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Azam Y.J.,University of Manchester | Machavaram K.K.,Simcyp Ltd A Certara Company | Rostami-Hodjegan A.,University of Manchester | Rostami-Hodjegan A.,Simcyp Ltd A Certara Company
Current Drug Metabolism | Year: 2014

The cytochrome P450 family of enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. While genotypic variation can contribute to the inter-individual variability in drug metabolism, individuals sharing the same genotype for an enzyme can still show considerable variability in drug metabolising capacity by that enzyme. It is well recognised that in some disease states (e.g. inflammation, infection, diabetes) or other physiological conditions (e.g. pregnancy), the clearance of drugs may significantly alter, possibly via modulation of drug metabolising enzymes by varying levels of endogenous substances. This review investigates the current knowledge on the modulating effects of various endogenous substances on DMEs in vitro and possible utility of available in vitro data for quantitative prediction of clinical outcome. It is postulated that understanding and estimating the inter-individual variability in DMEs within each population might be possible by application of in vitro in vivo extrapolation linked physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling. However, in vitro information for building such quantitative relationships is currently not abundant. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

Harwood M.D.,Simcyp Ltd A Certara Company | Harwood M.D.,University of Manchester | Neuhoff S.,Simcyp Ltd A Certara Company | Carlson G.L.,University of Manchester | And 3 more authors.
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition | Year: 2013

The use of whole body physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models linked with in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of kinetic parameters from laboratory experiments, has become embedded within many of the pharmaceutical industry and is used even as part of regulatory submissions. These include the influence of transporter proteins on drug disposition, a subject for which we have witnessed an increasing awareness. A combination of the development of high-powered analytical techniques and antibody-based technology, together with a realization that an understanding of absolute transporter protein abundances together with activity can potentially enhance the modelling of transporter kinetics by PBPK-IVIVE link models. This review summarizes the mechanistic approaches to integrate suitable non-biased in vitro transporter kinetic data relevant to the intestine (i.e. 'intrinsic' Ki, 'intrinsic' K m), by in vitro system modelling for these kinetic inputs with the advantages of, and challenges for, generating these data for input into PBPK models. This step is considered as a prerequisite for mechanistic modelling of the oral absorption for drugs that are substrates for transporters. Various approaches are provided to integrate intestinal transporter expression into PBPK models with a perspective on the incorporation of the absolute abundance/activity of transporters to enhance the predictive power of the models. We define the key intestinal tissue and functional expression-based scaling factors required. The objective is to use these for facilitating the extrapolation from in vitro intestinal transporter assays to the in vivo system, using absolute quantification methodologies. The models could be used to elucidate the complex relationship and relative importance of metabolizing enzymes and transporters in drug disposition and toxicity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Musther H.,Simcyp Ltd A Certara Company | Olivares-Morales A.,University of Manchester | Hatley O.J.D.,University of Manchester | Liu B.,Simcyp Ltd A Certara Company | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Oral bioavailability is a key consideration in development of drug products, and the use of preclinical species in predicting bioavailability in human has long been debated. In order to clarify whether any correlation between human and animal bioavailability exist, an extensive analysis of the published literature data was conducted. Due to the complex nature of bioavailability calculations inclusion criteria were applied to ensure integrity of the data. A database of 184 compounds was assembled. Linear regression for the reported compounds indicated no strong or predictive correlations to human data for all species, individually and combined. The lack of correlation in this extended dataset highlights that animal bioavailability is not quantitatively predictive of bioavailability in human. Although qualitative (high/low bioavailability) indications might be possible, models taking into account species-specific factors that may affect bioavailability are recommended for developing quantitative prediction. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rostami-Hodjegan A.,University of Manchester | Rostami-Hodjegan A.,Simcyp Ltd A Certara Company
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Classic pharmacokinetics (PK) rarely takes into account the full knowledge of physiology and biology of the human body. However, physiologically based PK (PBPK) is built mainly from drug-independent "system" information. PBPK is not a new concept, but it has shown a very rapid rise in recent years. This has been attributed to a greater connectivity to in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) techniques for predicting drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) and their variability in humans. The marriage between PBPK and IVIVE under the overarching umbrella of "systems biology" has removed many constraints related to cutoff approaches on prediction of ADME. PBPK-IVIVE linked models have repeatedly shown their value in guiding decisions when predicting the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on PK of drugs. A review of the achievements and shortcomings of the models might suggest better strategies in extending the success of PBPK-IVIVE to pharmacodynamics (PD) and drug safety.

Badee J.,University of Manchester | Achour B.,University of Manchester | Rostami-Hodjegan A.,University of Manchester | Rostami-Hodjegan A.,Simcyp Ltd a Certara Company | Galetin A.,University of Manchester
Drug Metabolism and Disposition | Year: 2015

Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 transporters play an important role in hepatic drug disposition. Recently, an increasing number of studies have reported proteomic expression data for OATP transporters. However, systematic analysis and understanding of the actual differences in OATP expression between liver tissue and commonly used cellular systems is lacking. In the current study, meta-analysis was performed to assess the protein expression of OATP transporters reported in hepatocytes relative to liver tissue and to identify any potential correlations in transporter expression levels in the same individual. OATP1B1 was identified as the most abundant uptake transporter at 5.9 ± 8.3, 5.8 ± 3.3, and 4.2 ± 1.7 fmol/μg protein in liver tissue, sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH), and cryopreserved suspended hepatocytes, respectively. The rank order in average expression in liver tissue and cellular systems was OATP1B1 > OATP1B3 ≈ OATP2B1. Abundance levels of the OATP transporters investigated were not significantly different between liver and cellular systems, with the exception of OATP2B1 expression in SCHH relative to liver tissue. Analysis of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 liver expression data in the same individuals (n = 86) identified weak (OATP1B1-OATP2B1) to moderately (OATP1B3-OATP2B1) significant correlations. A significant weak correlation was noted between OATP1B1 abundance and age of human donors, whereas expression of the OATPs investigated was independent of sex. Implications of the current analysis on the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of transporter-mediated drug disposition using physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are discussed. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Abduljalil K.,Simcyp Ltd. A Certara Company | Jamei M.,Simcyp Ltd. A Certara Company | Rostami-Hodjegan A.,Simcyp Ltd. A Certara Company | Rostami-Hodjegan A.,University of Manchester | Johnson T.N.,Simcyp Ltd. A Certara Company
AAPS Journal | Year: 2014

Although both POPPK and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models can account for age and other covariates within a paediatric population, they generally do not account for real-time growth and maturation of the individuals through the time course of drug exposure; this may be significant in prolonged neonatal studies. The major objective of this study was to introduce age progression into a paediatric PBPK model, to allow for continuous updating of anatomical, physiological and biological processes in each individual subject over time. The Simcyp paediatric PBPK model simulator system parameters were reanalysed to assess the impact of re-defining the individual over the study period. A schedule for re-defining parameters within the Simcyp paediatric simulator, for each subject, over a prolonged study period, was devised to allow seamless prediction of pharmacokinetics (PK). The model was applied to predict concentration-time data from multiday studies on sildenafil and phenytoin performed in neonates. Among PBPK system parameters, CYP3A4 abundance was one of the fastest changing covariates and a 1-h re-sampling schedule was needed for babies below age 3.5 days in order to seamlessly predict PK (<5% change in abundance) with subject maturation. The re-sampling frequency decreased as age increased, reaching biweekly by 6 months of age. The PK of both sildenafil and phenytoin were predicted better at the end of a prolonged study period using the time varying vs fixed PBPK models. Paediatric PBPK models which account for time-varying system parameters during prolonged studies may provide more mechanistic PK predictions in neonates and infants. © 2014 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.

Jamei M.,Simcyp Ltd A Certara Company | Bajot F.,Simcyp Ltd A Certara Company | Neuhoff S.,Simcyp Ltd A Certara Company | Barter Z.,Simcyp Ltd A Certara Company | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Pharmacokinetics | Year: 2014

Background and Objectives: The interplay between liver metabolising enzymes and transporters is a complex process involving system-related parameters such as liver blood perfusion as well as drug attributes including protein and lipid binding, ionisation, relative magnitude of passive and active permeation. Metabolism- and/or transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (mDDIs and tDDIs) add to the complexity of this interplay. Thus, gaining meaningful insight into the impact of each element on the disposition of a drug and accurately predicting drug-drug interactions becomes very challenging. To address this, an in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE)-linked mechanistic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) framework for modelling liver transporters and their interplay with liver metabolising enzymes has been developed and implemented within the Simcyp Simulator®. Methods: In this article an IVIVE technique for liver transporters is described and a full-body PBPK model is developed. Passive and active (saturable) transport at both liver sinusoidal and canalicular membranes are accounted for and the impact of binding and ionisation processes is considered. The model also accommodates tDDIs involving inhibition of multiple transporters. Integrating prior in vitro information on the metabolism and transporter kinetics of rosuvastatin (organic-anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1, OAT1B3 and OATP2B1, sodium-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide [NTCP] and breast cancer resistance protein [BCRP]) with one clinical dataset, the PBPK model was used to simulate the drug disposition of rosuvastatin for 11 reported studies that had not been used for development of the rosuvastatin model. Results: The simulated area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), maximum concentration (C max) and the time to reach C max (t max) values of rosuvastatin over the dose range of 10-80 mg, were within 2-fold of the observed data. Subsequently, the validated model was used to investigate the impact of coadministration of cyclosporine (ciclosporin), an inhibitor of OATPs, BCRP and NTCP, on the exposure of rosuvastatin in healthy volunteers. Conclusion: The results show the utility of the model to integrate a wide range of in vitro and in vivo data and simulate the outcome of clinical studies, with implications for their design. © 2013 The Author(s).

Naidoo P.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Chetty V.V.,Novartis | Chetty M.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Chetty M.,Simcyp Ltd. A Certara Company
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Purpose: Differences in drug metabolism due to cytochrome P450 (CYP) polymorphisms may be significant enough to warrant different dosing strategies in carriers of specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) polymorphisms, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. The impact of such polymorphisms on drug plasma concentrations and the resulting dosing strategies are presented in this review, using the example of efavirenz (EFV). Methods: A structured literature search was performed to extract information pertaining to EFV metabolism and the influence of polymorphisms of CYP2B6, ethnicity, sex and drug interactions on plasma concentrations of EFV. The corresponding dosing strategies developed for carriers of specific CYP2B6 genotypes were also reviewed. Results: The polymorphic CYP2B6 enzyme, which is the major enzyme in the EFV metabolic pathway, is a key determinant for the significant inter-individual differences seen in EFV pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PKPD). Ethnic differences and the associated prevalence of CYP2B6 polymorphisms result in significant differences in the PKPD associated with a standard 600 mg per day dose of EFV, warranting dosage reduction in carriers of specific CYP2B6 polymorphisms. Drug interactions and auto-induction also influence EFV PKPD significantly. Conclusion: Using EFV as an example of a drug with a narrow therapeutic index and a high inter-patient variability in plasma concentrations corresponding to a standard dose of the drug, this review demonstrates how genotyping of the primary metabolising enzyme can be useful for appropriate dosage adjustments in individuals. However, other variables such as drug interactions and auto-induction may necessitate plasma concentration measurements as well, prior to personalising the dose. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

Barter Z.E.,Simcyp Ltd A Certara Company | Tucker G.T.,Simcyp Ltd A Certara Company | Tucker G.T.,University of Sheffield | Rowland-Yeo K.,Simcyp Ltd A Certara Company
Clinical Pharmacokinetics | Year: 2013

Background: International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines emphasize the need for better understanding of the influence of ethnicity on drug response to minimize duplication of clinical studies, thereby expediting drug approval. Objectives: We have developed a Chinese database for the prediction of differences in the population kinetics of drugs mainly metabolized by cytochromes P450 (CYPs) relative to Caucasian populations. Such predictions should help to inform the need for duplication of in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in the two ethnic groups and the design of such studies. Methods: Demographic and physiological data for Chinese, along with information on CYP abundances and the frequencies of associated genetic polymorphisms in Chinese, were collated from literature sources and incorporated within the Simcyp Population-based Simulator® (v11.1). Default Simcyp parameter values for a virtual Caucasian population and for model compounds metabolized principally by specific CYPs were used as the point of reference. The drugs and the main CYPs involved in their metabolism were phenacetin (CYP1A2), desipramine (CYP2D6), tolbutamide (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), and alprazolam and midazolam (CYP3A). Hydroxy bupropion formation was used as a more sensitive marker of CYP2B6 activity than bupropion kinetics. Observed plasma drug concentration-time profiles and pharmacokinetic parameters after oral and, where possible, intravenous dosing were obtained from published in vivo studies in both Chinese and Caucasian subjects. Virtual subjects generated within Simcyp were matched to the subjects used in the in vivo studies with respect to age, sex, dosage and, where possible, CYP phenotype frequency. Predicted and observed plasma drug concentrations and weight-normalized clearances were compared between the ethnic groups. Results: Significant differences were identified between Chinese and Caucasian populations in the frequency of CYP2C19 poor metabolizers (PMs) [Chinese 13 %; Caucasian 2.4 %], CYP2D6 PMs and intermediate metabolizers (IMs) [Chinese PMs 0.3 %, IMs 39 %; Caucasian PMs 8 %, IMs <1 %], the hepatic abundance of CYP2C19 (mean values: Chinese 8 pmol/mg; Caucasian 14 pmol/mg) and liver weight (mean values: Chinese 1198 g; Caucasian 1603 g). The observed plasma drug concentration-time profiles and weight-normalized clearances were predicted with reasonable accuracy (100 % within twofold; 89 % within 1.5-fold) in both ethnic groups. The predicted phenacetin, tolbutamide, omeprazole, desipramine, midazolam (intravenous), midazolam (oral), alprazolam (intravenous) and alprazolam (oral) clearances were 36, 25, 51, 43, 24, 17, 21 and 22 % lower, respectively, in Chinese than in Caucasians; the observed clearances were 28, 2, 75, 42, 19, 62, 20 and 21 % lower, respectively. Predicted and observed formation of hydroxy bupropion was lower in Caucasians than in Chinese (6 and 20 %, respectively). Differences between ethnic groups were less after normalization for body weight. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the value of simulation based on mechanistic physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling (PBPK) in anticipating the likely extent of any differences in the kinetics of CYP substrates in Chinese and Caucasian populations arising from demographic, physiological and genetic differences. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Glinka A.,Jagiellonian University | Polak S.,Jagiellonian University | Polak S.,Simcyp Ltd a Certara Company
Computers in Biology and Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Many drugs (belonging to different chemical groups) have the potential for QT interval prolongation associated with ionic channel blockade in the cardiomyocyte membrane. Due to the fact that this phenomenon is linked to a higher risk of TdP, the ability to predict its scale is one of the most important outcomes of cardiotoxicity assessment of new agents. Methods: With use of the Cardiac Safety Simulator (CSS), the effect of six antipsychotic drugs was predicted in silico. Separate simulations were carried out for each studied population taking the drug. The aim of this study was to predict both the mean values of delta QTc and the results range. To be able to observe individual variability after drug administration, each patient was randomly assigned to the individual drug concentration. Also, appropriate diversity in heart rate, plasma electrolytes concentrations, morphometric parameters of ventricular myocytes, and one common hERG polymorphism frequency in population were added. Results: Analyzing the results of simulation with Student[U+05F3]s t-test, in five of six cases, there were no statistically significant differences between observed and predicted mean values. The diversity of results in all populations studied, however, was not fully reconstructed. Discussion: The model was able to accurately reproduce the average effect of the drug on the length when the phenomenon is associated purely with blocking of ionic channels. Nevertheless, the problem of variability in the population and its effect on the QT interval requires further study. © 2014.

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