For the college in Redding, California associated with the Christian and Missionary Alliance, see Simpson University.Simpson College is a four-year, coeducational liberal arts institution situated in Indianola, Iowa, USA, and affiliated with the United Methodist Church. Simpson, which has been fully accredited by North Central Association since 1913, is a small school with approximately 1,400 full-time students and 500 part-time students. In addition to the main campus in Indianola, the college has classroom facilities in West Des Moines and Ankeny.Simpson has been recognized by U.S. News and World Report as one of the top 10 comprehensive colleges in the Midwest. In the 2004 report, Simpson College was named number 1 in the "Best Value" category for midwestern comprehensive colleges. Simpson was also named by College and Character, A national initiative of the John Templeton Foundation as one of 60 colleges that offer students an exemplary first-year program. And Peterson's Competitive Colleges guide features Simpson as one of approximately 440 colleges and universities that the top students in the nation attend.Simpson's campus is located 12 miles south of Des Moines, providing Simpson students with easy access to various attractions, resources, and employment and internship opportunities in the Greater Des Moines area. Wikipedia.
Bach E.M.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale |
Bach E.M.,Iowa State University |
Baer S.G.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale |
Meyer C.K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale |
And 2 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010
Many biotic and abiotic factors influence recovery of soil communities following prolonged disturbance. We investigated the role of soil texture in the recovery of soil microbial community structure and changes in microbial stress, as indexed by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles, using two chronosequences of grasslands restored from 0 to 19 years on silty clay loam and loamy fine sand soils in Nebraska, USA. All restorations were formerly cultivated fields seeded to native warm-season grasses through the USDA's Conservation Reserve Program. Increases in many PLFA concentrations occurred across the silty clay loam chronosequence including total PLFA biomass, richness, fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and actinomycetes. Ratios of saturated:monounsaturated and iso:anteiso PLFAs decreased across the silty clay loam chronosequence indicating reduction in nutrient stress of the microbial community as grassland established. Multivariate analysis of entire PLFA profiles across the silty clay loam chronosequence showed recovery of microbial community structure on the trajectory toward native prairie. Conversely, no microbial groups exhibited a directional change across the loamy fine sand chronosequence. Changes in soil structure were also only observed across the silty clay loam chronosequence. Aggregate mean weighted diameter (MWD) exhibited an exponential rise to maximum resulting from an exponential rise to maximum in the proportion of large macroaggregates (>2000 μm) and exponential decay in microaggregates (<250 μm and >53 μm) and the silt and clay fraction (<53 μm). Across both chronosequences, MWD was highly correlated with total PLFA biomass and the biomass of many microbial groups. Strong correlations between many PLFA groups and the MWD of aggregates underscore the interdependence between the recovery of soil microbial communities and soil structure that may explain more variation than time for some soils (i.e., loamy fine sand). This study demonstrates that soil microbial responses to grassland restoration are modulated by soil texture with implications for estimating the true capacity of restoration efforts to rehabilitate ecosystem functions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Baer S.G.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale |
Bach E.M.,Iowa State University |
Meyer C.K.,Simpson College |
Du Preez C.C.,University of the Free State |
Six J.,ETH Zurich
Ecosystems | Year: 2015
Conversion of cultivated land to grassland is globally practiced to reverse soil degradation, but belowground ecosystem response to restoration has never been compared between old and new world temperate grasslands. We used a chronosequence approach to model change in root biomass and quality (indexed by C:N ratio), microbial biomass and composition [indexed by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs)], soil aggregate structure, and soil C and N stocks in the South African Highveld and compared recovery of these variables to a grassland restoration chronosequence in the US tallgrass prairie. We hypothesized soil C recovery, and mechanisms promoting soil C and N accrual would be convergent between these distant temperate grasslands with similar growing season precipitation, history of cultivation, and undergoing restoration with C4-grasses. Total PLFA richness and concentrations of most microbial groups rose to represent uncultivated grassland in the highveld (similar to tallgrass prairie), but in contrast to tallgrass prairie, the fungi:bacteria ratio did not increase with restoration age. In the highveld, root biomass accumulation was lower, but root quality became more representative of the never-cultivated grassland than in restorations in tallgrass prairie. Soil aggregate recovery was slightly faster in tallgrass prairie, and the pattern of macroaggregate C recovery was divergent due to less depletion in cultivated soil and higher stock of C in the uncultivated soil relative to the highveld. More rapid restoration of total soil C and N stocks in the highveld was attributed to greater soil C saturation deficit at the onset of restoration, development of higher quality root systems that promote the microbial biomass and soil aggregation, and climate conditions (distinct periodicity of rainfall and high aridity) that likely impose more limitation to decomposition relative to the tallgrass prairie ecosystem. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Little T.A.,Simpson College
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | Year: 2011
This literature review will examine the connection between knowledge management and KM systems with organizational intellectual capital and property. Organizations are collecting, storing, and manipulating knowledge to accomplish their assigned tasks on a daily basis. Organizations can also examine this knowledge as being intellectual capital. This paper reviews the concepts of knowledge serving as intellectual capital, security and approaches toward estimating the value of the capital, and provides a perspective of the current literature. Through the analysis, common themes were identified across three categories including Cultural, Enterprise, and Information Infrastructure which contribute to the understanding of how knowledge management systems impact organizational structures. Further studies are needed to provide guidance on identifying which knowledge can be established as intellectual capital and how to estimate value of such knowledge. © 2011 IEEE.
Meyer C.K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale |
Meyer C.K.,Simpson College |
Whiles M.R.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale |
Baer S.G.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2010
Wetlands historically provided many ecosystem services but most have been lost or degraded through land conversion. Recent appreciation for wetland values and increasing ecotourism in the Central Platte River Valley (U.S.A.) has promoted restoration of wet meadow systems, although recovery patterns are not well known. We quantified plant community structure in sloughs (deeper habitats) and adjacent margins (slightly higher elevation) of six wetland sites, restored for 1-7 years at the onset of a 3-year study, and three natural wetlands to assess recovery dynamics. Plant community metrics recovered differentially between habitats. Within restored margins, richness and diversity showed a weak quadratic response with time since restoration, indicating that both indexes overshoot natural levels shortly following restoration. Within sloughs, richness and diversity showed no change with time, suggesting that recovery occurs more quickly in these deeper, moister habitats. Percent similarity of plant communities in restorations and natural wetlands increased linearly over time. However, ordinations of plant community composition showed that recovery was strongly influenced by site-specific hydrology and that recovery may not be a linear trajectory toward natural systems. The analysis and interpretation of plant community dynamics revealed several challenges to restoration assessment, including the role of interannual variability in precipitation, limitations to hydrologic recovery, and temporal variability in plant community structure in natural systems that resulted in " moving targets" for recovery comparisons. Temporal variability in climate must be considered when assessing restoration success in systems where plant community structure is responsive to variable moisture regimes. © 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.
Brown J.E.,Stanford University |
Brown J.E.,Simpson College |
Chatterjee N.,Stanford University |
Chatterjee N.,Northwestern University |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Pain often exists in the absence of observable injury; therefore, the gold standard for pain assessment has long been self-report. Because the inability to verbally communicate can prevent effective pain management, research efforts have focused on the development of a tool that accurately assesses pain without depending on self-report. Those previous efforts have not proven successful at substituting self-report with a clinically valid, physiology-based measure of pain. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and support vector machine (SVM) learning can be jointly used to accurately assess cognitive states. Therefore, we hypothesized that an SVM trained on fMRI data can assess pain in the absence of self-report. In fMRI experiments, 24 individuals were presented painful and nonpainful thermal stimuli. Using eight individuals, we trained a linear SVM to distinguish these stimuli using whole-brain patterns of activity. We assessed the performance of this trained SVM model by testing it on 16 individuals whose data were not used for training. The whole-brain SVM was 81% accurate at distinguishing painful from non-painful stimuli (p<0.0000001). Using distance from the SVM hyperplane as a confidence measure, accuracy was further increased to 84%, albeit at the expense of excluding 15% of the stimuli that were the most difficult to classify. Overall performance of the SVM was primarily affected by activity in pain-processing regions of the brain including the primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, insular cortex, primary motor cortex, and cingulate cortex. Region of interest (ROI) analyses revealed that whole-brain patterns of activity led to more accurate classification than localized activity from individual brain regions. Our findings demonstrate that fMRI with SVM learning can assess pain without requiring any communication from the person being tested. We outline tasks that should be completed to advance this approach toward use in clinical settings. © 2011 Brown et al.
Mezulis A.,Seattle Pacific University |
Salk R.H.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Hyde J.S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Priess-Groben H.A.,Simpson College |
Simonson J.L.,U.S. Air force
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology | Year: 2014
Heterogeneity in the longitudinal course of depressive symptoms was examined using latent growth mixture modeling among a community sample of 382 U.S. youth from ages 11 to 18 (52.1 % female). Three latent trajectory classes were identified: Stable Low (51 %; displayed low depressive symptoms at all assessments), Increasing (37 %; reported low depressive symptoms at age 11, but then significantly higher depressive symptoms than the Stable Low class at ages 13, 15, and 18), and Early High (12 %; reported high early depressive symptoms at age 11, followed by symptoms that declined over time yet remained significantly higher than those of the Stable Low class at ages 13, 15, and 18). By age 15, rates of Major Depressive Disorder diagnoses among the Early High (25.0 %) and Increasing (20.4 %) classes were more than twice that observed among the Stable Low class (8.8 %). Affective (negative affectivity), biological (pubertal timing, sex) and cognitive (cognitive style, rumination) factors were examined as predictors of class membership. Results indicated general risk factors for both high-risk trajectories as well as specific risk factors unique to each trajectory. Being female and high infant negative affectivity predicted membership in the Increasing class. Early puberty, high infant negative affectivity for boys, and high rumination for girls predicted membership in the Early High class. Results highlight the importance of examining heterogeneity in depression trajectories in adolescence as well as simultaneously considering risk factors across multiple domains. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Nash P.,Stanford University |
Wiley K.,Stanford University |
Brown J.,Simpson College |
Shinaman R.,Stanford University |
And 4 more authors.
Pain | Year: 2013
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique that uses blood oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals to elucidate discrete areas of neuronal activity. Despite the significant number of fMRI human brain studies, few researchers have applied fMRI technology to investigating neuronal activity within the human spinal cord. Our study goals were to demonstrate that fMRI could reveal the following: (i) appropriate somatotopic activations in response to noxious stimuli in the deep and superficial dorsal horn of the human cervical spinal cord, and (ii) lateralization of fMRI activations in response to noxious stimulation in the right and left upper extremity. We subjected healthy participants to noxious stimulation during fMRI scans. Using a spiral in-out image sequence and retrospective correction for physiologic noise, we demonstrated that fMRI can create high-resolution, neuronal activation maps of the human cervical spinal cord. During nociceptive stimulation of all 4 sites (left deltoid, right deltoid, left thenar eminence and right thenar eminence), we found ipsilateral dorsal horn activation. Stimulation of the deltoid activated C5, whereas stimulation of the thenar eminence activated C6. Our study contributes to creating an objective analysis of pain transmission; other investigators can use these results to further study central nervous system changes that occur in patients with acute and chronic pain. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of International Association for the Study of Pain.
LaFauci L.E.,Simpson College
Anthropology and Medicine | Year: 2011
'Taking the (southern) waters' argues that, in the pre-Civil War period, the space of Virginia's mineral water resorts and the philosophy of southern hydropathic medicine enabled - indeed, fostered - white southerners' constructions of a 'nationalist,' proslavery ideology. In the first half of the paper, the author explains how white southern health-seekers came to view the springs region as a medicinal resource peculiarly designed for the healing of southern diseases and for the restoration of white southern constitutions; in the second half, she shows how physical and social aspects of the resorts, such as architectural choices and political events, supported and encouraged proslavery ideologies. Taken together, these medical-social analyses reveal how elite white southerners in the antebellum period came to associate the health of their peculiarly 'southern' bodies with the future health of an independent southern nation, one that elided black bodily presence at the same time that its social structures and scientific apparatuses relied upon enslaved black labor. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: S-STEM:SCHLR SCI TECH ENG&MATH | Award Amount: 586.78K | Year: 2015
This NSF Scholarships in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (S-STEM) project at Simpson College located in Indianola, Iowa will contribute to the national effort to produce more STEM graduates by establishing a cohort of 15 academically talented and Pell-eligible students. Scholars will receive academic support while they pursue degrees in actuarial science, computer science, mathematics, or physics. They will participate in a variety of enrichment activities such as (a) a one-week bridge program prior to their freshman year, (b) a mentored relationship with leaders from local industry, (c) a first semester computational modeling colloquium, (d) and a one-credit course on solving industry-generated problems provided by their mentors. Scholarships for academically strong STEM students, who may not otherwise be able to afford college, have an impact on the number of graduates prepared to help national, regional, and local companies.
The project goals are well-defined and the methods outlined for achieving them are scaffolded to maximize student learning. Activities like Campus connect (a first year orientation for skill building, including early exposure to computational modelling and writing), the Simpson Colloquium (a course that builds on modelling skills with real-world problems), and the Bridge to Success course are grounded in the literature and should lead to high academic achievement and retention of the participants. The project will be evaluated on four criteria, Scholar GPA, participation in internships, first to second year retention, and placement in STEM graduate programs or careers upon graduation. The evaluator will gauge the evolution of the scholars perception of STEM careers through the Views About Science Survey at the beginning and end of the project. Thus, project performance will be compared to national standards. Students will also be surveyed about all aspects of the project. Summative evaluation will rely on an analysis of the data in aggregate. Results will be disseminated internally via faculty development workshops. They will also be presented at appropriate regional venues including the Joint Mathematics Meeting and MathFest and at American Association of Physics Teachers, American Physical Society, Council on Undergraduate Research national meetings. This effort is expected to add to the knowledge base on development of recruitment and retention strategies for science and mathematics majors.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SOFTWARE & HARDWARE FOUNDATION | Award Amount: 9.72K | Year: 2011
Pioneering work of Seeman, Winfree, and Rothemund has raised the prospect of engineering useful structures and devices that autonomously assemble themselves from molecular components. Developing this capability will have transformative benefits for medicine, information technology, manufacturing, energy production, and other enterprises of twenty-first century society. In this project a team of scientists with expertise in self-assembly, software engineering, formal verification, programming languages, theory of computing, biochemistry, and molecular biology will explore the power and limitations of this programming of matter at the nanoscale.
The central thesis of this project is that methods that software engineers and theoretical computer scientists have developed for creating, controlling, and reasoning about software, hardware, networks, and environments of immense complexity will be an essential starting point for dealing with the greater challenges that nanotechnology will confront. The project will investigate applications of computational modeling, algorithmic randomness, requirements engineering, product lines, software verification, and software safety to DNA tile assembly, DNA origami, and DNA strand-displacement reactions. The project will conclude with a clear assessment--hopefully a compelling proof of concept--of the applicability and adaptability of software engineering methods in molecular programming and nanoscale self-assembly.
The project will contribute to a rigorously reasoned, verification- and safety-oriented approach to the social benefits of nanoscale self-assembly. It will strengthen software engineering methods as it adapts them to challenging new domains. It will enhance interdisciplinary science education at Iowa State University and nearby Simpson College, and it will provide web-accessible educational materials for such activities elsewhere.