Singapore National Institute of Education

Laboratory, Singapore

Singapore National Institute of Education

Laboratory, Singapore
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Lee K.,Singapore National Institute of Education | Bull R.,Singapore National Institute of Education | Ho R.M.H.,Nanyang Technological University
Child Development | Year: 2013

Although early studies of executive functioning in children supported Miyake et al.'s (2000) three-factor model, more recent findings supported a variety of undifferentiated or two-factor structures. Using a cohort-sequential design, this study examined whether there were age-related differences in the structure of executive functioning among 6- to 15-year-olds (N = 688). Children were tested annually on tasks designed to measure updating and working memory, inhibition, and switch efficiency. There was substantial task-based variation in developmental patterns on the various tasks. Confirmatory factor analyses and tests for longitudinal factorial invariance showed that data from the 5- to 13-year-olds conformed to a two-factor structure. For the 15-year-olds, a well-separated three-factor structure was found. © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.


Tan L.T.,Singapore National Institute of Education
Biofouling | Year: 2010

Filamentous benthic marine cyanobacteria are a prolific source of structurally unique bioactive secondary metabolites. A total of 12 secondary metabolites, belonging to the mixed polyketide-polypeptide structural class, were isolated from the marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula, and were tested to determine if they showed activity against barnacle larval settlement. The assays revealed four compounds, dolastatin 16, hantupeptin C, majusculamide A, and isomalyngamide A, that showed moderate to potent anti-larval settlement activities, with EC(50) values ranging from 0.003 to 10.6 microg ml(-1). In addition, field testing conducted over a period of 28 days (using the modified Phytagel method) based on the cyanobacterial compound, dolastatin 16, showed significantly reduced barnacle settlement as compared to controls at all the concentrations tested. The results of this study highlight the importance of marine cyanobacteria as an underexplored source of potential environmentally friendly antifoulants.


Wong L.-H.,Singapore National Institute of Education | Looi C.-K.,Singapore National Institute of Education
Computers and Education | Year: 2011

Seamless learning refers to the seamless integration of the learning experiences across various dimensions including formal and informal learning contexts, individual and social learning, and physical world and cyberspace. Inspired by the exposition by Chan et al. (2006) on the seamless learning model supported by the setting of one or more mobile device per learner, this paper aims to further investigate the meaning of seamless learning and the potential ways to put it in practice. Through a thorough review of recent academic papers on mobile-assisted seamless learning (MSL), we identify ten dimensions that characterize MSL. We believe that such a framework allows us to identify research gaps in the stated area. A practitioner interested in adopting an MSL design or doing a new design can use our analysis to situate the dimensional space where the constraints or parameters of his or her design problem lie, and look at relevant design and research-based evidence of other related MSL systems to refine her own design. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wong L.-H.,Singapore National Institute of Education | Looi C.-K.,Singapore National Institute of Education
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning | Year: 2010

In recent years, we have witnessed the concomitant rise of communicative and contextualized approaches as well as the paradigmatic development of the mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) framework in analysing language learning. The focus of MALL research has gradually shifted from content-based (delivery of learning content through mobile devices) to design-oriented (authentic and/or social mobile learning activities) study. In this paper, we present two novel case studies of MALL that emphasize learner-created content. In learning English prepositions and Chinese idioms, respectively, the primary school students used the mobile devices assigned to them on a one-to-one basis to take photos in real-life contexts so as to construct sentences with the newly acquired prepositions or idioms. Subsequently, the learners were voraciously engaged in classroom or online discussion of their semantic constructions, thereby enhancing their understanding of the proper usage of the prepositions or idioms. This work shows the potential of transforming language learning into an authentic seamless learning experience. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Teo T.,Singapore National Institute of Education
Internet and Higher Education | Year: 2010

This research involves the development and validation of a survey that measures users' acceptance of e-learning. A total sample of 386 university students from a teacher training institute in an Asian country participated in this study. Comprising two studies, the first study (n = 197) initiated a generic questionnaire, and examined factorial validity and reliability. The second study (n = 189) used confirmatory factor analysis to establish factorial validity and measurement invariance by gender using a different sample. A correlated three-factor model (Tutor Quality, Perceived Usefulness, and Facilitating Conditions) was fit using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and found to be adequate. For the two samples, the E-learning Acceptance Measure (ElAM) was found to be a precise and internally consistent measure. Applications of the ElAM were discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Fulmer G.W.,Singapore National Institute of Education
Journal of Science Education and Technology | Year: 2014

Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Kim Y.,Singapore National Institute of Education
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2012

This article contributes to the recently arising CA-for-SLA (Conversation Analysis for Second Language Acquisition) inquiry by demonstrating how an understanding of interactional practices may inform our understanding of language learning. The target interactional practice examined in this article is a set of referential practices, particularly for establishing initial recognitional reference of a third person or object when the name or a relevant lexical item for the target referent is not available to the speaker. Based on close examination of sequential organization of a set of practices for achieving mutually understood reference in casual conversations between L1 and L2 English speakers, the study shows how structural opportunities for language learning are generated in interaction, which serves to broaden our understanding of the relationship between certain interactional practices and learning opportunities afforded in such practices. The issue of participants' orientation to such sequential environments as learning opportunities is also discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Lee J.,Singapore National Institute of Education
Assessment | Year: 2014

This article reviews cognitive interviewing (CI) as a survey pretesting method in cross-national settings. Particularly, semi-structured cognitive interviewing (SSCI) using direct probing is advocated when CI involves multiple countries/languages. Four major groups of fundamental issues are discussed: conceptual, measurement, procedural, and practical. The conceptual issues relate to the nature of interview data, potential sources of problems, and sample size. Next, it is shown how the SSCI method can be used to informally evaluate validity, reliability, and cross-cultural equivalence. This is followed by the procedural steps and the practical issues in implementing cross-national SSCI studies. Some methodological and practical limitations are also noted. The article concludes by highlighting the implications of using the cross-national CI method in a single-country context with multiple immigrant/cultural/language groups or in monocultural settings. © The Author(s) 2012.


Sun D.,Singapore National Institute of Education | Looi C.-K.,Singapore National Institute of Education
Journal of Science Education and Technology | Year: 2013

The paper traces a research process in the design and development of a science learning environment called WiMVT (web-based inquirer with modeling and visualization technology). The WiMVT system is designed to help secondary school students build a sophisticated understanding of scientific conceptions, and the science inquiry process, as well as develop critical learning skills through model-based collaborative inquiry approach. It is intended to support collaborative inquiry, real-time social interaction, progressive modeling, and to provide multiple sources of scaffolding for students. We first discuss the theoretical underpinnings for synthesizing the WiMVT design framework, introduce the components and features of the system, and describe the proposed work flow of WiMVT instruction. We also elucidate our research approach that supports the development of the system. Finally, the findings of a pilot study are briefly presented to demonstrate of the potential for learning efficacy of the WiMVT implementation in science learning. Implications are drawn on how to improve the existing system, refine teaching strategies and provide feedback to researchers, designers and teachers. This pilot study informs designers like us on how to narrow the gap between the learning environment's intended design and its actual usage in the classroom. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Rawat R.S.,Singapore National Institute of Education
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters | Year: 2012

This paper presents the review of the applications of pulsed high energy density pinch plasmas (with energy densities in the range of 1-10×10 10 J/m 3), accompanied by self generated energetic high flux instability accelerated ion beams, from a dense plasma focus device in nanophase material synthesis, in particular the magnetically hard nanoparticle thin films with possible applications in high density magnetic data storage. The plasma focus device, a non-cylindrical z-pinch device, being a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard X-rays, and neutrons, has routinely been used for several applications such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production and more recently for material processing and thin films depositions. This review paper highlights and critically discusses the key features and traits (such as the plasma dynamics, plasma characteristics and energetic ions and electron emission characteristics) of plasma focus device to understand the novelties, opportunities and mechanisms of processing and synthesis of nanophase hard magnetic materials using this device. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on the modification of various physical properties of PLD grown thin films of FePt by energetic ion exposure in plasma focus device and the deposition of nanostructured CoPt thin films in plasma focus device are reviewed. The FePt and CoPt thin films are believed to be the most prominent candidates for ultra-high density magnetic data storage. The prime requirements for ultra-high density magnetic data storage are: (i) small size of nanoparticles in the range of ̃3-4 nm with narrow size distribution (ii) nanoparticles should be in fct phase, which is achieved by post synthesis annealing at about 600 °C, with high magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K u) to overcome the superparamagnetism, and (iii) reduced exchange coupling effects with well-separated distribution of nanoparticles. The reduction of phase transition temperature for transformation from low Ku fccstructured magnetically soft A1 phase to high K u fct-structured magnetically hard L1 phase, control of the fct-(001) orientation of thin films and minimizing grain growth are three key challenges for practical application of FePt and CoPt nanoparticle thin films in data storage These technologically challenging issues were successfully resolved, to some extent, using novel high energy density plasmas of plasma focus device. Copyright © 2012 American Scientific Publishers.

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