Sikkim, India
Sikkim, India

Sikkim University is a central university established under an Act of Parliament of India on 2 June 2007. It is located at Gangtok. The university campus is expected to be built at Yangang in South Sikkim district, about 56 kilometres away from Gangtok. The university's first chancellor was M. S. Swaminathan and Mahendra P. Lama was the first vice chancellor. The university offers traditional courses in humanities, physical and life science and forestry along with non-traditional courses that would be unique and related to the state including subjects like ethnic history, mountain studies, border studies and hill music and culture. All the colleges in the state of Sikkim are affiliated to this university. Wikipedia.


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Pradhan A.,Sikkim University | Bhattacharyya A.,Sikkim University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2017

Surfactants are amphiphilic molecules that reduce the surface tension of water and are extensively used for domestic and industrial purpose. Today it is increasingly desirable to replace synthetic surfactants with naturally derived molecules with a reduced environmental burden. About 60% of surfactants used enter the aquatic environment and cause immense damage. This study demonstrates the use of plant based natural surfactants as biodegradable and renewable alternatives. Traditionally used natural surfactants extracted from two plants, Pyagi Phool (Zephyranthes carinata Herbert.) and Ritha (Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.) in aqueous solution have been studied. Surface tension, foaming and other relevant parameters have been investigated. While Ritha has been studied earlier, this is perhaps the first ever report on surfactant activities of Pyagi Phool. Ritha is acid balanced and exhibits a prominent surface tension reduction to 35.30 mN/m, high foaming, wetting and cleaning. Pyagi Phool is also acid balanced, reduces surface tension to 40.76 mN/m, possesses high viscosity and shows good dirt dispersion, making it a decent natural cleansing agent. The mechanism of foam formation affects the foaming ability and stability. Quantified dirt dispersion measurement shows that dirt dispersion reaches a maximum at Critical Micelle Concentration. Emulsion stability also decreases in the same region. The natural surfactants show better emulsification at higher concentrations as compared to synthetic surfactant. The results obtained suggest that both Ritha and Pyagi Phool have remarkable surface active properties and can be used as environmental friendly alternatives to synthetic surfactants. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Ray P.P.,Sikkim University
IEEE Access | Year: 2016

Internet of Things allow massive number of uniquely addressable 'things' to communicate with each other and transfer data over existing internet or compatible network protocols. This paper proposes a new concept which tackles the issues for supporting control and monitoring activities at deployment sites and industrial automations, where intelligent things can monitor peripheral events, induce sensor data acquired from a variety of sources, use ad hoc, local, and distributed 'machine intelligence' to determine appropriate course of actions, and then act to control or disseminate static or dynamic position aware robotic things in the physical world through a seamless manner by providing a means for utilizing them as Internet of robotic things (IoRT). Although progressive advancements can be seen in multi-robotic systems, robots are constantly getting enriched by easier developmental functionalities, such vertical robotic service centric silos are not enough for continuously and seamlessly supporting for which they are meant. In this paper, a novel concept-IoRT is presented that highlights architectural principles, vital characteristics, as well as research challenges. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the architectural assimilation of IoRT and identify important research directions on this term. © 2017 IEEE.


Ray P.P.,Sikkim University
Biomedical Research (India) | Year: 2017

Introduction: Internet of Things and allied components i.e., cloud, hardware platforms, communication technologies, wearable systems and its challenges are described for seamless integration with telemedicine and e-health. Materials and method: Comparison between Internet of things based existing cloud platforms, wearables, hardware, and network technologies are performed to provide clear picture of how these are correlating with current smart e-healthcare services. Percentage and taxonomical representation of parameters are measured by taking various surveyed items. Related technological challenges are visited which shall be taken care of researchers. Results: 9 hardware platforms, 31 popular internets of things enabled wearables, 15 cloud platforms, and 7 network technologies have been investigated according to specified parameters that best meet their suitability for dissemination of e-healthcare services. Out of 9 hardware platforms Raspberry Pi 3 has maximum clock speed of 1.2 GHz whereas maximum amount of system memory sized 512 MB claiming to be most effective platform to be used for design of e-health solutions. Public, private, and hybrid clouds dominate 6%, 13%, and 81%, respectively. 21 different sensors are found to have used in all 31 wearables. Accelerometer and ECG sensors are the two mostly used sensors having 45.1% and 19.3 % implementations respectively. Cloud, Wi-Fi, APP, and Bluetooth Low-Energy (BTLE) supported deployments into wearables are found to be 38.7%, 25.8%, 100% and 93.5% respectively. Baby and elderly monitor solutions do capture 19.3%, and 16.1% of whole wearables. 38.7% of the wearables per unit price costs more than 250 $. Bluetooth Low-Energy (BTLE) and Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) communications are found to be two most promising technologies for e-healthcare services. Conclusion: This study inculcates the appropriateness of internet of things in many forms for conjugation with smart e-healthcare. © 2017, Scientific Publishers of India. All rights reserved.


Ray P.P.,Sikkim University
Scientific Programming | Year: 2017

Visual programming has transformed the art of programming in recent years. Several organizations are in race to develop novel ideas to run visual programming in multiple domains with Internet of Things. IoT, being the most emerging area of computing, needs substantial contribution from the visual programming paradigm for its technological propagation. This paper surveys visual programming languages being served for application development, especially in Internet of Things field. 13 such languages are visited from several popular research-electronic databases (e.g., IEEE Xplore, Science Direct, Springer Link, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Postscapes) and compared under four key attributes such as programming environment, license, project repository, and platform supports. Grouped into two segments, open source and proprietary platform, these visual languages pertain few crucial challenges that have been elaborated in this literature. The main goal of this paper is to present existing VPLs per their parametric proforma to enable naïve developers and researchers in the field of IoT to choose appropriate variant of VPL for particular type of application. It is also worth validating the usability and adaptability of VPLs that is essential for selection of beneficiary in terms of IoT. © 2017 Partha Pratim Ray.


Ghimire B.K.,Sikkim University | Yu C.Y.,Kangwon National University | Chung I.-M.,Konkuk University
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2012

A simple and efficient procedure was developed for in vitro propagation of Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. using leaf and petiole explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). Effects of various plant growth regulators, explant types, carbohydrates, and basal salts on induction of adventitious shoots were also studied. Leaf explants appeared to have better regeneration capacity than petiole explants in the tested media. The highest regeneration frequency (79.33 ± 3.60%) and shoot number (11.33 ± 2.21 shoots per explant) were obtained in leaf explants in MS medium containing 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar, supplemented with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 2.0 mg/l BA, whereas petiole explants were more responsive to 0.1 mg/l NAA and 1.0 mg/l thiadiazuron. Developed shoots rooted best on MS medium with 1.0 mg/l indole acetic acid (IAA), producing 18.33 ± 2.51 roots per shoot. Histological investigation showed that the shoot buds originated mainly from epidermal cells of wounded tissues, without callus formation. The regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in a greenhouse, where over 90% developed into morphologically normal and fertile plants. Results of flow cytometry analysis on S. aculeatissimum indicated no variation in the ploidy levels of plants regenerated via direct shoot formation and showed almost the same phenotype as that of mother plants. This adventitious shoot regeneration method may be used for large-scale shoot propagation and genetic engineering studies of S. aculeatissimum. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Rai A.K.,Sikkim University | Tamang J.P.,Sikkim University | Palni U.,Kumaun University
Meat Science | Year: 2010

Native microorganisms from some ethnic meat products of the Eastern Himalayas such as lang kargyong, yak kargyong, faak kargyong, lang satchu, yak satchu and suka ko masu were isolated and characterized. The bacterial isolates included Lactobacillus sake, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus divergens, Lactobacillus carnis, Lactobacillus sanfrancisco, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus brevis, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus pentosaceous, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus lentus and Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus and Staphylococcus. Yeast isolates included Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Debaryomyces pseudopolymorphus, Pichia burtonii, Pichia anomala, Candida famata and the mould Rhizopus was also identified. Many of the LAB isolates demonstrated some antimicrobial activity, enzymatic activity and a few showed a high degree of hydrophobicity. None of the strains produced biogenic amines. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Tamang J.P.,Sikkim University | Watanabe K.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Holzapfel W.H.,Handong Global University
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms naturally ferment majority of global fermented foods and beverages. Traditional food fermentation represents an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbors a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are of interest to food microbiologists. The application of culture-independent technique has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and non-cultural microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups ("phylotypes") may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt has been made to review the microbiology of some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. © 2016 Tamang, Watanabe and Holzapfel.


Chettri R.,Sikkim University | Tamang J.P.,Sikkim University
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2015

Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2. ±. 0.1. log. cfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Ray P.P.,Sikkim University
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2016

Thermal comfort is an important factor in human body. It can seriously impact on the livelihood factors of human such as lifestyle, productivity, societal activity, and health of an individual. It holds tremendous adverse affect toward diminishing of tolerance to other environmental hazards too. In this paper, an Internet of Things based cloud enabled measurement of MISSENARD index is proposed. A prototype system is implemented based on the proposed novel architecture for measuring thermal comfort of the indoor occupants. The system is developed to apprehend the Internet of Things based multiple cloud services as an important enabler for conferring to MISSENARD index monitoring in real time. The developed system holds a novel way of smarter integration of sensor fueled data analytics with cloud supported visualization at the same time. It further validates the usability of several plug-ins, different Application Programming Interfaces (API), heterogeneous network communications, and low power, memory constrained yet cost effective processor altogether to testify the underlying theory of Internet of Things to become prevalent into a reality. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.


Ray P.P.,Sikkim University
International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, Signals, Communication and Optimization, EESCO 2015 | Year: 2015

Internet of Things (IoT) is a new frontier where scientists are currently experimenting with fascinating new ideas and items. Along with health-care and wellness, sports and recreational activities constitutes one of the most rapidly growing areas of personal and consumer-oriented Internet of Things technologies. This area of research is in its nascent stage of development and has been investigated by none till date. Though few companies have started working in this area, the methodology while manufacturing their products lack in standard architectural framework. Despite of huge market expectations, this filed of research lags far behind than other sectors of IoT. This literature investigates how sports and recreational activities can be augmented through novel services based on standard architecture of emerging IoT infrastructures. This paper envisages the Internet of Things for Sports (IoTSport) as the novel and state of the art framework which is capable to cater the needs of persuasion of current sports culture in a smart and handy way. Moreover, IoT for sports and recreational activities provide a new domain of research that includes several of the critical challenges which need to be taken care of. It is skeptical to the fact that the research output from this work would surely affect other domains such as health and rehabilitation in near future. © 2015 IEEE.

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