Redding, CA, United States

Simpson University
Redding, CA, United States

This article is about the college in California. For the college in Iowa refer to Simpson College.Simpson University is a private, liberal arts college located on a 92-acre campus in Redding, California. Wikipedia.

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News Article | October 28, 2016
Site:, a leading source of higher education and student information, has named the Best Online Colleges in California for 2016-2017. A total of 60 schools received honors, with top marks going to California State University East Bay and Chico campuses, Humphreys College, Simpson University and the University of California, Berkeley for four year schools, and Lassen Community College, Foothill College and Diablo Valley College for two-year schools. The lists include the top 40 two year schools and top 20 four year schools to offer affordable, quality online learning in California. "California’s colleges have long been known for offering innovative, flexible learning options for online students,” said Dan Schuessler, CEO and Founder of "The schools on these lists are strong examples of what today’s online learning is all about, providing quality education and affordable rates to enhance student’s success outside a traditional classroom environment.” In order to qualify for California’s Best Online College lists, requires schools to hold regional accreditation and be two year or four year public or private not-for-profit institutions respectively. To maintain affordability standards, only two year schools providing in-state tuition under $5,000 annually and four year colleges with in-state tuition under $25,000 were considered. To see the full list of schools and learn more about the specific data points used to determine each online college’s rank, follow the link below: California’s Best Two Year Online Colleges for 2016: Allan Hancock College American River College Barstow Community College Cabrillo College Citrus College City College of San Francisco Coastline Community College College of the Desert College of the Sequoias College of the Siskiyous Contra Costa College Cosumnes River College Cypress College Diablo Valley College Foothill College Hartnell College Imperial Valley College Las Positas College Lassen Community College Long Beach City College Los Angeles Harbor College Mendocino College Merced College Modesto Junior College Moorpark College Mt. San Jacinto Community College District Ohlone College Oxnard College Palo Verde College Pasadena City College Rio Hondo College San Diego Mesa College San Diego Miramar College Santa Rosa Junior College Solano Community College Ventura College West Hills College - Coalinga West Hills College - Lemoore West Los Angeles College West Valley College California’s Best Four Year Online Colleges for 2016: began in 2011 to provide quality data and information about pursuing an affordable higher education. Our free community resource materials and tools span topics such as financial aid and college savings, opportunities for veterans and people with disabilities, and online learning resources. We feature higher education institutions that have developed online learning environments that include highly trained faculty, new technology and resources, and online support services to help students achieve educational and career success. We have been featured by nearly 1,100 postsecondary institutions and nearly 120 government organizations.

Geier D.A.,The Institute of Chronic Illnesses Inc | Hooker B.S.,Simpson University | Kern J.K.,The Institute of Chronic Illnesses Inc | Kern J.K.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Translational Neurodegeneration | Year: 2013

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by standardized criteria of qualitative impairments in social interaction, qualitative impairments in communication, and restricted and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. A significant number of children diagnosed with ASD suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, which is suggestive of neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological pathogenic basis occurring after birth. To date, the etiology of ASD remains under debate, however, many studies suggest toxicity, especially from mercury (Hg), in individuals diagnosed with an ASD. The present study evaluated concerns about the toxic effects of organic-Hg exposure from Thimerosal (49.55% Hg by weight) in childhood vaccines by conducting a two-phased (hypothesis generating/hypothesis testing) study with documented exposure to varying levels of Thimerosal from vaccinations.Methods: A hypothesis generating cohort study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between exposure to organic-Hg from a Thimerosal-containing Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine in comparison to a Thimerosal-free DTaP vaccine administered, from 1998 through 2000, for the risk of ASD as reported in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database (phase I). A hypothesis testing case-control study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between organic-Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines administered at specific intervals in the first six months of life among cases diagnosed with an ASD and controls born between 1991 through 1999 in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database (phase II).Results: In phase I, it was observed that there was a significantly increased risk ratio for the incidence of ASD reported following the Thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccine in comparison to the Thimerosal-free DTaP vaccine. In phase II, it was observed that cases diagnosed with an ASD were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine administered within the first, second, and sixth month of life.Conclusions: Routine childhood vaccination is an important public health tool to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, but the present study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting an association between increasing organic-Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of an ASD diagnosis. © 2013 Geier et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Geier D.A.,Institute of Chronic Illnesses Inc | Hooker B.S.,Simpson University | Kern J.K.,Institute of Chronic Illnesses Inc | Kern J.K.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2014

A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated concerns about the toxic effects of organic-mercury (Hg) exposure from thimerosal-containing (49.55% Hg by weight) vaccines on the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs). Automated medical records were examined to identify cases and controls enrolled from their date-of-birth (1991–2000) in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) project. ND cases were diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), specific developmental delay, tic disorder or hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood. In addition, putative non-thimerosal-related outcomes of febrile seizure, failure to thrive and cerebral degenerations were examined. The cumulative total dose of Hg exposure from thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine (T-HBV) administered within the first six months of life was calculated. On a per microgram of organic-Hg basis, PDD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.054), specific developmental delay (OR = 1.035), tic disorder (OR = 1.034) and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (OR = 1.05) cases were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure. By contrast, none of the non-thimerosal related outcomes were significantly more likely than the controls to have received increased organic-Hg exposure. Routine childhood vaccination may be an important public health tool to reduce infectious disease-associated morbidity/mortality, but the present study significantly associates organic-Hg exposure from T-HBV with an increased risk of an ND diagnosis. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Geier D.A.,Institute of Chronic Illnesses Inc. | King P.G.,Commonwealth Edison | Hooker B.S.,Simpson University | Dorea J.G.,University of Brasilia | And 3 more authors.
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2015

Introduction: Thimerosal (or Thiomersal) is a trade name for an organomercurial compound (sodium ethyl-mercury (Hg) thiosalicylate) that is 49.55% Hg by weight, which rapidly decomposes in aqueous saline solutions into ethyl-Hg hydroxide and ethyl-Hg chloride. Developed in 1927, it has been and is still being used as a preservative in some cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals, and biological drug products, including vaccines. Concerns have been voiced about its use because it is toxic to human cells. Although it is banned in several countries, it continues to be added to some vaccines in the United States and many vaccines in the developing world. Discussion: This critical review focuses on the clinical, epidemiological, and biochemical studies of adverse effects from Thimerosal in developing humans. This review will include research that examines fetal, infant, and childhood death; birth defects; neurodevelopmental testing deficits in children; and neurodevelopmental disorders (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, tic disorder, and specific developmental delays). The review will also look at the research that examined the outcomes of acute accidental ethyl-Hg poisoning in humans. The studies that examine the underlying biochemical insights into the neuronal cellular damage will also be explored. Conclusion: The culmination of the research that examines the effects of Thimerosal in humans indicates that it is a poison at minute levels with a plethora of deleterious consequences, even at the levels currently administered in vaccines. © 2015 .

PubMed | Commonwealth Edison, Simpson University and Institute of Chronic Illnesses Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Brain sciences | Year: 2016

(1) BACKGROUND: Hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (HKSoC) is an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9) category in which the majority of the children are also diagnosed under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), where the umbrella term is Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders. The diagnostic criteria for HKSoC are developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Some studies have implicated mercury (Hg) exposure as a risk factor. (2) METHODS: This hypothesis testing study; using the Vaccine Safety Datalink; assessed the toxicological effects of bolus exposure to organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) by examining the relationship between Thimerosal-preserved hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB) given at varying levels and at specific intervals in the first six months after birth and the risk of a child being diagnosed with HKSoC. (3) RESULTS: Children diagnosed with HKSoC were significantly more likely to be exposed to increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB doses given within the first month (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-1.62); within the first two months (odds ratio = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.28-1.59); and within the first six months (odds ratio = 4.51; 95% CI = 3.04-6.71) than controls. (4) CONCLUSION: The results indicate that increasing organic-Hg exposure from TCVs heightens the risk of a HKSoC diagnosis.

Beck D.M.,Simpson University | Schaefer C.,University of Minnesota | Pang K.,University of Washington | Carlson S.M.,University of Minnesota
Journal of Cognition and Development | Year: 2011

Research suggests that executive function (EF) may distinguish between children who are well- or ill-prepared for kindergarten; however, little is known about the test-retest reliability of measures of EF for children. We aimed to establish a battery of EF measures that are sensitive to both development and individual differences across the preschool period using Conflict and Delay subtests that had a cool (abstract) or hot (extrinsic reward) focus. Results from 151 children in three age groups (2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years) suggested acceptable same-day test-retest reliability on all but Delay-Cool subtasks. These findings will inform appropriate measurement selection and development for future studies. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

PubMed | Furman University, Northwestern University, Simpson University and New York University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of cell biology | Year: 2016

Members of the desmosome protein family are integral components of the cardiac area composita, a mixed junctional complex responsible for electromechanical coupling between cardiomyocytes. In this study, we provide evidence that loss of the desmosomal armadillo protein Plakophilin-2 (PKP2) in cardiomyocytes elevates transforming growth factor 1 (TGF-1) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which together coordinate a transcriptional program that results in increased expression of profibrotic genes. Importantly, we demonstrate that expression of Desmoplakin (DP) is lost upon PKP2 knockdown and that restoration of DP expression rescues the activation of this TGF-1/p38 MAPK transcriptional cascade. Tissues from PKP2 heterozygous and DP conditional knockout mouse models also exhibit elevated TGF-1/p38 MAPK signaling and induction of fibrotic gene expression in vivo. These data therefore identify PKP2 and DP as central players in coordination of desmosome-dependent TGF-1/p38 MAPK signaling in cardiomyocytes, pathways known to play a role in different types of cardiac disease, such as arrhythmogenic or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Ebelhar S.A.,Simpson University | Hart C.D.,Simpson University | Wyciskalla T.D.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2011

Reduced tillage and no-tillage systems provide shallow incorporation of surface applied materials at best. Due to concern of over-liming the surface of agricultural soils, producers either reduce lime rates (and apply more often) or perform some sort of soil inversion to mix the lime deeper into the soil profile. The objective of the authors in this field study was to evaluate the effects of tillage, lime rate, and time of limestone application on corn and soybean growth, and assess the changes in soil acidity to an already acidic soil. Treatments consisted of a no lime check, two no-tillage systems with either a 4.5 ton ha-1 lime application every two years or an annual application of 450 kg pelleted lime ha-1, a continuous annual chisel tillage system with a 9.0 ton ha-1 lime application every four years, and two inversion systems utilizing a rotary tiller (Howard Rotovator) where 9.0 ton lime ha-1 was mixed into the soil followed by either continuous chisel tillage or continuous no-tillage. Inversions occurred in 1999, 2003, and 2007. Soil samples were collected annually in increments of 5 cm to a 30 cm depth for pH determinations. After 10 years, the continuous chisel system increased soil pH in the top 20 cm and had grain yields comparable to the no-tillage system, but not different than the no lime treatment. The no-tillage system increased the pH in the surface 15 cm of soil. The inversion treatments after soybean mixed the lime more thoroughly in the top 15 cm than inversion after corn and also increased the pH to a deeper depth. The pelleted lime had no effect on soil acidity. Soybean yields were affected by lime treatment with the no lime and pelleted lime having the lowest yields. This is most likely due to manganese (Mn) toxicity with these treatments. There was no perceived benefit of inversion of the soil with no-till or chisel systems. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Hooker B.S.,Simpson University
Translational Neurodegeneration | Year: 2014

Background: A significant number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, suggesting neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological basis occurring after birth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectof the age at which children got their first Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine on autism incidence. This is a reanalysis of the data set, obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC), used for the Destefano et al. 2004 publication on the timing of the first MMR vaccine and autism diagnoses. Methods: The author embarked on the present study to evaluate whether a relationship exists between child age when the first MMR vaccine was administered among cases diagnosed with autism and controls born between 1986 through 1993 among school children in metropolitan Atlanta. The Pearson's chi-squared method was used to assess relative risks of receiving an autism diagnosis within the total cohort as well as among different race and gender categories. Results: When comparing cases and controls receiving their first MMR vaccine before and after 36 months of age, there was a statistically significant increase in autism cases specifically among African American males who received the first MMR prior to 36 months of age. Relative risks for males in general and African American males were 1.69 (p=0.0138) and 3.36 (p=0.0019), respectively. Additionally, African American males showed an odds ratio of 1.73 (p=0.0200) for autism cases in children receiving their first MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age versus 24 months of age and thereafter. Conclusions: The present study provides new epidemiologic evidence showing that African American males receiving the MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age or 36 months of age are more likely to receive an autism diagnosis. © 2014 Hooker; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Kay J.E.,Northwestern University | Jewett M.C.,Northwestern University | Jewett M.C.,Simpson University
Metabolic Engineering | Year: 2015

Cell-free metabolic engineering (CFME) is emerging as a powerful approach for the production of target molecules and pathway debugging. Unfortunately, high cofactor costs, limited cofactor and energy regeneration, and low volumetric productivities hamper the widespread use and practical implementation of CFME technology. To address these challenges, we have developed a cell-free system that harnesses ensembles of catalytic proteins prepared from crude lysates, or extracts, of cells to fuel highly active heterologous metabolic conversions. As a model pathway, we selected conversion of glucose to 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), a medium level commodity chemical with many industrial applications. Specifically, we engineered a single strain of Escherichia coli to express three pathway enzymes necessary to make meso-2,3-BD (m2,3-BD). We then demonstrated that lysates from this strain, with addition of glucose and catalytic amounts of cofactors NAD+ and ATP, can produce m2,3-BD. Endogenous glycolytic enzymes convert glucose to pyruvate, the starting intermediate for m2,3-BD synthesis. Strikingly, with no strain optimization, we observed a maximal synthesis rate of m2,3-BD of 11.3±0.1 g/L/h with a theoretical yield of 71% (0.36 g m2,3-BD/g glucose) in batch reactions. Titers reached 82±8 g/L m2,3-BD in a 30 h fed-batch reaction. Our results highlight the ability for high-level co-factor regeneration in cell-free lysates. Further, they suggest exciting opportunities to use lysate-based systems to rapidly prototype metabolic pathways and carry out molecular transformations when bioconversion yields (g product/L), productivities (g product/L/h), or cellular toxicity limit commercial feasibility of whole-cell fermentation. © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society.

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