Sikkim, India
Sikkim, India

Sikkim University is a central university established under an Act of Parliament of India on 2 June 2007. It is located at Gangtok. The university campus is expected to be built at Yangang in South Sikkim district, about 56 kilometres away from Gangtok. The university's first chancellor was M. S. Swaminathan and Mahendra P. Lama was the first vice chancellor. The university offers traditional courses in humanities, physical and life science and forestry along with non-traditional courses that would be unique and related to the state including subjects like ethnic history, mountain studies, border studies and hill music and culture. All the colleges in the state of Sikkim are affiliated to this university. Wikipedia.

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Ray P.P.,Sikkim University
Biomedical Research (India) | Year: 2017

Introduction: Internet of Things and allied components i.e., cloud, hardware platforms, communication technologies, wearable systems and its challenges are described for seamless integration with telemedicine and e-health. Materials and method: Comparison between Internet of things based existing cloud platforms, wearables, hardware, and network technologies are performed to provide clear picture of how these are correlating with current smart e-healthcare services. Percentage and taxonomical representation of parameters are measured by taking various surveyed items. Related technological challenges are visited which shall be taken care of researchers. Results: 9 hardware platforms, 31 popular internets of things enabled wearables, 15 cloud platforms, and 7 network technologies have been investigated according to specified parameters that best meet their suitability for dissemination of e-healthcare services. Out of 9 hardware platforms Raspberry Pi 3 has maximum clock speed of 1.2 GHz whereas maximum amount of system memory sized 512 MB claiming to be most effective platform to be used for design of e-health solutions. Public, private, and hybrid clouds dominate 6%, 13%, and 81%, respectively. 21 different sensors are found to have used in all 31 wearables. Accelerometer and ECG sensors are the two mostly used sensors having 45.1% and 19.3 % implementations respectively. Cloud, Wi-Fi, APP, and Bluetooth Low-Energy (BTLE) supported deployments into wearables are found to be 38.7%, 25.8%, 100% and 93.5% respectively. Baby and elderly monitor solutions do capture 19.3%, and 16.1% of whole wearables. 38.7% of the wearables per unit price costs more than 250 $. Bluetooth Low-Energy (BTLE) and Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) communications are found to be two most promising technologies for e-healthcare services. Conclusion: This study inculcates the appropriateness of internet of things in many forms for conjugation with smart e-healthcare. © 2017, Scientific Publishers of India. All rights reserved.


Ray P.P.,Sikkim University
Scientific Programming | Year: 2017

Visual programming has transformed the art of programming in recent years. Several organizations are in race to develop novel ideas to run visual programming in multiple domains with Internet of Things. IoT, being the most emerging area of computing, needs substantial contribution from the visual programming paradigm for its technological propagation. This paper surveys visual programming languages being served for application development, especially in Internet of Things field. 13 such languages are visited from several popular research-electronic databases (e.g., IEEE Xplore, Science Direct, Springer Link, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Postscapes) and compared under four key attributes such as programming environment, license, project repository, and platform supports. Grouped into two segments, open source and proprietary platform, these visual languages pertain few crucial challenges that have been elaborated in this literature. The main goal of this paper is to present existing VPLs per their parametric proforma to enable naïve developers and researchers in the field of IoT to choose appropriate variant of VPL for particular type of application. It is also worth validating the usability and adaptability of VPLs that is essential for selection of beneficiary in terms of IoT. © 2017 Partha Pratim Ray.


Ray P.P.,Sikkim University
Journal of Medical Systems | Year: 2017

Herein demonstrated experiment studies two methods, namely convection and body resistance, to approximate human core body temperature. The proposed system is highly energy efficient that consumes only 165 mW power and runs on 5 VDC source. The implemented solution employs an IR thermographic sensor of industry grade along with AT Mega 328 breakout board. Ordinarily, the IR sensor is placed 1.5–30 cm away from human forehead (i.e., non-invasive) and measured the raw data in terms of skin and ambient temperature which is then converted using appropriate approximation formula to find out core body temperature. The raw data is plotted, visualized, and stored instantaneously in a local machine by means of two tools such as Makerplot, and JAVA-JAR. The test is performed when human object is in complete rest and after 10 min of walk. Achieved results are compared with the CoreTemp CM-210 sensor (by Terumo, Japan) which is calculated to be 0.7 °F different from the average value of BCT, obtained by the proposed IR sensor system. Upon a slight modification, the presented model can be connected with a remotely placed Internet of Things cloud service, which may be useful to inform and predict the user’s core body temperature through a probabilistic view. It is also comprehended that such system can be useful as wearable device to be worn on at the hat attachable way. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Roy B.G.,Sikkim University
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy | Year: 2017

Various viral diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, influenza, and hepatitis, have emerged as leading causes of human death worldwide. Scientific endeavor since invention of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of pox virus in 1967 resulted in better understanding of virus replication and development of various novel therapeutic strategies. Despite considerable advancement in every facet of drug discovery process, development of commercially viable, safe, and effective drugs for these viruses still remains a big challenge. Decades of intense research yielded a handful of natural and synthetic therapeutic options. But emergence of new viruses and drug-resistant viral strains had made new drug development process a never-ending battle. Small-molecule fungal metabolites due to their vast diversity, stereochemical complexity, and preapproved biocompatibility always remain an attractive source for new drug discovery. Though, exploration of therapeutic importance of fungal metabolites has started early with discovery of penicillin, recent prediction asserted that only a small percentage (5–10%) of fungal species have been identified and much less have been scientifically investigated. Therefore, exploration of new fungal metabolites, their bioassay, and subsequent mechanistic study bears huge importance in new drug discovery endeavors. Though no fungal metabolites so far approved for antiviral treatment, many of these exhibited high potential against various viral diseases. This review comprehensively discussed about antiviral activities of fungal metabolites of diverse origin against some important viral diseases. This also highlighted the mechanistic details of inhibition of viral replication along with structure–activity relationship of some common and important classes of fungal metabolites. © 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.


Ray P.P.,Sikkim University
International Conference on Signal Processing, Communication, Power and Embedded System, SCOPES 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2017

Prior information of level of particulate matter in surrounding air can save human lives from probable deteriorated health condition. Contemporary solutions are inadequate to monitor the air borne particulate matter level remotely. This paper presents a novel technique to monitor 2.5μm sized particulate matter level in smarter way. Internet of Things based cloud services have been incorporated to store and analyze the measured data in cloud servers. An optical sensor is integrated with the system which enables the user to visualize the density level of particulate matters in real time. Serial output empowers the user to monitor the process of capture of data, network connectivity, and data transmission towards the clouds. Average value of PM2.5 density from the experiment was found as 200 mg/m3. © 2016 IEEE.


Ray P.P.,Sikkim University
International Conference on Signal Processing, Communication, Power and Embedded System, SCOPES 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2017

Since inception, human being has made tremendous changes at the structural conformation of its peripheral society, although absence of connectivity between various entities results in partial distribution of information. In this paper, an Internet of Things based architecture to conceptualize the society as an information system is proposed. Metcalfe's law has been revisited and applied to rationalize the interconnection between Internet of Things with society in respect to the traditional networks. Experiments have been performed by involving Internet of Things based cloud services. Results demonstrate the convergence of domain specific societal parameters with digital. © 2016 IEEE.


Hannan A.,Sikkim University
Transactions of the Institute of Indian Geographers | Year: 2017

There is a shifting paradigm within the Tea Industry in Indiafrom colonial corporate ownership to small-scale individual ownership production system. It has expanded from few traditional tea growing states to fifteen states in the country in the lastfew decades. Almost all the states in North-East India grow tea today. As per Tea Board of India, there are 161238 numbers of Small Tea Growers (STGs) with tea cultivation of 164396 hectares contributing roughly around 30-35 percent of tea production. In most of the cases, they are the first generation unemployed youth into tea cultivation and enterprise development. On the other hand, the organized tea sector has 1686 tea estates with tea area of416027 hectares. The labour relations are well defined in organized sector and also covered under the Plantation Labour Act. But the unorganized sector, the labour relations are evolving and new set of organizations like Bought-Leaf Factories (BLFs), Tea Producing Societies (SHGs), Confederation of Indian Small Tea Growers Associations (CISTA) and State-Level Associations etc are being emerging for the safeguard of livelihoods across the country and in North-East India. There are around 5.64 lakh families and 2.51 million people are associated in the unorganized sector of tea industry in India (Author"s Estimation) besides 1.25 million of workers employed directly in organized sector of tea industry and 2.50 million people are indirectly dependant. It goes without saying that the quality of employment in organized tea industry differs from small-scale cultivation which may be better termed as Unorganised Sector. Livelihoods in this sector seem to be more vulnerable and their engagement with the market has series of middlemen and buffer zones. The Tea Producing Societies (Self-Help Groups) are yet to be organized as viable units and establish their credentials and visibility in the market particularly in auctions. The question of under-recognition and low level of entrepreneurs hip skills always push them into a situation where buyer-driven marketfixes the prices of their product (intermediary product i.e. green leaf). It highly reflects on the quality of their engagements, insecure livelihoods and compromising with overall quality of life and unexplored potentials within the tea industry.


Tamang J.P.,Sikkim University | Watanabe K.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Holzapfel W.H.,Handong Global University
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms naturally ferment majority of global fermented foods and beverages. Traditional food fermentation represents an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbors a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are of interest to food microbiologists. The application of culture-independent technique has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and non-cultural microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups ("phylotypes") may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt has been made to review the microbiology of some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. © 2016 Tamang, Watanabe and Holzapfel.


Chettri R.,Sikkim University | Tamang J.P.,Sikkim University
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2015

Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2. ±. 0.1. log. cfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Ray P.P.,Sikkim University
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2016

Thermal comfort is an important factor in human body. It can seriously impact on the livelihood factors of human such as lifestyle, productivity, societal activity, and health of an individual. It holds tremendous adverse affect toward diminishing of tolerance to other environmental hazards too. In this paper, an Internet of Things based cloud enabled measurement of MISSENARD index is proposed. A prototype system is implemented based on the proposed novel architecture for measuring thermal comfort of the indoor occupants. The system is developed to apprehend the Internet of Things based multiple cloud services as an important enabler for conferring to MISSENARD index monitoring in real time. The developed system holds a novel way of smarter integration of sensor fueled data analytics with cloud supported visualization at the same time. It further validates the usability of several plug-ins, different Application Programming Interfaces (API), heterogeneous network communications, and low power, memory constrained yet cost effective processor altogether to testify the underlying theory of Internet of Things to become prevalent into a reality. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

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