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Velickovic M.V.,Sinisa Stankovic Institute for Biological Research
Periodicum Biologorum | Year: 2010

Background and Purpose: Developmental stability (DS) or homeostasis refers to the ability of an individual to produce a consistent phenotype in a given environment. Reduced DS can result from a wide variety of environmentally (or genetically) induced perturbations. The main aim of the presented paper is to highlight the importance of the differences in ability of Tilia cordata leaves to buffer their development under contrasting environmental conditions and points to the concept that developmental stability is character specific. Materials and Methods: Three different techniques were performed in this study: fluctuation asymmetry (FA) and leaf size as integrative measures of environmental stress during leaf developmental processes and within - plant variance in leaf morphology, presented as coefficient of morphological variation (CV). The study tested the hypothesis that the population from a chronically polluted area would express greater developmental instability in leaf traits. Two bilateral, linear dimensions on each leaf: leafwidth (LW) and lobe length (LL) were analyzed. Results: The three different measures of developmental stability all showed a trend for T. cordata leaves in the polluted area to be developmentally less stable than leaves from the reference area. Leaves in the reference area were significantly larger compared with those from the polluted site. Although leaves tend to be larger on the outside of a tree's crown, the pattern found here was the reverse. Both, outside and inside leaves from the polluted area had significantly higher FAs than leaves from the same position sampled in the reference area for both traits.Within-tree variance assessed as CV showed that LL was a more variable measure than LW. Moreover, the data suggest that LL is under more selective pressure to adapt to current environmental conditions than LW. Conclusions: Obtained data suggest that T. cordata leaves may represent a reliable indicator for developmental stability evaluation studies based on an assay using a combination of end-points. Furthermore, my results high-lighted the differences in ability of leaf morphometric characters to buffer their development under contrasting environmental conditions. Source

Stevovic S.,Union University of Serbia | Mikovilovic V.S.,Union University of Serbia | Calic-Dragosavac D.,Sinisa Stankovic Institute for Biological Research
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

The aim of this work was to define the correlation between heavy metal (mercury, lead, cadmium, chrome and nickel) concentration changes (in soil, leaf, stem, root and essential oil in Tansy) and type and distance from source pollution. The concentration was monitored on different locations: 1) Chemical industry pan evo (with accident situation); 2) Pan evo industrial zone; 3) highway; 4) Ada Ciganlija recreation zone and 5) Top ider park. Mercury (Hg) concentration was analyzed as a function of time, starting from accident situation from 1999 to 2008. Hg had maximum concentration of 131 200 mg/kg at a soil depth of 0 - 15 cm. After three, six and nine years, linear accident Hg concentrations in soil decreased from 85 400 via 41 060 to 106.0 mg/kg. Mercury concentration which results in the location where accident occurred showed that 6 years was necessary for concentration to drop below the limits and for revitalization of standard industrial Tansy vegetation. Concentrations of Hg in the Tansy plants from contaminated site were 5, 10, 100 and 200 times greater than in industrial zone, highway, Ada Ciganlija and Top ider, respectively. The highest amount of lead (Pb) was in leaves (14.1 mg/kg) and in essential oil (0.7 mg/kg) of Tansy near the highway. However, Pb concentration in soil and plant was decreased with square of highway distance. © 2010 Academic Journals. Source

Miljkovic D.,Sinisa Stankovic Institute for Biological Research | Timotijevic G.,University of Belgrade | Stojkovic M.M.,University of Belgrade
FEBS Letters | Year: 2011

Astrocytes are the most abundant cell population within the CNS of mammals. Their glial role is perfectly performed in the healthy CNS as they support functions of neurons. The omnipresence of astrocytes throughout the white and grey matter and their intimate relation with blood vessels of the CNS, as well as numerous immunity-related actions that these cells are capable of, imply that astrocytes should have a prominent role in neuroinflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The role of astrocytes in MS is rather ambiguous, as they have the capacity to both stimulate and restrain neuroinflammation and tissue destruction. In this paper we present some of the proved and the proposed functions of astrocytes in neuroinflammation and discuss the effect of MS therapeutics on astrocytes. © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Perovic M.,University of Belgrade | Tesic V.,University of Belgrade | Djordjevic A.M.,University of Belgrade | Smiljanic K.,University of Belgrade | And 4 more authors.
Age | Year: 2013

Neurotrophins are established molecular mediators of neuronal plasticity in the adult brain. We analyzed the impact of aging on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) protein isoforms, their receptors, and on the expression patterns of multiple 5' exon-specific BDNF transcripts in the rat cortex and hippocampus throughout the life span of the rat (6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age). ProNGF was increased during aging in both structures. Mature NGF gradually decreased in the cortex, and, in 24-month-old animals, it was 30 % lower than that in adult 6-month-old rats. The BDNF expression did not change during aging, while proBDNF accumulated in the hippocampus of aged rats. Hippocampal total BDNF mRNA was lower in 12-month-old animals, mostly as a result of a decrease of BDNF transcripts 1 and 2. In contrast to the regionspecific regulation of specific exon-containing BDNF mRNAs in adult animals, the same BDNF RNA isoforms (containing exons III, IV, or VI) were present in both brain structures of aged animals. Deficits in neurotrophin signaling were supported by the observed decrease in Trk receptor expression which was accompanied by lower levels of the two main downstream effector kinases, pAkt and protein kinase C. The proteolytic processing of p75NTR observed in 12-monthold rats points to an additional regulatory mechanism in early aging. The changes described herein could contribute to reduced brain plasticity underlying the age-dependent decline in cognitive function. © American Aging Association 2012. Source

Jaric I.,Serbian Institute for Multidisciplinary Research | Ebenhard T.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Lenhardt M.,Sinisa Stankovic Institute for Biological Research
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries | Year: 2010

Populations of six sturgeon species in the Danube River (beluga, Russian sturgeon, stellate sturgeon, sterlet, ship sturgeon and Atlantic sturgeon) have experienced severe decline during the last several decades, mostly due to the unsustainable fishery, river fragmentation and water pollution. Present lack of knowledge on basic sturgeon demography, life history and relative effects of different negative factors is further hindering implementation of efficient policy and management measures. In the present study, population viability analysis in a Vortex simulation model has been conducted in order to assess the state of the six Danube sturgeon species, their future risk of extinction and to determine the most suitable conservation and management measures. Population viability analysis has revealed a large sensitivity of the Danube sturgeon populations to changes in the natural mortality, fecundity, age at maturity and spawning frequency. It was also confirmed that the sturgeons are highly susceptible to even moderate levels of commercial fishery, and that their recovery is a multi-decadal affair. Stocking with adult individuals was shown to produce considerably greater effect on population persistence than stocking with juveniles, but the latter approach is probably still preferable since it avoids many inherent problems of aquaculture cultivation. This study represents the first population viability analysis of the Danube sturgeons. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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