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Banting, Malaysia

Abdul P.M.,National University of Malaysia | Md. Jahim J.,National University of Malaysia | Harun S.,National University of Malaysia | Markom M.,National University of Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated by local plantation industry to increase the accessibility towards its fermentable sugars. This pretreatment process led to the formation of a dark sugar-rich molasses byproduct. The total carbohydrate content of the molasses was 9.7 g/L with 4.3 g/L xylose (C5H10O5). This pentose-rich molasses was fed as substrate for biohydrogen production using locally isolated Clostridium butyricum KBH1. The effect of initial pH and substrate concentration on the yield and productivity of hydrogen production were investigated in this study. The best result for the fermentation performed in 70 mL working volume was obtained at the initial reaction condition of pH 9, 150 rpm, 37 C and 5.9 g/L total carbohydrate. The maximum hydrogen yield was 1.24 mol H 2/mol pentose and the highest productivity rate achieved was 0.91 mmol H2/L/h. The optimal pH at pH 9 was slightly unusual due to the presence of inhibitors, mainly furfural. The furfural content decreased proportionally as pH was increased. The optimal experiment condition was repeated and continued in fermentation volume of 200 mL. The maximum hydrogen yield found for this run was 1.21 mol H2/mol pentose while the maximum productivity was 1.1 mmol H2/L/h. The major soluble metabolites in the fermentation were n-butyric acid and acetic acid. © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Latip R.A.,Sime Darby Research Sdn Bhd | Lee Y.-Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Tang T.-K.,University Putra Malaysia | Phuah E.-T.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The stearin fraction of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAGS) was produced from dry fractionation of palmbased diacylglycerol (PDAG). Bakery shortening blends were produced by mixing PDAGS with either palm mid fraction, PMF (PDAGS/PMF), palm olein, POL(PDAGS/POL) or sunflower oil, SFO (PDAGS/SFO) at PDAGS molar fraction of XPDAGS = 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%. The physicochemical results obtained indicated that C16:0 and C18:1 were the dominant fatty acids for PDAGS/PMF and PDAGS/POL, while C18:1 and C18:2 were dominant in the PDAGS/SFO mixtures. SMP and SFC of the PDAGS were reduced with the addition of PMF, POL and SFO. Binary mixtures of PDAGS/PMF had better structural compatibility and full miscibility with each other. PDAGS/PMF and PDAGS/SFO crystallised in β'+β polymorphs in the presence of 0.4-0.5% PDAGS while PDAGS/POL resulted in b polymorphs crystal. The results gave indication that PDAGS: PMF at 50%:50% and 60%:40% (w/w) were the most suitable fat blend to be used as bakery shortening. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Bakoume C.,National University of Malaysia | Bakoume C.,Sime Darby Research Sdn Bhd | Wickneswari R.,National University of Malaysia | Siju S.,National University of Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2014

The extent of genetic diversity among 494 oil palms from 49 populations (representing ten African countries, three breeding materials, and one semi-wild material) were assessed using 16 SSR markers. The genetic diversity was high with a total of 209 alleles detected accounting for an average of 13.1 alleles per locus and a mean expected heterozygosity of 0.644. The average genetic distance among accessions was 0.769, varying from 0.000 to 1.000. Both principal coordinates analysis and neighbor joining tree, confirmed by structure analysis, clustered the entire collections into three groups: the Extreme West Africa (EWA) group (collections from Senegal, Guinea, and Sierra Leone), the West, Central, and East Africa (WCEA) group (collections from Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaire, Angola, Tanzania, Bahia, the semi-wild material and the two Deli breeding materials) and the Madagascar group (collections uniquely from Madagascar). Madagascar populations were found to be genetically distinct from all other African populations. The influence of human and environmental factors might have played a major role in grouping the African natural oil palm into three different groups as well as in the formation of a transition zone (formed by Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire). Further analysis of genetic structure revealed Deli materials as a distinct population within the WCEA group. Given the fact that accessions were exchanged between the EWA and WCEA groups, intra- and inter-group combinations for breeding should be based mainly on the genetic distance between accessions to increase yield and heterosis. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Cheong L.-Z.,University Putra Malaysia | Tan C.-P.,University of Technology Malaysia | Long K.,Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute MARDI | Yusoff M.S.A.,Sime Darby Research Sdn Bhd | Laia O.-M.,University Putra Malaysia
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2010

Background: Diacylglycerol (DAG), which has health-enhancing properties, is sometimes added to bakery shortening to produce baked products with enhanced physical functionality. Nevertheless, the quantity present is often too little to exert any positive healthful effects. This research aimed to produce bakery shortenings containing significant amounts of palm diacyglycerol (PDG). Physicochemical, textural and viscoelastic properties of the PDG bakery shortenings during 3months storage were evaluated and compared with those of commercial bakery shortening (CS). Results: PDG bakery shortenings (DS55, DS64 and DS73) had less significant increments in slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC) and hardness during storage as compared to CS. Unlike CS, melting behaviour and viscoelastic properties of PDG bakery shortenings remained unchanged during storage. As for polymorphic transformation, CS contained only β crystals after 8 weeks of storage. PDG bakery shortenings managed to retard polymorphic transformation for up to 10 weeks of storage in DS55 and 12 weeks of storage in DS64 and DS73. Conclusion: PDG bakery shortenings had similar if not better storage stability as compared to CS. This is mainly due to the ability of DAG to retard polymorphic transformation from β' to β crystals. Thus, incorporation of DAG improved physical functionality of bakery shortening. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry. Source


Arifin N.,University Putra Malaysia | Arifin N.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia | Soo-Peng K.,University Putra Malaysia | Long K.,Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute MARDI | And 3 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2012

Optimization conditions of Lipozyme RM IM lipase esterification of capric and stearic acids with glycerol for the production of medium- and long-chain triacyglycerols (MLCT) fat suitable for food applications such as margarine and shortening were investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to model and optimize the reaction conditions, namely, the reaction time (8-24 h), enzyme load (5-15 Wt.%), and fatty acids/glycerol ratio (3:1-4:1) and represented by Ti, En, and Sb, respectively. Best-fitting models were successfully established for both MLCT yield (R 2 = 0.9507) and residual FFA (R 2 = 0.9315) established by multiple regressions with backward elimination. Optimal reaction conditions were 13.6-14.0 h for reaction time, 7.9-8.0 Wt.% for enzyme load, and 3:1 for fatty acids/glycerol molar ratio. Chi-square test showed that there were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the observed and predicted values of both models. Refined MLCT fat blend had sufficient solid fat at room temperature and made it suitable to use as a hard stock in shortening and margarine production. © 2010 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. Source

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