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Indianola, IA, United States

For the college in Redding, California associated with the Christian and Missionary Alliance, see Simpson University.Simpson College is a four-year, coeducational liberal arts institution situated in Indianola, Iowa, USA, and affiliated with the United Methodist Church. Simpson, which has been fully accredited by North Central Association since 1913, is a small school with approximately 1,400 full-time students and 500 part-time students. In addition to the main campus in Indianola, the college has classroom facilities in West Des Moines and Ankeny.Simpson has been recognized by U.S. News and World Report as one of the top 10 comprehensive colleges in the Midwest. In the 2004 report, Simpson College was named number 1 in the "Best Value" category for midwestern comprehensive colleges. Simpson was also named by College and Character, A national initiative of the John Templeton Foundation as one of 60 colleges that offer students an exemplary first-year program. And Peterson's Competitive Colleges guide features Simpson as one of approximately 440 colleges and universities that the top students in the nation attend.Simpson's campus is located 12 miles south of Des Moines, providing Simpson students with easy access to various attractions, resources, and employment and internship opportunities in the Greater Des Moines area. Wikipedia.

Bach E.M.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Bach E.M.,Iowa State University | Baer S.G.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Meyer C.K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | And 2 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Many biotic and abiotic factors influence recovery of soil communities following prolonged disturbance. We investigated the role of soil texture in the recovery of soil microbial community structure and changes in microbial stress, as indexed by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles, using two chronosequences of grasslands restored from 0 to 19 years on silty clay loam and loamy fine sand soils in Nebraska, USA. All restorations were formerly cultivated fields seeded to native warm-season grasses through the USDA's Conservation Reserve Program. Increases in many PLFA concentrations occurred across the silty clay loam chronosequence including total PLFA biomass, richness, fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and actinomycetes. Ratios of saturated:monounsaturated and iso:anteiso PLFAs decreased across the silty clay loam chronosequence indicating reduction in nutrient stress of the microbial community as grassland established. Multivariate analysis of entire PLFA profiles across the silty clay loam chronosequence showed recovery of microbial community structure on the trajectory toward native prairie. Conversely, no microbial groups exhibited a directional change across the loamy fine sand chronosequence. Changes in soil structure were also only observed across the silty clay loam chronosequence. Aggregate mean weighted diameter (MWD) exhibited an exponential rise to maximum resulting from an exponential rise to maximum in the proportion of large macroaggregates (>2000 μm) and exponential decay in microaggregates (<250 μm and >53 μm) and the silt and clay fraction (<53 μm). Across both chronosequences, MWD was highly correlated with total PLFA biomass and the biomass of many microbial groups. Strong correlations between many PLFA groups and the MWD of aggregates underscore the interdependence between the recovery of soil microbial communities and soil structure that may explain more variation than time for some soils (i.e., loamy fine sand). This study demonstrates that soil microbial responses to grassland restoration are modulated by soil texture with implications for estimating the true capacity of restoration efforts to rehabilitate ecosystem functions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Little T.A.,Simpson College
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | Year: 2011

This literature review will examine the connection between knowledge management and KM systems with organizational intellectual capital and property. Organizations are collecting, storing, and manipulating knowledge to accomplish their assigned tasks on a daily basis. Organizations can also examine this knowledge as being intellectual capital. This paper reviews the concepts of knowledge serving as intellectual capital, security and approaches toward estimating the value of the capital, and provides a perspective of the current literature. Through the analysis, common themes were identified across three categories including Cultural, Enterprise, and Information Infrastructure which contribute to the understanding of how knowledge management systems impact organizational structures. Further studies are needed to provide guidance on identifying which knowledge can be established as intellectual capital and how to estimate value of such knowledge. © 2011 IEEE.

Meyer C.K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Meyer C.K.,Simpson College | Whiles M.R.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Baer S.G.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2010

Wetlands historically provided many ecosystem services but most have been lost or degraded through land conversion. Recent appreciation for wetland values and increasing ecotourism in the Central Platte River Valley (U.S.A.) has promoted restoration of wet meadow systems, although recovery patterns are not well known. We quantified plant community structure in sloughs (deeper habitats) and adjacent margins (slightly higher elevation) of six wetland sites, restored for 1-7 years at the onset of a 3-year study, and three natural wetlands to assess recovery dynamics. Plant community metrics recovered differentially between habitats. Within restored margins, richness and diversity showed a weak quadratic response with time since restoration, indicating that both indexes overshoot natural levels shortly following restoration. Within sloughs, richness and diversity showed no change with time, suggesting that recovery occurs more quickly in these deeper, moister habitats. Percent similarity of plant communities in restorations and natural wetlands increased linearly over time. However, ordinations of plant community composition showed that recovery was strongly influenced by site-specific hydrology and that recovery may not be a linear trajectory toward natural systems. The analysis and interpretation of plant community dynamics revealed several challenges to restoration assessment, including the role of interannual variability in precipitation, limitations to hydrologic recovery, and temporal variability in plant community structure in natural systems that resulted in " moving targets" for recovery comparisons. Temporal variability in climate must be considered when assessing restoration success in systems where plant community structure is responsive to variable moisture regimes. © 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Brown J.E.,Stanford University | Brown J.E.,Simpson College | Chatterjee N.,Stanford University | Chatterjee N.,Northwestern University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Pain often exists in the absence of observable injury; therefore, the gold standard for pain assessment has long been self-report. Because the inability to verbally communicate can prevent effective pain management, research efforts have focused on the development of a tool that accurately assesses pain without depending on self-report. Those previous efforts have not proven successful at substituting self-report with a clinically valid, physiology-based measure of pain. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and support vector machine (SVM) learning can be jointly used to accurately assess cognitive states. Therefore, we hypothesized that an SVM trained on fMRI data can assess pain in the absence of self-report. In fMRI experiments, 24 individuals were presented painful and nonpainful thermal stimuli. Using eight individuals, we trained a linear SVM to distinguish these stimuli using whole-brain patterns of activity. We assessed the performance of this trained SVM model by testing it on 16 individuals whose data were not used for training. The whole-brain SVM was 81% accurate at distinguishing painful from non-painful stimuli (p<0.0000001). Using distance from the SVM hyperplane as a confidence measure, accuracy was further increased to 84%, albeit at the expense of excluding 15% of the stimuli that were the most difficult to classify. Overall performance of the SVM was primarily affected by activity in pain-processing regions of the brain including the primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, insular cortex, primary motor cortex, and cingulate cortex. Region of interest (ROI) analyses revealed that whole-brain patterns of activity led to more accurate classification than localized activity from individual brain regions. Our findings demonstrate that fMRI with SVM learning can assess pain without requiring any communication from the person being tested. We outline tasks that should be completed to advance this approach toward use in clinical settings. © 2011 Brown et al.

Baer S.G.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Bach E.M.,Iowa State University | Meyer C.K.,Simpson College | Du Preez C.C.,University of the Free State | Six J.,ETH Zurich
Ecosystems | Year: 2015

Conversion of cultivated land to grassland is globally practiced to reverse soil degradation, but belowground ecosystem response to restoration has never been compared between old and new world temperate grasslands. We used a chronosequence approach to model change in root biomass and quality (indexed by C:N ratio), microbial biomass and composition [indexed by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs)], soil aggregate structure, and soil C and N stocks in the South African Highveld and compared recovery of these variables to a grassland restoration chronosequence in the US tallgrass prairie. We hypothesized soil C recovery, and mechanisms promoting soil C and N accrual would be convergent between these distant temperate grasslands with similar growing season precipitation, history of cultivation, and undergoing restoration with C4-grasses. Total PLFA richness and concentrations of most microbial groups rose to represent uncultivated grassland in the highveld (similar to tallgrass prairie), but in contrast to tallgrass prairie, the fungi:bacteria ratio did not increase with restoration age. In the highveld, root biomass accumulation was lower, but root quality became more representative of the never-cultivated grassland than in restorations in tallgrass prairie. Soil aggregate recovery was slightly faster in tallgrass prairie, and the pattern of macroaggregate C recovery was divergent due to less depletion in cultivated soil and higher stock of C in the uncultivated soil relative to the highveld. More rapid restoration of total soil C and N stocks in the highveld was attributed to greater soil C saturation deficit at the onset of restoration, development of higher quality root systems that promote the microbial biomass and soil aggregation, and climate conditions (distinct periodicity of rainfall and high aridity) that likely impose more limitation to decomposition relative to the tallgrass prairie ecosystem. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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