Silsoe, United Kingdom
Silsoe, United Kingdom

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Butler Ellis M.C.,Silsoe Spray Application Unit | Lane A.G.,Silsoe Spray Application Unit | O'Sullivan C.M.,Silsoe Spray Application Unit | Miller P.C.H.,Silsoe Spray Application Unit | Glass C.R.,UK Environment Agency
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2010

Experimental measurements were made of airborne spray, ground deposits and potential bystander dermal exposure under field conditions, using application techniques representative of those typically used in UK arable crops. Measured values of bystander dermal exposure were greater than those currently used in the UK regulatory risk assessment (Lloyd & Bell, 1983). This was as expected since compared with the earlier study a greater boom height and reduced distances between bystander and sprayer were used. Measurements of airborne spray were correlated with measurements of bystander exposure in order to define the relationship between the two so that model predictions of airborne spray can be mapped to bystander dermal exposure in the Bystander and Residential Exposure Assessment Model (BREAM). © 2010 IAgrE.


Butler Ellis M.C.,Silsoe Spray Application Unit | Underwood B.,Ricardo PLC | Peirce M.J.,Ricardo PLC | Walker C.T.,Ricardo PLC | Miller P.C.H.,Silsoe Spray Application Unit
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2010

Evaluation of the potential exposure of bystanders and residents to pesticide vapour emitted from treated agricultural fields is an important component of risk assessment in the pesticide approval process. The information available for the development of a revised exposure assessment is reviewed and a new methodology proposed. Dispersion of vapours downwind of the treated field can be successfully modelled using commercially-available software, although there is no agreed method for predicting the emission of pesticide vapours from a treated field. The proposed exposure assessment model separates the emission of pesticide vapour from its downwind dispersion, allowing the latter to be tailored to UK conditions by using representative meteorological data. More work is needed to develop an appropriate model of emissions that can take into account environmental conditions and physico-chemical properties of the formulation. © 2010 IAgrE.


van den Berg F.,Wageningen University | Jacobs C.M.J.,Wageningen University | Butler Ellis M.C.,Silsoe Spray Application Unit | Spanoghe P.,Ghent University | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

Agricultural use of plant protection products can result in exposure of bystanders, residents, operators and workers. Within the European Union (EU) FP7 project BROWSE, a tool based on a set of models and scenarios has been developed, aiming to assess the risk of exposure of humans to these products. In the present version of the tool only a first conservative tier is available for outdoor vapour exposure assessment. In the vapour exposure evaluation, the target concentrations in air at 10 m distance from the edge of a treated field are calculated for specific scenarios for each EU regulatory zone. These scenarios have been selected to represent reasonable worst case volatilisation conditions. The exposure assessment is based on a series of weekly applications in a five year period to cover a wide range of meteorological conditions. The volatilisation from the crop is calculated using the PEARL model and this PEARL output provides the emission strength used as input for the short term version of the atmospheric transport model OPS. The combined PEARL-OPS model is tested against measurements from a field experiment. First results of this test show that the mean concentration level was predicted fairly well. However, sometimes the differences between observations and simulations were found to be substantial. Improvements are suggested for the vapour exposure scenarios as well as for further model development. In the current version of the BROWSE tool a simplified procedure is used to assess single and multiple applications. The actual period of application and the time of application during the day are fixed, and the growth stage of the crop cannot be taken into account. Moreover, competing processes such as penetration of the substance into the plant tissue are not considered. The effect of these factors on the target exposure concentrations is discussed. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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