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Trabzon, Turkey

Demirbas A.,Sila Science
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects | Year: 2010

In this study, the effect of temperature on the yield of hydrogen from two mosses (Polytrichum commune and Thuidium tamarascinum) and two algae (Cladophora fracta and Chlorella protothecoid) by pyrolysis and steam gasification were investigated. In each run, the main components of the gas phase were CO2, CO, H2, and CH4. The yields of hydrogen by pyrolysis and steam gasification processes of the samples increased with temperature. The yields of gaseous products from the samples of Polytrichum commune, Thuidium tamarascinum, Cladophora fracta, and Chlorella protothecoides increased from 5.3 to 40.6%, 6.5 to 42.2%, 8.2 to 39.2%, and 9.5 to 40.6% by volume, respectively, while the final pyrolysis temperature was increased from 575 to 925 K. The percent of hydrogen in gaseous products from the samples of Polytrichum commune, Thuidium tamarascinum, Cladophora fracta, and Chlorella protothecoides increased from 21.3 to 38.7%, 23.0 to 41.3%, 25.8 to 44.4%, and 27.6 to 48.7% by volume, respectively, while the final pyrolysis temperature was increased from 650 to 875 K. The percent of hydrogen in gaseous products from the samples of Polytrichum commune, Thuidium tamarascinum, Cladophora fracta, and Chlorella protothecoides increased from 21.8 to 50.0%, 23.5 to 52.0%, 26.3 to 54.7%, and 28.1 to 57.6% by volume, respectively, while the final gasification temperature was increased from 825 to 1,225 K. Source


Demirbas M.F.,Sila Science
Energy Education Science and Technology Part A: Energy Science and Research | Year: 2010

Microalgae have long been recognized as potentially good sources for biofuel production because of their high oil content and rapid biomass production. The oil productivity of many microalgae exceeds the best producing oil crops. In recent years, use of microalgae as an alternative biodiesel feedstock has gained renewed interest from researchers, entrepreneurs, and the general public. Biodiesel produced from microalgae is being investigated as an alternative. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. The average fatty acid contents of the algal oils are 36% oleic (18:1), 15% palmitic (16:0), 11% stearic (18:0), 8.4% iso-17:0, and 7.4% linoleic (18:2). © Sila Science. Source


Demirbas M.F.,Sila Science
Energy Education Science and Technology Part A: Energy Science and Research | Year: 2012

Transesterifications of vegetable oils in supercritical methanol are carried out without using any catalyst. Anchovy oil was transesterified with supercritical methanol to produce biodiesel. The most important variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and reaction temperature. The viscosity values of anchovy oils are between 20.18 and 25.38 mm 2/s whereas those of anchovy oil methyl esters are between 4.16 and 4.48 mm 2/s. © Sila Science. Source


Demirbas B.,Sila Science
Energy Education Science and Technology Part A: Energy Science and Research | Year: 2011

Biomass upgrading processes include fractionation, liquefaction, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, fermentation, and gasification. Refined bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis can be used in vehicle engines as fuel. Bioethanol and biodiesel are two competing liquid biofuels with gasoline and diesel. The biofuels can be obtained from biomass materials by biomass thermochemical and biochemical conversion methods. Sound economic and technical design is needed to make sustainable biomass-toenergy business and realise successfully operated bioenergy systems. The right strategy to successful business includes sustainable developing processes. © Sila Science. Source


Balat M.,Sila Science
Energy Education Science and Technology Part A: Energy Science and Research | Year: 2011

Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based fuels derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, and used waste cooking oil including triglycerides. At present, the high cost of biofuels is the major obstacle to their commercialization. Biodiesel production costs are highly dependent on feedstock prices, with feedstock representing approximately 70% to 95% of the finished product cost. One major problem with biodiesel production is the availability of raw materials for the production. More than 95% of global biodiesel production is made from edible vegetable oils. However, extensive use of vegetable oils may cause other significant problems such as starvation in developing countries. © Sila Science. Source

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