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Swansea, United Kingdom

Majoko F.,Singleton Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

The majority of women have spontaneous vaginal births, but some women need assistance in the second stage with delivery of the baby, using either the obstetric forceps or vacuum extraction. Rates of instrumental vaginal delivery range from 5% to 20% of all births in industrialised countries. The majority of instrumental vaginal deliveries are conducted in the delivery room, but in a small proportion (2% to 5%), a trial of instrumental vaginal delivery is conducted in theatre with preparations made for proceeding to caesarean section. To determine differences in maternal and neonatal morbidity between women who, due to anticipated difficulty, have trial of instrumental vaginal delivery in theatre and those who have immediate caesarean section for failure to progress in the second stage. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 June 2012). Randomised controlled trials comparing trial of instrumental vaginal delivery (vacuum extraction or forceps) in operating theatre to immediate caesarean section for women with failure to progress in the second stage (active second stage more than 60 minutes in primigravidae). We identified no studies meeting our inclusion criteria. No studies were included. There is no current evidence from randomised trials to influence practice.


Connor A.,SpR | Tolan D.,University of Leeds | Hughes S.,Southmead Hospital | Carr N.,Singleton Hospital | Tomson C.,Southmead Hospital
Gut | Year: 2012

Oral bowel-cleansing preparations are used before colonic surgery and endoscopic and radiological assessment of the intestine to minimise faecal contamination. In February 2009, the UK National Patient Safety Agency issued a Rapid Response Report highlighting the potential risk of harm associated with the use of these preparations and instructing local NHS Trusts to implement safeguards to reduce this risk. This guidance has been prepared to help NHS Trusts to respond to these concerns, as the risk of complications is influenced by both individual patient risk factors and the choice of bowel preparation, for which definitive guidance was not previously available. This document provides an outline of the different available oral bowelcleansing agents and the complications that may arise. This is followed by recommendations for their use in different patient groups and circumstances. The recommendations are based on consensus between the authors, each of whom circulated drafts to members of their specialist society. The evidence for these recommendations has been assessed using the modified GRADE system. The recommendations cover the choice, administration and complications (relative and absolute) of the different oral bowel-cleansing agents, with specific guidance provided for different patient groups.


A 53-year-old woman was admitted with non-exertional chest pain and elevated cardiac troponin I (cTnI) without dynamic changes of ischaemia on the ECG. She had recently undergone coronary angiography which had shown normal coronary vessels. Repeat angiography on this admission was again unremarkable. Samples of blood were sent for analysis using different troponin assays and demonstrated chronic basal elevation of cTnI while simultaneous assay for troponin T (cTnT) remained normal. Subsequent testing revealed the presence of heterophile antibodies interfering with the troponin I assay leading to a false positive result.


Bunting H.,Singleton Hospital
Ophthalmic research | Year: 2010

AIM/BACKGROUND: Abnormal metabolism of the neurotransmitter glutamate is implicated in a number of neurodegenerative conditions. Patients with migraine have been shown to have elevated plasma glutamate levels. Migraine is a risk factor both in terms of prevalence and progression in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). The aim of this study was to determine whether or not plasma glutamate levels are also elevated in NTG. METHODS: Patients were recruited into 2 groups, NTG and control, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients with migraine were excluded from both groups. Fasting blood samples were collected in lithium heparin tubes, transported on ice, and centrifuged for storage at -21 degrees C. Plasma glutamate levels were measured by an amino acid analyser. Data for each group were compared by applying the Mann-Whitney test. Ethical approval and independent statistical advice for the study was obtained. RESULTS: A total of 27 subjects were recruited: 14 to the NTG group and 13 to the control group. No significant difference was found between the plasma glutamate levels in the 2 groups (p = 0.67). CONCLUSION: Although an association between normal tension and migraine is recognized, unlike studies in migraine sufferers, this study finds no evidence that patients with NTG have elevated plasma glutamate. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Pastacaldi C.,Singleton Hospital | Lewis P.,University of Swansea | Howarth P.,University of Southampton
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011

Background: There is a need for new treatment options of allergic respiratory diseases based on a better knowledge of their pathogenesis. An association between bacterial products and allergic airway diseases has been suggested by the results of human and animal studies that describe a link between Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins and atopic diseases. The aim of the systematic review is to assess the evidence for a role of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins, as an environmental risk factor, for the development and/or the severity of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Methods: We performed a systematic review of controlled clinical studies in adults and/or children affected by asthma/early wheeze and/or allergic rhinitis. To be eligible, studies had to use reproducible methods to provide evidence of exposure to S. aureus, clinical outcome and disease severity. Results: Ten studies, published between 2000 and 2007, fulfilled all eligibility criteria. Patients with asthma or allergic rhinitis showed an increased prevalence of positivity for measures of exposure to S. aureus in nine studies: differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05) in seven studies. In a meta-analysis of study results, patients with asthma were more likely than controls to have serum-specific IgE to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6-7.1, P = 0.002); similarly, patients with allergic rhinitis were more likely than controls to test positive for local or systemic exposure to Staphylococcus aureus and/or or its enterotoxins (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-4.7, P = 0.008). Conclusions: A potential role of S. aureus superantigens in allergic respiratory diseases is supported by results of this meta-analysis of clinical studies. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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