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Costa D.,Singapore Center | Costa D.,National University of Singapore | Burlando P.,ETH Zurich | Priadi C.,University of Indonesia
Sustainable Cities and Society | Year: 2016

Rapid urbanisation is transforming many urban rivers by affecting their hydraulic conditions and water quality. This process is particularly intense in some areas of the planet, where migratory phenomena and the associated urbanisation pace and conurbation are extreme. In these cases, the lack of water supply and sewerage infrastructures can lead to enormous pressure on urban river corridors, which often implies irreversible pollution of surface waters and shallow aquifers. In this article we address the problem of how integrated planning of urban river corridor management is essential to achieve sustainable solutions and how modern simulation tools can contribute to this effect. This is done by reporting about an exemplary case study, the Ciliwung River flowing through Jakarta, which is highly polluted and floods frequently large areas of the city. Indonesian authorities' highest priority is to reduce the flood problem but without a clear integrated rehabilitation strategy that accounts for water quality issues. Through field campaigns and model simulations we demonstrate how measures to solve the flood problem can further deplete water quality if the pollution load is not reduced. Results suggest that the current hydraulic river regime produces a benefit for the river health by increasing oxygen levels, natural degradation processes and dilution. A reduction in the average discharge by means of dam construction, as currently considered by the authorities, is likely to increase contamination levels of surface water and shallow aquifer, which is recharged by the river. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Padawangi R.,National University of Singapore | Turpin E.,University of Wollongong | Herlily,University of Indonesia | Prescott M.F.,Singapore Center
Sustainable Cities and Society | Year: 2016

Dense, self-built settlements along riverbanks within Asian cities are often excluded from the planning realm, which ensures governments lack knowledge of how particular communities function. The magnitude of land area and population, dynamic local economies, organic policy making processes, and scarcity and consistency of data challenge research on flood impacts and possible solutions in Asian cities. Resultantly, a deeper understanding of alternative and more dynamic forms of environmental management is necessary. The focus of this paper is to analyze the usefulness and challenges of participatory mapping in relation to urban floods, particularly community mapping and crowd-sourced mapping. This analysis is based on the assumption of participatory mapping discourse that participatory mapping increases communities' negotiation power to improve their livelihood. This paper employs participant observation and ethnographic interviews within the Ciliwung River corridor in Jakarta. Specifically it focuses on activists and residents in river communities in relation to participatory community mapping exercises conducted since 2012 and a new crowd-sourced flood mapping system launched in December 2014. Participatory community mapping and crowd-sourced flood mapping, as two forms of community-based mapping approaches to floods, are viewed as potential tools to overcome urban flood hazards while raising disaster awareness among city residents. Community mapping is a method of visualizing a neighborhood's communal memories and embedded power relations, while a crowd-sourced flood map visualizes vulnerabilities and may become a tool for information sharing for the betterment of the spatially and socially fragmented city. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Tao W.,Singapore Center
Geo-Spatial Information Science | Year: 2013

As urbanization process has been and will be happening in an unprecedented scale worldwide, strong requirements from academic research and practical fields for smart management and intelligent planning of cities are pressing to handle increasing demands of infrastructure and potential risks of inhabitants' agglomeration in disaster management. Geospatial data and geographic information systems (GISs) are essential components for building smart cities in a basic way that maps the physical world into virtual environment as a referencing framework. On higher level, GIS has been becoming very important in smart cities on different sectors. In the digital city era, digital maps and geospatial databases have long been integrated in workflows in land management, urban planning and transportation in government. People have anticipated GIS to be more powerful not only as an archival and data management tool but also as spatial models for supporting decision-making in intelligent cities. Successful applications have been developed in private and public organizations by using GIS as a platform for data integration, a system for geospatial analysis and collection of models for visualization and decision-making. Location-based services on smart mobile devices in ubiquitous telecommunication networks are now an indispensable function that expands knowledge of the nature and connections among people. On data side, crowd-sourcing, real-time urban sensing and true 3-dimensional (3D) models and visualization have provided more advantages of GIS to final users and at the same time challenged current available solutions and technologies of data handling, visualization and human-computer interaction. On the technological side, Web 2.0 participatory applications provide the framework and environment for GIS to closer link to photogrammetry and computer vision, which empowers smart devices more capabilities. How to manage big geo-tagged data volumes collected by numerous sensors and implement professional GIS functions in a cloud computing environment are urgent questions to facilitate smart cities management. This paper reviews advancements of GIS in the management of cities as information systems to facilitate urban modelling and decision-making, as referencing basis to integrate social network media, and concludes that an interdisciplinary urban GIS is needed to support development of smart cities. We take Singapore as a case of GIS pervasive applications, which has strategically made a master plan of national information infrastructure and has been implementing geospatial collaboration environments for public and private sectors. © 2013 Wuhan University.

Klein B.,Singapore Center
Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Visualisation | Year: 2015

This recent advances in display and user interface technologies create new opportunities for participatory urban planning. Whereas touch screens enable direct screen interactions for intuitive remodeling of urban simulations, high resolution video walls offer true-to-life or human-scale scenario visualizations. Multi-touch screen environments finally function as an interactive user interface for the entire urban simulation pipeline. However intuitive and preferably natural interactions for simple reconfiguration, overarching tool management or complex tool interaction remain a major challenge. For this reason we have implemented a gesture recognition framework that uses multimodal input devices to satisfy all gesture use cases and integrates a display management system for seamless interaction with our multi-screen infrastructure. To understand the implications of this novel approach, we conducted preliminary user trials with urban planning experts and technicians. The results indicated that the system provides a fluid and natural user experience for exploring and analyzing urban planning data. © 2015 IEEE.

Karaman O.,Singapore Center
Urban Studies | Year: 2013

This paper discusses the changing urban policy framework in Turkey through a detailed analysis of a unique coupling of neoliberalism and Islamism. In this, rather than political projects with clear ultimate ends, both neoliberalism and Islamism are approached as distinct political rationalities aiming to reconfigure all aspects of social life. Turkey's Justice and Development Party has successfully established networks of economic and political interdependence (or has tapped into existing networks) by appeasing both the emergent Islamic capitalist class through lucrative contracts and business-friendly reforms, and the urban poor through gracious gestures ingrained in traditional Islamic community values and morality. The working of this co-articulation is examined in the case of an urban renewal project in a peripheral neighbourhood in Istanbul. © 2013 Urban Studies Journal Limited.

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