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Mubarak M.,Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation SIUT
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2011

IgA nephropathy is a primary glomerulopathy characterized by deposition of IgA containing immune deposits in the kidney. Its diagnosis is based on histopathologic and immunoflourescence studies on renal biopsy. The disorder is poorly understood. This review is focused on updates regarding its pathogenesis and discussion on a new proposed histopathological classification of IgA nephropathy. Source


Nasri H.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Mubarak M.,Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation SIUT
Journal of Nephropathology | Year: 2015

Context: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is an autoimmune disorder and is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis (GN) worldwide. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Results: It is a slowly progressing disorder that leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in up to 50% of the patients within 25 years of the onset of the disease. IgAN is defined by predominant IgA deposition in the mesangial area on immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy. Its histology varies from mild focal segmental proliferation of mesangial cells to severe diffuse global proliferation with extracapillary proliferation (crescent formation). The Oxford classification, designed in 2009, is a new classification for the evaluation of morphologic lesions of IgAN. This classification, containing four pathology variables, was found to have prognostic implications. The variables included are mesangial hypercellularity (M), endocapillary proliferation (E), segmental glomerulosclerosis (S) and the proportion of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (T). However, crescents were not included in the Oxford classification. Conclusions: In this mini-review, we describe the recent publications about the significance of extracapillary proliferation in IgAN and we conclude that, there is much controversy about the role of extracapillary proliferation as a significant prognostic factor in IgAN. Hence, it is important to re-consider crescents in IgAN patients. Therefore, we suggest further investigations on this aspect of IgAN disease. © 2015 The Author(s); Published by Society of Diabetic Nephropathy Prevention.. Source


Naqvi R.,Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation SIUT
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2016

Objective: To describe the clinical spectrum and outcome of patients presenting to a tertiary care kidney center, developing acute kidney injury (AKI) after snake-bite. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Nephrology Department, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, from January 1990 to December 2014. Methodology: All patients coming to SIUT identified as having AKI after snake-bite during the study period were included. AKI was defined according to RIFLE criteria with sudden rise in creatinine or decline in urine output or both. Demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory profile, and final outcome was noted. Results: During the studied period, 115 cases of AKI, secondary to snake-bite, were registered at this institution. Median age of patients was 35.92 ±15.04 (range: 6 - 70) years and male to female ratio was 1.6:1. Time from bite and referral to this hospital ranged from 2 to 28 days (mean: 8.77 ±5.58 days). Oligo-anuria was the most common presentation, being found in 98 (93.90%) patients. Bleeding diathesis was reported in 75 (65.21%) patients on presentation. All patients had normal sized, non-obstructed kidneys on ultrasonography, with no previous comorbids. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 106 (92.17%) patients. Complete recovery was seen in 59 (51.30%), while 15 (13.04%) patients expired during acute phase of illness, 4 (3.47%) developed CKD, 11 (9.56%) required dialysis beyond 90 days, and 26 (22.60%) were lost to long-term follow-up. Conclusion: Snake-bite, leading to multiple complications including renal failure and death, is a major health issue in tropical countries. Late referral of these patients to specialized centres results in undesirable outcome. Source


Naqvi R.,Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation SIUT
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objective: To report patients developing acute kidney injury (AKI) after Vivax malaria. Methods: An observational cohort of patients identified as having acute kidney injury (AKI) after Plasmodium vivax infection. AKI was defined according to RIFLE criteria with sudden rise in creatinine or decline in urine output or both. All patients had normal size non obstructed kidneys on ultrasonography, with no previous co morbids. Malarial parasite Vivax was seen on blood peripheral film in all patients. Results: From January 1990-December 2014, total 5623 patients with AKI were registered in our institute, of these 671 (11.93%) developed AKI in association with malarial infection, furthermore, Vivax was species in 109 patients. Average age of patients was 33.49±14.67 (range 8-78 years) with 66 male and 43 female. Oligo-anuria and vomiting were most common associated symptoms with fever. Renal replacement therapy required in 82 (75.22%) patients. Complete recovery was seen in 69 (63.30%), while 14 (12.84%) expired during acute phase of illness. Jaundice, thrombocytopenia, central nervous system involvement, mechanical ventilation requirement and hematuria were the factors significantly associated with high mortality. Conclusion: Malaria still causing significant morbidity and mortality in our part of world. Vivax malaria can present with hemolysis, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure in remarkable number of patients. © 2015, Professional Medical Publications. All rights reserved. Source


Ajaz S.,Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation SIUT
Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers | Year: 2011

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein plays an important role in tumor development and progression. Polymorphisms in the VEGF gene may lead to over- or underexpression of the protein and may be associated with either risk or progression of malignancy. The aim of this case-control study is to identify and quantify the correlation between VEGF polymorphisms and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Restriction fragment length polymorphism methods were used for the analysis of VEGF polymorphisms at -2578 and +936 positions in the promoter and 3'-untranslated regions, respectively. The VEGF -2578 A-allele was associated with an increased risk of RCC (odds ratio: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.3) and A-carrier genotypes were strongly correlated (odds ratio: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.5-4.7) with higher risk. Comparison of VEGF +936 C/T polymorphism between patient and control groups revealed no association with renal carcinoma. Both VEGF -2578 C/A and VEGF +936 C/T polymorphisms showed no significant association with the histopathological parameters of RCC. This study shows that VEGF -2578 A-allele and A-carrier genotypes are associated with an increased risk of RCC. In groups with higher incidence of RCC, a screening test for this polymorphism may be recommended in conjunction with other established markers. Source

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