Sosnowa, Poland
Sosnowa, Poland

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Janiak A.,University of Silesia | Galej K.,Silesian Botanical Garden | Szarejko I.,University of Silesia
Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants | Year: 2014

Aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of selected European populations of Marsilea quadrifolia L. and to assess the applicability of those genetic resources of Marsilea quadrifolia L. that have been preserved in Polish botanical gardens, for the reintroduction of this species into its historical range in Poland. Three Polish populations that originated from botanical collections (Zabrze, Z˙arów and Puławy) and four natural populations (two from Slovakia (Slovakia I and Slovakia II), one from France and one from Germany) were analyzed using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A very low level of genetic variation was found both within and between the populations in the study, which likely resulted from a genetic bottleneck probably caused by human activities. Plants with the same AFLP fingerprint were found across several populations; however, singleton samples with a unique AFLP band pattern were also present within all of the populations. The presence of singletons led to relatively high values of Simpson's diversity index, which may suggest a considerable effect of mutations and some possibility of sexual reproduction as sources of the observed variation. The partitioning of molecular variance was calculated using hierarchical AMOVA, which showed that a negligible value of only 0.81% of the variation was explained by the category of population, i.e. plants originating from the botanical collections or from the natural habitats. This result indicates that M. quadrifolia populations from botanical collections resemble natural populations in terms of the level of their genetic variation and that the populations that were obtained from the Polish collections could be used for the successful reintroduction of this species into its historical range in Poland, and a similar situation may be given also in other areas of occurrence of this plant that is under threat throughout its area of occurrence in Europe. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.

Wiland-szymanska J.,Adam Mickiewicz University | Buczkowska K.,Adam Mickiewicz University | Drapikowska M.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań | Maslak M.,Silesian Botanical Garden | And 2 more authors.
Systematics and Biodiversity | Year: 2016

The genetic diversity of five populations of Liparis loeselii from two regions of Poland, Podlachia and Silesia, was compared with respect to minisatellite markers. Moreover, the standard 2-loci barcode DNA regions, rbcL and matK genes, as well as an additional region trnL-F from chloroplast and ITS2 from nuclear genome were studied. The total genetic diversity at the species level amounted to HT = 0.356. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that 58% of genetic variation was distributed within populations, 2% among populations, and 40% between regions from NE Poland (Podlachia), and S Poland (Silesia). Nei's genetic distances indicated that specimens from the Podlachia population were genetically isolated from Silesian ones. Two genetic barriers among the studied populations were found: one barrier separated the Podlachian population from all Silesian populations and another barrier divided Kuźnica Warężyńska population from other Silesian populations. Based on barcode sequences it was found that all the examined samples were identical with respect to all the studied DNA regions. Liparis loeselii trnL-F region sequences were detected for the first time and they can be useful as complementary barcodes for this species. The analysed sequences of L. loeselii are fully consistent with sequences of specimens originating from the UK, Canada, Czech Republic, Hungary, Sweden, Italy, and Russia. © The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London 2016. All Rights Reserved.

Nowak A.,University of Opole | Nowak A.,University of Ostrava | Maslak M.,Silesian Botanical Garden | Nobis M.,Jagiellonian University | And 3 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2015

The study presents results of habitat creation and riparian vegetation recovery in artificial oxbow lakes in urbanized area within the large river valley. The investigation of open water, rush and wet meadows flora and vegetation in three ponds located in the city centre of Opole was conducted in years 2001-2013. Oxbow lakes were constructed as a compensation measure and no vegetation was transplanted into the ponds on purpose. 13-years observation showed that (1) the red-listed species are able to spontaneous reoccurrence after habitat restoration, but they can thrive only in first years of oxbow lakes recolonisation process, (2) there are some restoration constraints, especially in relation to Phragmites australis and Nuphar lutea expansion, but alien species invasions were insignificant and (3) the species number and vegetation cover was constantly increasing during the recolonisation process in recreated oxbow lakes. The dynamic of vegetation was considerable, especially in first 6 years of experiment when the significant increase in diversity and richness of native plant species was observed. After that time, the increasing expansion of P. australis and N. lutea was noted causing the decline of several species and vegetation types. So, restoring just the environmental conditions may be sufficient for a limited period of time only. Strong disturbances, much intense that moderate inundations, imitating disastrous flooding within the valley each 10-13 years are need to maintain the ecological niches for river corridor and riparian species. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..

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