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Petaling Jaya, Malaysia

Gani S.S.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Basri M.,University Putra Malaysia | Rahman M.B.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Kassim A.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents | Year: 2011

Engkabang fat esters were synthesized from engkabang fat using an enzyme as catalyst. The main composition of the fat esters were oleyl palmitate, oleyl stearate and oleyl oleate. The percentage yield was 93.67%. Ternary phase diagrams systems containing fat esters/surfactant/water were constructed. Several regions appeared in the ternary phase diagrams such as isotropic, homogenous, liquid crystal, two-phase and three-phase regions. Increasing the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance value of the used surfactants gave a larger homogenous and isotropic region in ternary phase diagrams of engkabang fat esters/nonionic surfactant/deionized water. Isotropic and homogenous regions in the ternary phase diagram of engkabang fat esters: PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil (2:1)/polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan tri-oleate/deionized water, was the largest when compared to the other ternary phase diagrams. The isotropic and homogenous region can be used as a medium in formulation of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products such as creams, lotions, balms and lipsticks. © AOCS 2010. Source


Loong C.Y.,Sime Darby Plantation | Said Sajap A.,University Putra Malaysia | Mohd Noor H.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Omar D.,University Putra Malaysia | Abood F.,University Putra Malaysia
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2013

One of the impediments to the success of entomopathogenic fungi for controlling insect pests in the field is their sensitivity to solar radiation, UV-B in particular. Their sensitivity to UV, however, can be minimized by adding materials that can block the radiation from reaching the conidia. In this study, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize) isolated from field collected bag worms, Pteroma pendula (Joannis) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) were formulated with UV protectants and tested for their pathogenicity on their original host. Both fungi were infective to the bagworms. The median effective concentrations (EC50) were 2×105.10 and 2×105.17 conidia mL-1 for I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae, respectively. At concentration of 2×109 conidia mL-1 of either I. fumosorosea or M. anisopliae recorded the lowest LT50 values at 5.72 and 5.40 days, respectively. Less than 10% of the conidia germinated after 12 h of exposure to UV- B and solar radiation. When the conidia were formulated as a wettable powder in kaolin, with or without Tinopal LPW, a significant sunlight radiation and UV-B protection was achieved up to 12 h of exposure. More than 80% of the conidia germinated. Tinopal LPW, however, did not significantly improve efficacy of the formulation, although recorded a better conidia protection than those without Tinopal LPW. A field trial using M. anisopliae and I. fumosorosea conidia without Tinopal LPW achieved 58 and 68% control, respectively, while Dipel®, a Bacillus thuringiensis product, exceeded 80% control. Even though both isolates were less effective than Dipel® but these indigenous pathogens could effectively reduced the pest population to less than 50%. They need to be conserved and/or augmented so that bagworms can be suppressed with minimal disruption to the ecological balance. © 2013 Academic Journals Inc. Source


Cheah T.W.,National University of Malaysia | Ismail I.,National University of Malaysia | Sidek N.M.,National University of Malaysia | Wagiran A.,University of Technology Malaysia | Abdullah R.,Sime Darby Plantation
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2013

In this research, the fatty acid pathway was modified to produce the C20 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by co-expression the genes encoding omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (SK-FAD3) from Saccharomyces kluyveri, δ9-elongase (IgASE1) from Isochrysis galbana, δ8-desaturase (efd1) from Euglena gracilis and δ5-desaturase from Mortierella alpina (Mortδ5) in japonica rice plant through Agrobacterium tumafaciens transformation method. The Southern hybridization analysis has confirmed the integration of these four transgenes and showed the presence of one copy number for each transgene in all five lines of T0 transgenic rice (T0-1, T0-2, T0-3, T0-4 and T0-5). The GC analysis showed the presence of new fatty acids eicosadienoic acid (EDA), eicosatrienoic acid (ETrA) and arachidonic (ARA) in transformed leaves of T0 and T1 compare to wild type. Further analysis of total fatty acid content in seeds showed that linolenic acids (LA) was increased at 1-2% in T0-2, T0-4 and T0-5 while a-linolenic acid (ALA) content accumulated up to 0.2% in T0-4 of transformed plant. Source


Makpol S.,National University of Malaysia | Jam F.A.,National University of Malaysia | Khor S.C.,National University of Malaysia | Ismail Z.,Sime Darby Plantation | And 2 more authors.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2013

Biodynes, tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), and tocopherol have shown antiaging properties. However, the combined effects of these compounds on skin aging are yet to be investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the skin aging effects of biodynes, TRF, and tocopherol on stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) model of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) by determining the expression of collagen and MMPs at gene and protein levels. Primary HDFs were treated with biodynes, TRF, and tocopherol prior to hydrogen peroxide (H2O 2) exposure. The expression of COL1A1, COL3A1, MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, and MMP9 genes was determined by qRT-PCR. Type I and type III procollagen proteins were measured by Western blotting while the activities of MMPs were quantified by fluorometric Sensolyte MMP Kit. Our results showed that biodynes, TRF, and tocopherol upregulated collagen genes and downregulated MMP genes (P < 0.05). Type I procollagen and type III procollagen protein levels were significantly increased in response to biodynes, TRF, and tocopherol treatment (P < 0.05) with reduction in MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 activities (P < 0.05). These findings indicated that biodynes, TRF, and tocopherol effectively enhanced collagen synthesis and inhibited collagen degradation and therefore may protect the skin from aging. © 2013 Suzana Makpol et al. Source


Abd Gani S.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Basri M.,University Putra Malaysia | Abdul Rahman M.B.,University Putra Malaysia | Abdul Rahman M.B.,Malaysia Genome Institute | And 4 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Formulations containing engkabang fat and engkabang fat esters, F10 and E15 respectively were prepared using a high-shear homogenizer, followed by a high-pressure homogenizer. Both formulations were stable at room temperature, at 45°C, and after undergoing freeze-thaw cycles. The particle sizes of F10 and E15 after high pressure were 115.75 nm and 148.41 nm respectively. The zeta potentials of F10 and E15 were - 36.4 m V and - 48.8 m V respectively, while, the pH values of F10 and E15 were 5.59 and 5.81 respectively. The rheology of F10 and E15 showed thixotropy and pseudoplastic behavior respectively. There were no bacteria or fungal growths in the samples. The short- term moisturizing effect on 20 subjects analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), gave P-values of 7.35 × 10-12 and 2.77 x 10-15 for F10 and E15 respectively. The hydration of the skins increased after application of F10 and E15 with p-value below 0.05. Source

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