Silesian Museum

Opava, Czech Republic

Silesian Museum

Opava, Czech Republic

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Krupski M.,Wrocław University | Kabala C.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Sady A.,Silesian Museum | Glinski R.,Wrocław University | Wojcieszak J.,Sigillum Pracownia Archeologiczna
Catena | Year: 2017

Buried, humus-rich horizons, up to 0.60 m thick, poor in archaeological artefacts and other anthropogenic materials, were identified during an archaeological rescue excavation conducted at monastery grounds, located near the centre of Wrocław (SW Poland). As indicated by historical sources, the monks settled in the 18th century in a suburb area, which had been used for agriculture and gardening since the Middle Ages. The paper discusses the origin of the thick humus horizon in the context of various concepts of ‘Dark earths’ formation. Three hypotheses were considered, linking the soil formation with: 1) natural pedogenesis in alluvial material, 2) ancient settlement and human activity resulting in accumulation of materials, and 3) past/modern agricultural and horticultural activities. In order to reveal the origin of this humus-rich horizon, and investigate the possible involvement of anthropogenic factors in its creation, an interdisciplinary research protocol was adopted, which involved a historical query and archaeobotanical, micromorphological, and physico-chemical soil analyses. It was argued that the studied soil, poor in archaeological artefacts, is in fact a relatively young anthropogenic soil, which had been formed by triple- and double-depth digging (Rigosol) and enrichment of the soil in certain kinds of anthropogenic material (Anthrosol), but without surface up-building typical for soils with Plaggic and Terric horizons. This led to a transformation of the original soil cover, increasing the thickness of its A horizon and adapting it for supporting gardens and orchards. These practices, which most likely took place in the late medieval and modern era period up to the 19th century, have been completely forgotten until now. In this light the discovered Rigosol-Anthrosol may be considered an artefact of horticultural/agricultural land use in the former suburbs, which were absorbed by the rapidly growing city during the last century. It is also postulated, that Rigosols (–Anthrosols) may be widespread among Dark earths in some medieval suburban and present-day urbanized areas of cities and should be investigated during archaeological research. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Rohacek J.,Silesian Museum | Tothova A.,Masaryk University
Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny | Year: 2014

A hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships of mainly Holarctic Anthomyzidae based on multigene analysis of combined mitochondrial + nuclear gene markers is compared with those of previously published cladistic analyses of morphological characters with the aim to elucidate affinities of phylogenetically unsettled taxa. The placement of Fungomyza Roháček, 1999, Amygdalops Lamb, 1914 + Typhamyza Roháček, 1992 and Quametopia Roháček & Barber, 2011 + Paranthomyza Czerny, 1902 proved to be well supported by molecular data but are inconsistent with those suggested by morphological data analyses, therefore demanding further phylogenetic study. In other groups, the relationships recognized by multigene molecular analysis are in agreement with previous or subsequent morphological examination: the Mumetopia nigrimana group is postulated as the closest ally of Stiphrosoma Czerny, 1928 and hence needs to be excluded from Mumetopia Melander, 1913; intrageneric relationships of Arganthomyza Roháček, 2009 and allies revealed that Ischnomyia spinosa Hendel, 1918 is, in fact, a species of Arganthomyza and that the concept of the genus Ischnomyia Loew, 1863 has to be redefined; Epischnomyia Roháček, 2006 proved to be closest to Anthomyza Fallén, 1810. The placement of the genera Anagnota Becker, 1902, Carexomyza Roháček, 2009, Cercagnota Roháček & Freidberg, 1993 and Santhomyza Roháček, 1984 have not been resolved either by molecular or morphological analyses and their sister groups remain unknown. The new molecular evidence provides new insight into the phylogeny of Anthomyzidae, but like morphology, fails to resolve some key nodes, suggesting that new studies using both sources of information will be necessary to fully reconstruct the history of the family. © Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, 2014.

Rohacek J.,Silesian Museum | Barber K.N.,Natural Resources Canada
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

World representatives of the genus Arganthomyza Rohácek, 2009 (Diptera, Anthomyzidae) are reviewed, keyed and their relationships are discussed on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters. The Nearctic species of Arganthomyza are revised, described and illustrated, and first data about their biology and distribution are given. Five new species, A. carbo sp. n. (Canada, USA), A. acuticuspis sp. n. (USA), A. bivittata sp. n. (Canada, USA), A. duplex sp. n. (Canada, USA) and A. disjuncta sp. n. (Canada, USA) are described and A. socculata (Zetterstedt, 1847) is newly recorded from the Nearctic Region (USA: Alaska). Based on the phylogenetic analysis, four main clades/species groups are recognized within Arganthomyza, represented by the following species: A. barbarista Rohácek, 2009 (A. barbarista group); A. setiplanta (Rohácek, 1987), A. versitheca Rohácek, 2009 and A. carbo sp. n. (A. setiplanta group); A. acuticuspis sp. n., A. bivittata sp. n. and A. duplex sp. n. (A. duplex group); A. disjuncta sp. n. and A. socculata (Zetterstedt) (A. socculatagroup). Considering the contemporary distribution and relationships of Arganthomyza species, it is hypothesized that the A. barbarista group and A. setiplanta group originated in East Asia while the A. duplex group and the A. socculata group each has its origin in the Nearctic Region. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Rohacek J.,Silesian Museum | Barber K.N.,Natural Resources Canada
European Journal of Entomology | Year: 2011

Quametopia gen. n. is established on the basis of recent phylogenetic analysis of taxa formerly assembled under the genus Mumetopia Melander, 1913 to include M. terminalis (Loew, 1863) and two new closely related Nearctic species of Anthomyzidae. The new genus is diagnosed and its phylogenetic relationships discussed. Quametopia terminalis (Loew, 1863) comb. n. is transferred from Mumetopia and redescribed based on revision of the type material (lectotypes of Anthophilina terminalis Loew, 1863 and its synonym Mumetopia nitens Melander, 1913 are designated) and other extensive material. Quametopia clintonia sp. n. and Q. amplistylus sp. n. (both from Canada, USA) are described and relationships of all three Quametopia species discussed. Immature stages of Q. terminalis and Q. clintonia sp. n. obtained by means of adult-to-adult rearing are described (1st- and 2nd-instar larvae for the first time in the family Anthomyzidae) and illustrated. Keys to adults, eggs, larvae and puparia of Quametopia species are presented. Biology (habitat and host-plant associations, life history) of Q. terminalis and Q. clintonia sp. n. are studied in detail and their ecological separation demonstrated. Distribution of all Quametopia species is reviewed.

Marshall S.A.,University of Guelph | Rohacek J.,Silesian Museum | Dong H.,Shenzhen Fairylake Botanical Garden | Buck M.,Invertebrate Zoology
Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae | Year: 2011

The taxonomy and nomenclature of the family Sphaeroceridae (Diptera: Acalyptratae) is reviewed in the context of a world catalog and bibliography covering the last decade (2000-2010). Bispinicerca Su & Liu, 2009, syn. nov., is synonymized with Opacifrons Duda, 1918 and the following new combinations are given: Opacifrons liupanensis (Su & Liu, 2009), comb. nov., Pseudopterogramma annectens (Richards, 1964), comb. nov., Pseudopterogramma brevivenosum (Tenorio, 1967), comb. nov., and Pseudopterogramma conicum (Richards, 1946), comb. nov. Thirty genera and 211 species were added to the family between 2000 and 2010, giving a current total of 141 genera and 1,550 species. A gallery with 32 macrophotographs is provided, depicting 32 species of 30 genera representing 3 subfamilies of Sphaeroceridae. A world bibliography of Sphaeroceridae is supplemented with 306 references.

Rehulka J.,Silesian Museum | Minarik B.,College of Polytechnics Jihlava
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2012

Physiological (reference) value intervals determined by the lower 2.5% and upper 97.5% quantiles were calculated for blood plasma cholesterol (CHOL) and triacylglycerol (TGL) in farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, in raceway culture. The fish were given dry pelleted diets that contained 37-47% crude protein and 7-14% crude fat and were kept at a stocking density of 50 kg m -3 in tanks provided with running freshwater at an ambient temperature of 3-16°C and dissolved oxygen, 8.4-11.5 mg L -1. Blood was sampled between September and November at a photoperiod of 9:00-13:00 hours: 11:00-15:00 hours (light:dark). Cholesterol levels were significantly (P = 0.0001) greater in males (4.7-12.1 mmol L -1, n = 34, mean weight 406 ± 138 g) than immature females (3.2-9.7 mmol L -1, n = 386, mean weight 416 ± 147 g). Physiological range for TGL in immature females and males was 2.4-14.4 mmol L -1 (n = 249, mean weight 418 ± 149 g). The distribution and density of the quantiles in the tested reference group were made possible by the use of histograms, which showed normal distributions for CHOL in males and in females, but not for TGL, in which a sinistral asymmetry was found. Correlation and regression analyses indicated significant (P = 0.0000) dependence between the CHOL and total protein (r 2 = 76.2%), CHOL and Fulton's condition factor (r 2 = 43.3%) and CHOL and absolute weight of liver (r 2 = 45.5%). Fluctuation in cholesterolaemia and triacylglycerolaemia, depending on nutrition and the aquaculture method is discussed below. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Rediscovery of Rhabdomastix (Rhabdomastix) incapax Starý, 2005 in Sardinia made it possible to update the description of the male and to provide the first description of the female of this species. Notes on the wing reduction, ecology, and behaviour of this species are appended. © Jaroslav Starý and Jindrich Rohácek.

Hitherto, the Paleogene fossil genus Acartophthalmites Hennig, 1965 included only the type species, A. tertiaria Hennig, 1965, from Baltic amber (Eocene, ca. 40 Mya). An additional species, Acartophthalmites clusioides sp. nov., is described based on a well preserved male in a Baltic amber inclusion from Kaliningrad: Yantarny (Russia). It distinctly differs from A. tertiaria in a number of characters demonstrating that the genus Acartophthalmites is morphologically more diverse than considered previously. Moreover, the study of A. clusioides resulted in finding that Acartophthalmites is obviously not related to Acartophthalmidae (where it was originally affiliated), but seems to be closer to Clusiidae, although surely not belonging to the latter family as currently delimited. Therefore a revision of all available specimens of Acartophthalmites is suggested to gain a more complete set of morphological data of this genus, enabling analysis of its phylogenetic relationships. © 2016, National Museum/Narodni muzeum. All rights reserved.

The taxonomic concept of Herniosina Roháček, 1983 (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) is revised on the basis of five W. Palaearctic species, thus excluding the E. Nearctic Herniosina voluminosa Marshall, 1987 whose inclusion caused the paraphyly of the genus. Two new species, H. erymantha sp. n. (male only, Greece: Peloponnese) and H. hamata sp. n. (both sexes, Cyprus), are described and illustrated, and the other three species, H. bequaerti (Villeneuve, 1917), H. horrida (Roháček, 1978) and H. pollex Roháček, 1993, are diagnosed with an atlas of their male and female terminalia. The relationships of the redefined genus and of all its species are discussed, and their biology and distribution are reviewed. A new illustrated key to Herniosina species is given. © 2016 Jindřich Roháček.

Rohacek J.,Silesian Museum
Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae | Year: 2014

Reliquantha eocena sp. nov. (Diptera: Anthomyzidae), male only, is described from a Baltic amber inclusion (Tertiary: Middle Eocene, 38–50 mya) and its relationship is discussed. Based on analysis of morphological characters it is affiliated with Reliquantha Roháček, 2013 and is thus the first fossil species of Anthomyzidae belonging to an extant genus. The diagnosis of Reliquantha is slightly modified and its relationship to fossil Lacrimyza Roháček, 2013 (also from Baltic amber) is confirmed. A key to fossil (all Tertiary) genera and species of the subfamily Anthomyzinae is presented. © 2014, National Museum/Narodni muzeum. All rights reserved.

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