Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science

Pune, India

Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science

Pune, India
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Ingawale D.K.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Naik S.R.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Liver is a primary organ involved in biotransformation of food and drugs. Hepatic diseases are a major worldwide problem. Hepatic disorders are mainly caused by toxic chemicals (alcohol), xenobiotics (carbon tetrachloride, chlorinated hydrocarbons and gases CO2 and O2) anticancer (azathioprine, doxorubicin, cisplatin), immunosuppressant (cyclosporine), analgesic anti-inflammatory (paracetamol, thioacetamide), anti-tubercular (isoniazid, rifampicin) drugs, biologicals (Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin vaccine), radiations (gamma radiations), heavy metals (cadmium, arsenic), mycotoxin (aflatoxin), galactosamine, lipopolysaccharides, etc. Various risk factors for hepatic injury include concomitant hepatic diseases, age, gender, alcoholism, nutrition and genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 enzymes have also been emphasized.The present review enumerates various in vivo animal models and in vitro methods of hepatic injury using diverse toxicants, their probable metabolic pathways, and numerous biochemical changes viz. serum biomarkers enzymes, liver function, oxidative stress associated events like free radicals formation, lipid peroxidation, enzyme antioxidants and participation of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand), and other biomolecules (Fas and C-jun N-terminal kinase) are also discussed. The underlying cellular, molecular, immunological, and biochemical mechanism(s) of action responsible for liver damage (toxicity) are also been discussed. This review should be immensely useful for researchers especially for phytochemists, pharmacologists and toxicologists working on hepatotoxicity, hepatotoxic chemicals and drugs, hepatoprotective agents and drug research organizations involved especially in phytopharmaceuticals and other natural products. © 2013.

Kokil G.R.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Naik S.R.,Off Mumbai
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Diabetes mellitus, an epidemic metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose level associated with various macrovascular and microvascular complications, is one of the main causes of human suffering across the globe. Researchers around the world mainly focused on insulin, insulin analogues, oral hypoglycemic agents and various other complementary and alternate medicines to control the blood glucose levels in diabetes. The present review summarizes the disorders associated with elevation of blood glucose level, biochemical & endocrinological aspects and the current strategies to control. The emphasis has been laid in particular on the new potential biological targets and the possible treatment as well as the current ongoing research status on new generation hypoglycemic agents. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Naik S.R.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2014

Administration of rutin (50 and 100 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) orally for 3 weeks treatment significantly improved body weight, reduced plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), restored the depleted liver antioxidant status and serum lipid profile in high fat diet + streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. Rutin treatment also improved histo-architecture of ß islets and reversed hypertrophy of hepatocytes. Rutin exhibited significant antidiabetic activity, presumably by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines, improving antioxidant and plasma lipid profiles in High fat diet + streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic model and may be useful as a diabetic modulator along with standard antidiabetic drugs. However, such effects need to be confirmed on human subjects in clinical condition.

Thakare V.N.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2011

The present study investigates the protective effects of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity using various animal models with biochemical parameters like serum marker enzymes and antioxidants in target tissues. In addition, liver and cardiac histoarchitecture changes were also studied. Curcumin treatment inhibited carrageenin and albumin induced edema, cotton pellet granuloma formation. The increased relative weight of liver and heart in CCl4 induced liver injury and isoproterenol induced cardiac necrosis were also reduced by curcumin treatment. Elevated serum marker enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased lipid peroxidation, decreased gluthione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in edematous, granulomatus, liver and heart tissues during inflammation, liver injury and cardiac necrosis, respectively. Curcumin treatment reversed all these above mentioned biochemical changes significantly in all animal models studied. Even histoarchitecture alterations observed in liver injury and cardiac necrosis observed were partially reversed (improved) by curcumin treatments. In in vitro experiments too curcumin inhibited iron catalyzed lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates, scavenged nitric oxide spontaneously generated from nitroprusside and inhibited heat induced hemolysis of rat erythrocytes. The present in vitro and in vivo experimental findings suggest the protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity in rats. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.

Muley M.M.,Padm Dr D Y Patil Institute Of Pharmaceutical Science And Research | Thakare V.N.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Patil R.R.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Kshirsagar A.D.,Padm Dr D Y Patil Institute Of Pharmaceutical Science And Research | Naik S.R.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior | Year: 2012

Comparative neuroprotective potential of silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (PCA) was evaluated in focal ischemic rats. Various pharmacological, biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, nitrite content, brain water content) and behavioural (memory impairment, motor control, neurological score) including infarct size and histopathological alterations were evaluated. Silymarin (200 mg/kg) and PCA treatment significantly improved behavioural, biochemical and histopathological changes, and reduced water content and infarct size. However, piracetam only improved behavioural and histopathological changes, reduced water content and infarct size. The findings indicate that silymarin exhibits neuroprotective activity better than PCA and piracetam in focal ischemia/reperfusion reflected by its better restoration of behavioural and antioxidant profile. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Bumrela S.B.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Naik S.R.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science
International Journal of Phytomedicine | Year: 2011

The Dipteracanthus patulus (Jacq) nees is undershrub belonging to the family acantheaceae. Antimicrobial activity (disc diffusion method) and antioxidant activity by different in-vitro methods (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide radical scavenging and reducing power) of methanolic extract of Dipteracanthus patulus (MEDP) was evaluated. The qualitative and quantitative estimation of β-carotene and β- sitosterol in MEDP was carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The total phenolic content of was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Experimental findings indicate promising antimicrobial activity (antibacterial and antifungal) and potent antioxidant activity of MEDP. In addition, phytochemical analysis and spectral studies of MEDP were also performed. It is presumed that antimicrobial and antioxidant activity observed with MEDP may largely be attributed to the presence of major phytoconstituents (β-carotene, β-sitosterol and iridoid glycosides) and other minor components may participate as promoters.

Naik S.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Wala S.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine | Year: 2014

Animal models play a vital role in simplifying the complexity of pathogenesis and understanding the indefinable processes and diverse mechanisms involved in the progression of disease, and in providing new knowledge that may facilitate the drug development program. Selection of the animal models has to be carefully done, so that there is morphologic similarity to human arthritic conditions that may predict as well as augment the effective screening of novel antiarthritic agents. The review describes exclusively animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). The development of RA has been vividly described using a wide variety of animal models with diverse insults (viz. collagen, Freund's adjuvant, proteoglycan, pristane, avridine, formaldehyde, etc.) that are able to simulate/trigger the cellular, biochemical, immunological, and histologic alterations, which perhaps mimic, to a great extent, the pathologic conditions of human RA. Similarly, numerous methods of inducing animal models with OA have also been described (such as spontaneous, surgical, chemical, and physical methods including genetically manipulated animals) which may give an insight into the events of alteration in connective tissues and their metabolism (synovial membrane/tissues along with cartilage) and bone erosion. The development of such arthritic animal models may throw light for better understanding of the etiopathogenic mechanisms of human arthritis and give new impetus for the drug development program on arthritis, a crippling disease.

Naik S.R.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Wala S.M.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery | Year: 2013

Inflammation, allergy and asthma are the manifestation of multitude reactions of biological, cellular and immunological events. The various associated biological, cellular, and molecular events with inflammation, allergy and asthma participate to induce increased vascular permeability, vasodilatation, cellular migration, increased mucus secretion, broncho- constriction, structural changes of airway architecture, decline in pulmonary functions, release of intracellular mediators, increased formation of reactive oxygen species, cartilage degradation and loss of function. The participation of variety of effector cells viz. leukocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells, T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, lead to cascade of events trigger of intracellular mediators (cytokines, chemokines etc.) activating diverse biological effects and immune responses. Eicosanoids are major precursors in cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathways and play an important role in inflammation, allergy and asthma. Such biological and cellular events are further enhanced by stress related effects. The wide varieties of synthetic and natural compounds have been showed to act on different molecular targets (receptor, enzymes, mediators, and cells) involved in inflammation, allergy and asthma and to alter produce specific/definite therapeutic activity. The present review describes pathogenesis and etiological aspects of inflammation, allergy and asthma with few relevant patents which would be immensely useful for researchers in the field of immunology and molecular pharmacology to explore new avenues/strategies for development of new generation of therapeutically active agents for treatment of inflammation and allergic disorders. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Joshi D.V.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical Science | Patil R.R.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical Science | Naik S.R.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical Science
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2015

Context and objective: The herb fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn (Fabaceae), seeds have been traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes but its effect on oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the improvement of exocrine function of diabetes has not been studied. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (HEF) on alloxan-induced type-II diabetic rat model was investigated. Materials and methods: Effect of HEF (500, 1000, and 2000mg/kg), glimepiride (4mg/kg), and combination of HEF (500mg/kg)+glimepiride (2mg/kg), on alloxan-induced diabetic rats was evaluated by assaying (blood glucose, serum protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, muscle and liver glycogen, glucose uptake by diaphragm, liver glucose transport, serum pancreatic enzymes (α-amylase, lipase), pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6), antioxidant enzymes [glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD)], lipid peroxides (liver and pancreas), and histoarchitecture (liver, pancreas). Results: Treatment with HEF (at different doses), glimepiride, and HEF+glimepiride increased body weight and glucose uptake, reduced plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, liver glucose transport, pro-inflammatory cytokines, pancreatic enzymes and restored depleted glycogen (muscle, liver) and total protein significantly (p<0.01) and dose dependently, including prevention of lipid peroxidation and restoration of GSH and SOD (liver and pancreas). Treatment with HEF+glimepiride potentiated hypoglycemic activity of glimepiride. Histoarchitecture of liver and pancreas showed marked improvement. Conclusion: Present experimental findings suggest that HEF possesses promising hypoglycemic activity, presumably by amelioration of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. HEF may be useful as an adjuvant with clinically effective antidiabetic drugs in the management of type-II diabetes. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Thakare V.N.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Osama M.M.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Naik S.R.,Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical science
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2013

In the present experiments, the possible role of curcumin in ovalbumin induced allergic rhinitis in guinea pig model was investigated. Various allergic rhinitis symptoms viz sneezing, rubbing frequencies, lacrimation and nasal congestion at various humidity conditions as well as on repeated sensitization were studied. The biochemical changes like serum IgE, IL-4 and nitric oxide (NO) in nasal lavage and eosinophil peroxidase activity in nasal homogenates were determined in allergic rhinitis. Curcumin treatment significantly reduced the symptoms (sneezing, rubbing frequencies, lacrimation and nasal congestion) and improved the histopathological alterations (reduction in inflammatory cells infiltration) of nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis. Furthermore, curcumin treatment prevented significantly elevation of serum IgE, IL-4, NO in nasal lavage and eosinophil peroxidase in nasal homogenate. In the present experimental findings, we suggest that curcumin is a promising anti-allergic agent that may be useful in the clinical management of allergic rhinitis. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

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