Cachoeirinha, Brazil
Cachoeirinha, Brazil

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Fraga A.P.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Fraga A.P.,Grande Rio University | Balestrin E.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Ikuta N.,Lutheran University of Brazil | And 4 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2013

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the agent of a highly contagious disease that affects domestic fowl (Gallus gallus). Recent reports showed a high prevalence of one main IBV genotype (Brazil or BR-I) with low genetic diversity in commercial poultry flocks from Brazil. This research analyzed IBV positive poultry flocks from different rearing regions to verify the S1 gene variability and geographic distribution of variant IBV strains in recent years (2010 and 2011). Samples of IBV-positive flocks were obtained from 60 different farms. Forty-nine partial S1 gene sequences were determined and aligned for phylogenetic and amino acid similarity analyses. Eleven samples (22.4%) were similar to Massachusetts vaccine strains (Mass genotype) and 34 samples (69.4%) to the previously characterized Brazilian BR-I genotype. Interestingly, the remaining four samples (8.2%) clustered into a new IBV variant genotype (Brazil-II or BR-II), divergent from the BR-I. A unique nucleotide sequence insertion coding for five amino acid residues was observed in all the Brazilian variant viruses (BR-I and BR-II genotypes). These results show a higher genetic diversity in Brazilian IBV variants than previously described. © American Association of Avian Pathologists.


Coser J.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Coser J.,University of Cruz Alta | Boeira T.R.,Simbios Biotecnologia | Simon D.,Lutheran University of Brazil | And 3 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2013

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common viral sexually transmitted infection and the main cause of cervical cancer in women worldwide. Epidemiological data on the prevalence of HPV in a given population is essential for the establishment of effective prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to determine HPV prevalence in women who attended a public health service within an urban center in Brazil. Cervical samples were collected from 337 women recruited from a primary public health care clinic in the city of Cruz Alta located in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost State of Brazil. Samples were analyzed for HPV DNA and with Pap smear screening tests. HPV was detected in 114 (34%) women. HPV type analysis revealed that 95 (83.3%) of those represented infections with a single genotype, while 19 (16.7%) were mixed genotype infections. High- and low-risk HPV genotypes were detected in 83 (72.8%) and 48 (42.1%) samples, respectively. Furthermore, a great diversity of HPV genotypes was observed (18 high-risk, 12 low-risk, and 1 indeterminate). The most commonly identified low-risk types were candHPV62 (7.9%) and 61 (5.3%), while the most common high-risk types were 16 and 33 (8.8% each). Abnormal cytology was observed in 10 (3.0%) women, 9 of which were infected with HPV. Of the remaining 327 women with normal cytology results, 107 (32.7%) were positive for HPV DNA. HPV infection was correlated with younger age (less than 40 years), a first Pap smear, and other vaginal infections. © FUNPEC-RP.


Coser J.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Coser J.,University of Cruz Alta | Boeira T.D.R.,Technical Manager | Kazantzi Fonseca A.S.,Simbios Biotecnologia | And 2 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: It is clinically important to detect and type human papillomavirus (HPV) in a sensitive and specific manner. Objectives: Development of a nested-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (nested-PCR-RFLP) assay to detect and type HPV based on the analysis of L1 gene. Methods: Analysis of published DNA sequence of mucosal HPV types to select sequences of new primers. Design of an original nested-PCR assay using the new primers pair selected and classical MY09/11 primers. HPV detection and typing in cervical samples using the nested-PCR-RFLP assay. Results: The nested-PCR-RFLP assay detected and typed HPV in cervical samples. Of the total of 128 clinical samples submitted to simple PCR and nested-PCR for detection of HPV, 37 (28.9%) were positive for the virus by both methods and 25 samples were positive only by nested-PCR (67.5% increase in detection rate compared with single PCR). All HPV positive samples were effectively typed by RFLP assay. Conclusion: The method of nested-PCR proved to be an effective diagnostic tool for HPV detection and typing. © 2011 Elsevier Editora Ltda.


Balestrin E.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Fraga A.P.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Ikuta N.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Canal C.W.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

Avian infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious viral disease with economic effects on poultry agribusiness. The disease presents multi-systemic clinical signs (respiratory, renal, enteric, and reproductive) and is caused by one coronavirus (infectious bronchitis virus, IBV). Infectious bronchitis virus is classified into different serotypes and genotypes (vaccine strains and field variants). This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of IBV in commercial poultry flocks from 3 important producing regions in Brazil and to determine the tropism of the main circulating genotypes to 3 different avian physiological systems (respiratory, digestive, urinary/reproductive). Clinical samples with suggestive signs of IBV infection were collected from 432 different poultry commercial flocks (198 from broilers and 234 from breeders). The total number of biological samples consisted of organ pools from the 3 above physiological systems obtained of farms from 3 important producing regions: midwest, northeast, and south. Infectious bronchitis virus was detected by reverse-transcription, real-time PCR of the 5′ untranslated region. The results showed 179 IBV-positive flocks (41.4% of the flocks), with 107 (24.8%) from broilers and 72 (16.8%) from breeders. There were similar frequencies of IBV-positive flocks in farms from different regions of the country, most often in broilers (average 54%) compared with breeders (average 30.8%). reverse-transcription was more frequently detected in the digestive system of breeders (40%), and in the digestive (43.5%) and respiratory (37.7%) systems of broilers. Infectious bronchitis virus genotyping was performed by a reverse-transcription nested PCR and sequencing of the S1 gene from a selection of 79 IBV-positive flocks (45 from broilers and 34 from breeders). The majority of the flocks were infected with Brazilian variant genotype than with Massachusetts vaccine genotype. These results demonstrate the predominance of the Brazilian variant (mainly in the enteric tract) in commercial poultry flocks from 3 important producing regions in Brazil. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Casanova Y.S.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Boeira T.R.,Simbios Biotecnologia | Sisti E.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Celmer A.,Simbios Biotecnologia | And 4 more authors.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2014

Introduction: Molecular biology procedures to detect, genotype and quantify hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in clinical samples have been extensively described. Routine commercial methods for each specifi c purpose (detection, quantifi cation and genotyping) are also available, all of which are typically based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the HCV 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). This study was performed to develop and validate a complete serial laboratory assay that combines real-time nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques for the complete molecular analysis of HCV (detection, genotyping and viral load) in clinical samples. Methods: Published HCV sequences were compared to select specifi c primers, probe and restriction enzyme sites. An original real-time nested RT-PCRRFLP assay was then developed and validated to detect, genotype and quantify HCV in plasma samples. Results: The real-time nested RT-PCR data were linear and reproducible for HCV analysis in clinical samples. High correlations (> 0.97) were observed between samples with different viral loads and the corresponding read cycle (Ct - Cycle threshold), and this part of the assay had a wide dynamic range of analysis. Additionally, HCV genotypes 1, 2 and 3 were successfully distinguished using the RFLP method. Conclusions: A complete serial molecular assay was developed and validated for HCV detection, quantifi cation and genotyping.


De Carli S.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Ikuta N.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Lehmann F.K.M.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Da Silveira V.P.,Lutheran University of Brazil | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2015

Escherichia coli is a commensal bacterium of the bird's intestinal tract, but it can invade different tissues resulting in systemic symptoms (colibacillosis). This disease occurs only when the E. coli infecting strain presents virulence factors (encoded by specific genes) that enable the adhesion and proliferation in the host organism. Thus, it is important to differentiate pathogenic (APEC, avian pathogenic E. coli) and nonpathogenic or fecal (AFEC, avian fecal E. coli) isolates. Previous studies analyzed the occurrence of virulence factors in E. coli strains isolated from birds with colibacillosis, demonstrating a high frequency of the bacterial genes cvaC, iroN, iss, iutA, sitA, tsh, fyuA, irp- 2, ompT and hlyF in pathogenic strains. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence and frequency of these virulence genes in E. coli isolated from poultry flocks in Brazil. A total of 138 isolates of E. coli was obtained from samples of different tissues and/or organs (spleen, liver, kidney, trachea, lungs, skin, ovary, oviduct, intestine, cloaca) and environmental swabs collected from chicken and Turkey flocks suspected to have colibacillosis in farms from the main Brazilian producing regions. Total DNA was extracted and the 10 virulence genes were detected by traditional and/or real-time PCR. At least 11 samples of each gene were sequenced and compared to reference strains. All 10 virulence factors were detected in Brazilian E. coli isolates, with frequencies ranging from 39.9% (irp-2) to 68.8% (hlyF and sitA). Moreover, a high nucleotide similarity (over 99%) was observed between gene sequences of Brazilian isolates and reference strains. Seventy-nine isolates were defined as pathogenic (APEC) and 59 as fecal (AFEC) based on previously described criteria. In conclusion, the main virulence genes of the reference E. coli strains are also present in isolates associated with colibacillosis in Brazil. The analysis of this set of virulence factors can be used to differentiate between APEC and AFEC isolates in Brazil. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Fraga A.P.,Lutheran University of Brazil | De Vargas T.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Ikuta N.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Fonseca A.S.K.,Simbios Biotecnologia | And 3 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2013

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MS) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) are important avian pathogens and cause economic losses to the poultry industry. Molecular biology techniques are currently used for a rapid detection of these pathogens and the adoption of control measures of the diseases. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a technique for simultaneous detection of MG and MS by multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The complete assay (Multiplex MGMS) was designed with primers and probes specific for each pathogen and developed to be carried out in a single tube reaction. Vaccines, MG and MS isolates and DNA from other Mycoplasma species were used for the development and validation of the method. Further, 78 pooled clinical samples from different poultry flocks in Brazil were obtained and used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the technique in comparison to 2 real time PCR assays specific for MG (MG PCR) and MS (MS PCR). The results demonstrated an agreement of 100% (23 positive and 44 negative samples) between Multiplex MGMS and MG PCR in the analysis of 67 samples from MG positive and negative poultry flocks, and an agreement of 96.9% between Multiplex MGMS and MS PCR in the analysis of 64 samples from MS positive and negative poultry flocks. Considering the single amplification tests as the gold standard, the Multiplex MGMS showed 100% of specificity and sensitivity in the MG analysis and 94.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity in the MS analysis. This new assay could be used for rapid analysis of MG and MS in the poultry industry laboratories. © 2013, Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia.


Marx C.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Gregianini T.S.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica Do Rio Grande Do Sul | Lehmann F.K.M.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Lunge V.R.,Lutheran University of Brazil | And 6 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2013

The neuraminidase (NA) genes of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus isolates from 306 infected patients were analysed. The circulation of oseltamivir-resistant viruses in Brazil has not been reported previously. Clinical samples were collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) from 2009-2011 and two NA inhibitor-resistant mutants were identified, one in 2009 (H275Y) and the other in 2011 (S247N). This study revealed a low prevalence of resistant viruses (0.8%) with no spread of the resistant mutants throughout RS.


PubMed | Simbios Biotecnologia and Lutheran University of Brazil
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2015

Escherichia coli is a commensal bacterium of the birds intestinal tract, but it can invade different tissues resulting in systemic symptoms (colibacillosis). This disease occurs only when the E. coli infecting strain presents virulence factors (encoded by specific genes) that enable the adhesion and proliferation in the host organism. Thus, it is important to differentiate pathogenic (APEC, avian pathogenic E. coli) and non-pathogenic or fecal (AFEC, avian fecal E. coli) isolates. Previous studies analyzed the occurrence of virulence factors in E. coli strains isolated from birds with colibacillosis, demonstrating a high frequency of the bacterial genes cvaC, iroN, iss, iutA, sitA, tsh, fyuA, irp-2, ompT and hlyF in pathogenic strains. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence and frequency of these virulence genes in E. coli isolated from poultry flocks in Brazil. A total of 138 isolates of E. coli was obtained from samples of different tissues and/or organs (spleen, liver, kidney, trachea, lungs, skin, ovary, oviduct, intestine, cloaca) and environmental swabs collected from chicken and turkey flocks suspected to have colibacillosis in farms from the main Brazilian producing regions. Total DNA was extracted and the 10 virulence genes were detected by traditional and/or real-time PCR. At least 11 samples of each gene were sequenced and compared to reference strains. All 10 virulence factors were detected in Brazilian E. coli isolates, with frequencies ranging from 39.9% (irp-2) to 68.8% (hlyF and sitA). Moreover, a high nucleotide similarity (over 99%) was observed between gene sequences of Brazilian isolates and reference strains. Seventy-nine isolates were defined as pathogenic (APEC) and 59 as fecal (AFEC) based on previously described criteria. In conclusion, the main virulence genes of the reference E. coli strains are also present in isolates associated with colibacillosis in Brazil. The analysis of this set of virulence factors can be used to differentiate between APEC and AFEC isolates in Brazil.


PubMed | Simbios Biotecnologia and Lutheran University of Brazil
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2016

Conventional and genetically modified (GM) maize cultivars have been widely planted in Brazil to produce grains for processed food, feed, or to be consumed fresh as corn ears. This study used real-time PCR to detect GM maize in processed products and fresh commercial corn ears produced in the last two years in South Brazil. Eighteen conventional and GM maize cultivars were obtained from seed production companies and 50 commercial samples (including canned corn, corn flour, dry grains, and fresh corn ears) were purchased in small local stores and supermarkets. All samples were analyzed by real time TaqMan PCR to detect one constitutive maize gene (hmg) and three genetic regions present in GM plants (p-35S promoter, major gene cry 1A.105, and t-Nos terminator). Each commercial sample was classified as conventional or GM based on the PCR results. PCR targeting the hmg gene generated positive results from all DNA samples, which were further tested with the GM targets. These targets were not detected in the five conventional maize cultivars, but were detected in the GM seeds hosting these fragments. Analysis of processed foods identified four cultivars as conventional and six as GM, which were mostly correctly labeled. Seven (53.8%) dry grain samples were classified as conventional, while six (46.2%) were classified as GM. Three (11.1%) corn ear samples were identified as conventional, and the remaining 24 (88.9%) were GM maize. These results demonstrate the high frequency of GM maize in processed products, including fresh corn ears intended for consumption in South Brazil.

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