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Dumaguete City, Philippines

Silliman University is a private research university in Dumaguete, Negros Oriental, Philippines. Established in 1901 as Silliman Institute by the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, it is the first American university in the Philippines and the entire Asian continent. The university is named after Dr. Horace Brinsmade Silliman, a retired businessman and philanthropist from Cohoes, New York who gave the initial sum of $10,000 to start the school. Starting as an elementary school for boys, the school expanded to become a college in 1910, acquiring university status in 1938. For the first half of the 20th century, Silliman was run and operated by Americans. After the Second World War Filipinos began to assume more important positions, culminating in the appointment of Silliman's first Filipino president in 1952.In terms of accreditation, Silliman is one of only five universities in the Philippines with "Institutional Accreditation" by the Federation of Accrediting Agencies of the Philippines . Institutional Accreditation is the highest certification that can be granted to an educational institution after an over-all examination of its number of accredited programs, the quality of its facilities, services and faculty. Incidentally, Silliman also has the highest number of accredited programs in the country fourteen of which are on Level IV accreditation status, the highest level that can be granted to individual programs.Today, the university comprises ten colleges, five schools, and three institutes, enrolling over 9,600 students from the Philippines and from at least 30 foreign countries. It is registered as a National Landmark by the National Historical Institute and is one of few private higher education institutions in the Philippines that have been granted full autonomous status by the Commission on Higher Education. It is also a founding member of the Association of Christian Universities and Colleges in Asia and one of the recognized institutions in the U.S. Veterans Administration's list of approved educational institutions. In 2014, the university ranked 47th as the most beautiful Christian university campus around the world.Silliman University offers programs in the early childhood, elementary, secondary, undergraduate and graduate levels. Programs in the undergraduate and graduate levels cover disciplines such as Arts, Accountancy, Agriculture, Business Administration, Engineering, English, Filipino, Information Technology, Law, Medicine, Nursing, Anthropology, Biology, Chemistry, Education, Economics, Foreign Languages, Journalism, Marine science, Nutrition, Music, Physics, Theology, Philosophy, Psychology, and Public Administration. In addition to its academic undertakings, the university is involved in research and community extension projects. Silliman's stature in the fields of environmental and marine science has led to its being designated by the USAID as a Center of Excellence in Coastal Resources Management. Wikipedia.


Manalo R.I.,Crocodylus Porosus Philippines Incorporated | Alcala A.C.,Crocodylus Porosus Philippines Incorporated | Alcala A.C.,Silliman University
International Zoo Yearbook | Year: 2015

The endemic Philippine crocodile Crocodylus mindorensis is one of the most Critically Endangered crocodilian species in the world. Four major captive-breeding programmes for the Philippine crocodile have greatly contributed to our knowledge about the biology and natural history of the species. In situ conservation actions, such as reintroduction, conservation breeding in large semi-wild areas with no supplementary feeding and head-starting programmes, could result in increasing the numbers of extant wild and semi-wild populations. If concerted efforts are directed at in situ and ex situ conservation, and locating quality habitats in which to establish new conservation sites for Philippine crocodiles, the species is likely to become widespread in the next few decades. Conservation measures that address species-specific issues promoting healthy viable populations in natural habitats are presented in this paper. © 2014 The Zoological Society of London. Source


Siler C.D.,University of Kansas | Diesmos A.C.,Herpetology Section | Alcala A.C.,Silliman University | Brown R.M.,University of Kansas
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

The spectacular, virtually endemic radiation of Philippine semi-fossorial skinks of the genus Brachymeles represent one of the few radiations of scincid lizards to possess both fully limbed and limbless species. And yet, nothing is known of the phylogenetic relationships of this exceptional group. Morphologically similar body plans have made it difficult to assess species-level diversity, and the genus has long been recognized as one of the more modest radiations of southeast Asian lizards. However, recent large-scale survey efforts have resulted in the discovery of numerous new species, and taxonomic studies indicate that the diversity within the genus Brachymeles is grossly underestimated. In this study we provide the first robust estimate of phylogenetic relationships within the genus Brachymeles using a multi-locus dataset and nearly complete taxonomic sampling. We provide statistical tests of monophyly for all polytypic species and two widespread limb-reduced species and our results indicate wholesale deviations from past summaries and taxonomic evaluations of the genus. With few exceptions, we are able to reject the monophyly of all polytypic and widespread species, thereby validating the need for large-scale taxonomic revisions. Our results reveal that the limbless, monotypic, genus Davewakeum is nested within Brachymeles. Mapping of body form on our preferred phylogenetic tree suggests that limb-reduction and digit loss has occurred on multiple occasions in the history of the genus. A Bayesian reconstruction of ancestral areas indicates strong statistical support for a minimum of five major dispersal events that have given rise to a major component of the observed species diversity on separate Pleistocene aggregate island platforms of the archipelago. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Hind E.J.,Northumbria University | Hiponia M.C.,Silliman University | Gray T.S.,Northumbria University
Marine Policy | Year: 2010

Before the mid-1990s, Apo Island, Philippines, was often described as one of the world's best examples of community-based marine management. This paper studies the less-documented transition of the island during the late 1990s from community-based management to centralised national state management. Extensive interviewing of islanders has revealed deep misgivings about the centralised regime-the Protected Area Management Board (PAMB). PAMB's aim of implementing the National Integrated Protected Areas Systems (NIPAS) Act was initially looked upon favourably by islanders, but it has lost that support because of its exclusion of stakeholders from management and its poor institutional performance. The paper's conclusion is that the implementation of the NIPAS Act highlights the limitations of top-down management, and that there is a need to restore an element of local stakeholder participation in the governance of Apo's marine protected area (MPA). A system of co-management between community and national state actors is essential to ensure the long-term sustainability of Apo's marine resources. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Russ G.R.,James Cook University | Alcala A.C.,Silliman University
Oecologia | Year: 2010

No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) provide hope that local carrying capacity may be partially restored if reserves are protected long enough. How long is long enough? We assess the duration of protection required for populations of large predatory reef fish in marine reserves to attain new steady states. We monitored biomass of large predatory fish in two marine reserves at Sumilon and Apo Islands, Philippines, almost annually for 26 years (1983-2009), and fit a logistic model to the data. As duration of reserve protection increased, biomass of predatory fish approached an asymptote, although the models suggest that 20-40 years of protection is required to attain new steady states. Thus, for local carrying capacity to be rebuilt, no-take protection must be effective on decadal timescales. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Nilles-Bije Ma.L.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Nilles-Bije Ma.L.,Silliman University | Rivera W.L.,University of the Philippines at Diliman
Parasitology Research | Year: 2010

Balantidium coli is a ciliated protozoon inhabiting the colon of swine, rodents, horses, nonhuman primates and humans. In association with disease triggered by other infectious agents, B. coli may become a pathogenic opportunist. This study describes the isolation, cultivation, morphological as well as molecular characterization of B. coli isolated from the large intestine of a pig in the Philippines. Based on scanning and transmission electron microscopy, this protozoon presents a dense ciliation in the oral structure and somatic cilia that are arranged in a more transverse field. Oral and somatic monokinetids were identified in the cortex of the organism. The presence of heterokaryotic nuclear condition is evident, and the cell body of the ciliate shows numerous mucocysts, several food vacuoles, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and contractile vacuoles. Polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene were performed in order to compare our isolate with other previously reported B. coli isolates. The full-length sequence of the SSU rRNA gene of the isolate showed 99% similarity to other B. coli isolates reported in the GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate clustered with previously reported B. coli isolates from gorillas, pig, and ostrich. To date, no studies on the ultrastructure and phylogeny of B. coli isolated in the Philippines have been reported. Results from this study may serve as a baseline data for further ultrastructural and phylogenetic studies on this organism. This study also suggests that morphological characteristics along with molecular identification are essential for validating and identifying species of Balantidium. © Springer-Verlag 2009. Source

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