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Yanggu, South Korea

The present invention relates to methods and compositions for use in inducing tumor-specific antibody mediated complement-dependent cytotoxic response in an animal having a tumor comprising administering to said animal a composition comprising a replication competent oncolytic virus wherein administration of the composition induces in the animal production of antibodies that mediate a CDC response specific to said tumor.

Breitbach C.J.,SillaJen Biotherapeutics | Parato K.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | Burke J.,SillaJen Biotherapeutics | Hwang T.-H.,SillaJen Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Current Opinion in Virology | Year: 2015

Oncolytic immunotherapies (OI) selectively infect, amplify within and destroy cancer cells, thereby representing a novel class of anti-cancer therapy. In addition to this primary mechanism-of-action (MOA), OI based on vaccinia have been shown to selectively target tumor-associated vasculature, triggering an acute reduction in tumor perfusion. This review focuses on a third complementary MOA for this product class: the induction of active immunotherapy. While the active immunotherapy approach has been validated by recent product approvals, the field is still faced with significant challenges. Tumors have evolved diverse mechanisms to hide from immune-mediated destruction. Here we hypothesize that oncolytic immunotherapy replication within tumors may tip the immune balance to allow for the effective induction and execution of adaptive anti-tumor immunity, resulting in long-term tumor control following OI clearance. This immune activation against the cancer can be augmented through OI 'arming' for the expression of immunostimulatory transgene products from the virus genome. With the first vaccinia OI (Pexa-Vec, thymidine kinase-inactivated vaccinia expressing Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) now in advanced-stage clinical trials, it has become more important than ever to understand the complimentary MOA that contributes to tumor destruction and control in patients. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Oh S.Y.,Dong - A University | Shin A.,Seoul National University | Kim S.-G.,Pusan National University | Kwon H.-C.,SillaJen Inc.
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis plays a crucial role in proliferation, differentiation, migration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. The present study evaluated the associations between IGF axis single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and clinical outcomes in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients treated with oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFOX). A total of 190 patients undergoing FOLFOX chemotherapy for AGC were considered eligible for this study. Forty-four SNPs of 10 IGF axis genes were genotyped. Levels of serum IGF1 were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. SNPs of the IGF1R (rs12423791), and IGF1 (rs2162679, rs5742612, rs35767) genes were significantly associated with tumor response to FOLFOX. SNPs of rs4619 and rs17847203 were significantly associated with PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.575, 95% CI 0.385-0.858, P = 0.007; and HR 2.530, 95% CI 1.289-4.966, P = 0.007; respectively). SNPs of rs2872060 were significantly associated with OS-OS was shorter in patients carrying the TT variant than in those with the GG/GT genotypes (HR, 1.708, 95% CI 1.024-2.850, P = 0.040). The GT genotype of rs12847203 was also identified as an independent prognostic factor (HR 2.087, 95% CI 1.070-4.069, P = 0.031). These results suggest that IGF axis-pathway SNPs could be used as prognostic biomarkers of the outcome of FOLFOX chemotherapy in AGC patients. This information may facilitate identification of population subgroups that could benefit from IGF1R-targeted agents.

Evgin L.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | Evgin L.,University of Ottawa | Acuna S.A.,Toronto General Research Institute | Tanese De Souza C.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | And 22 more authors.
Molecular Therapy | Year: 2015

Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have shown promising clinical activity when administered by direct intratumoral injection. However, natural barriers in the blood, including antibodies and complement, are likely to limit the ability to repeatedly administer OVs by the intravenous route. We demonstrate here that for a prototype of the clinical vaccinia virus based product Pexa-Vec, the neutralizing activity of antibodies elicited by smallpox vaccination, as well as the anamnestic response in hyperimmune virus treated cancer patients, is strictly dependent on the activation of complement. In immunized rats, complement depletion stabilized vaccinia virus in the blood and led to improved delivery to tumors. Complement depletion also enhanced tumor infection when virus was directly injected into tumors in immunized animals. The feasibility and safety of using a complement inhibitor, CP40, in combination with vaccinia virus was tested in cynomolgus macaques. CP40 pretreatment elicited an average 10-fold increase in infectious titer in the blood early after the infusion and prolonged the time during which infectious virus was detectable in the blood of animals with preexisting immunity. Capitalizing on the complement dependence of antivaccinia antibody with adjunct complement inhibitors may increase the infectious dose of oncolytic vaccinia virus delivered to tumors in virus in immune hosts. © 2015 The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy.

Kim M.K.,Pusan National University | Kim M.K.,SillaJen Inc. | Breitbach C.J.,Jennerex Inc. | Moon A.,Jennerex Inc. | And 12 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

Oncolytic viruses cause direct cytolysis and cancer-specific immunity in preclinical models. The goal of this study was to demonstrate induction of functional anticancer immunity that can lyse target cancer cells in humans. Pexa-Vec (pexastimogene devacirepvec; JX-594) is a targeted oncolytic and immunotherapeutic vaccinia virus engineered to express human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Pexa-Vec demonstrated replication, GM-CSF expression, and tumor responses in previous phase 1 trials. We now evaluated whether Pexa-Vec induced functional anticancer immunity both in the rabbit VX2 tumor model and in patients with diverse solid tumor types in phase 1. Antibody-mediated complement-dependent cancer cell cytotoxicity (CDC) was induced by intravenous Pexa-Vec in rabbits; transfer of serum from Pexa-Vec-treated animals to tumor-bearing animals resulted in tumor necrosis and improved survival. In patients with diverse tumor types treated on a phase 1 trial, CDC developed within 4 to 8 weeks in most patients; normal cells were resistant to the cytotoxic effects. T lymphocyte activation in patients was evidenced by antibody class switching. We determined that patients with the longest survival duration had the highest CDC activity, and identified candidate target tumor cell antigens. Thus, we demonstrated that Pexa-Vec induced polyclonal antibody-mediated CDC against multiple tumor antigens both in rabbits and in patients with diverse solid tumor types.

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