carrying capacity in terms of support, and study the use degree of humanity to natural. Using these results, the circumstances of an area or country's sustainable development may be established. Xilinguole League is located 111°59′-120°00′E and 42°32′-46°41'N. The total area is 201442 km 2, with a grassland area of 192000 km 2, and covers one-quarter grassland area of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In this study we conducted an ecological footprint analysis of the Xilinguole League, using statistical data from 1981 to 2008. The computed ecological carrying capacity and its 30-year dynamics revealed the major development trends of this semi-arid grassland region. Our findings showed the following. (1) Rapid industrialization and urbanization altered the area's per capita ecological footprint dramatically. The area increased from 1. 0868 hm 2 in 1981 to 24. 2176 hm 2 in 2008, surpassing China's national average and that of other domestic grassland areas. The main driver of this increase was the rapid expansion of areas involved in the extraction of fossil fuels and other grassland uses. (2) Rapid population growth resulted in the decline of per capita ecological carrying capacity for this region, with grassland-cropland capacities being most affected. The total per capita ecological carrying capacity decreased from 3. 1565 hm 2 in 1981 to 2. 3915 hm 2 in 2008. (3) Development has been accompanied by a shift from a regional ecological surplus to an ecological deficit. Two factors are responsible for these conditions. First, since the 1990s, the domestic market has increased the demand for and taken advantage of local resources such as coal and other electric power generation sources. In addition, the area itself has experienced economic development, which has accelerated industrialization. This development has caused an increase in demand for energy use and living resources, further advancing urbanization. As a consequence, the ecological footprint has increased dramatically. Second, demand for livestock production has increased dramatically and has resulted in long-term over-grazing. In addition, many years of poor grassland management has damaged the grassland ecology and created a fragile environment. Grasslands in the area have become severely degraded, and ecological carrying capacity has declined. Moreover, industrialization and urban development, the growth of residential areas and transport routes, the takeover of grassland by industrial and mining areas, have all put extra stress on available grassland. The Xilinguole League development represents a massive increase in energy use and the severe ecological deficit of a semi-arid grassland area due to industrialization and urban development. However, because grasslands offer an important foundation for economic development, their degradation may compromise the region's sustainability. Scientific research is vitally important to find a balance between industrialization and urbanization incentives and the sustainable management of natural resources.

Xu P.Y.,Inner Mongolia University | Niu J.,Inner Mongolia University | Niu J.,Sino Us Center For Conservation | Buyantuyev A.,Albany State University | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2014

Urbanization profoundly affects ecological processes across many scales. Most such effects are primarily due to land use / cover transformations. At the local scale proliferation of impervious surfaces and decreases in vegetation cover in cities have led to phenological differences between urban and rural areas. In this study, we monitored spring phenology of Populus alba L.var. pyramidalis Bunge, P. cathayana Rehd and P. tomentosa Carr. at multiple sites across the urban core and in the surrounding rural areas of Hohhot city, Inner Mongolia. Urban sites were established mainly along streets, in city parks and schools. Rural sites occupied different natural localities in suburbs characterized by significant distance from the urban core and relatively low human disturbance. Spring phenophases we monitored include leaf budburst (BL), first full leaf (L1), and unfolding of ≥ 50% leaves ( LU). We simultaneously measured air temperature at each site using Thermochron® DS-1921G (±1 °C accuracy, 0.5 °C precision) data loggers which collected data between late March (Day of Year (DOY) = 88) and late November(DOY = 330) during two growing seasons. Land use/ cover patterns were analyzed by digitizing green spaces (including trees, manicured lawns, grasses, and agriculture), bare soil (unpaved areas), water (lakes, rivers) and pavements in the 300 m circular buffer around each site. Proportions of each cover type at each site were used as explanatory variables for observed patterns of temperature and phenology. Correlations and regression analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0. Our findings suggest the following conclusions. 1) The timing of leaf budburst (BL), first full leaf (L1) and unfolding of ≥ 50% leaves (LU) phenophases were best predicted by mean daily temperature, minimum daily temperature and Growing degree days temperature that above 5 degree centigrade (GDD5) of April prior to the initiation of each phenophase. However, the relationship between the three phenophases and maximum daily temperature of April were positively correlated; 2) Among the four land use/ cover types, green spaces together with bare soil were negatively related to the mean daily temperature, GDD5, and minimum daily temperature of April to June. We found high positive correlation between paved areas and all temperature variables. 3) Green spaces together with water were negatively correlated with the first full leaf (L1) phenophase, while paved areas had positive correlations with L1. Differences in land use/ cover were clearly were reinforced by distinct mean daily temperature and GDD5. We conclude that rural to urban land use/ cover pattern transition in general advances spring phenophases by significantly increasing temperature, the primary environmental driver of phenology. Our study of the rapidly urbanizing area of Inner Mongolia provides important information for scientists and practitioners engaged in understanding effects of urbanization on environmental and human health. © 2014, Science Press. All rights reserved.

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