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Barua A.,Melaka Manipal Medical College MMMC | Ghosh M.,Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical science SMIMS | Kar N.,Corner House Resource Center | Basilio M.,Saint Marys University
Annals of Saudi Medicine | Year: 2011

Community-based mental health studies have revealed that the point prevalence of depressive disorders in the elderly population of the world varies between 10% and 20%, depending on cultural situations. A retrospective study based on analysis of various study reports was conducted, to determine the median prevalence rates of depressive disorders in the elderly population of India and various other countries in the world. All the studies that constituted the sample were conducted between 1955 and 2005. Included are only community-based, cross-sectional surveys and some prospective studies that had not excluded depression at baseline. These studies were conducted on a homogenous community of the elderly population in the world, who were selected by a simple random sampling technique. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria on published and indexed articles, 74 original research studies that surveyed a total of 487275 elderly individuals, in the age group of 60 years and above, residing in various parts of the world, were included for the final analysis. The median prevalence rate and its corresponding interquartile range were calculated. The chi-square test and chi-square for linear trend were applied. A P value of <.05 was considered as statistically significant. The median prevalence rate of depressive disorders in the world for the elderly population was determined to be 10.3% (interquartile range [IQR], 4.7%-16.0%). The median prevalence rate of depression among the elderly Indian population was determined to be 21.9% (IQR, 11.6%-31.1%). Although there was a significant decrease in the trend of world prevalence of geriatric depression, it was significantly higher among Indians, in recent years, than the rest of the world.


Barua A.,Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical science SMIMS | Barua A.,International Medical University
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia | Year: 2013

Introduction: Unipolar Major Depression is predicted to become the second-most important cause of morbidity throughout the world by the year 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). This systematic review on the prevalence rates of geriatric depression was conducted to draw the attention of all health care personnel for focussing their intense endeavours in addressing this burning issue. Objectives: (1) To determine the Median Prevalence Rates of geriatric depression of the world and in India. (2) To conduct a Time-Trend Analysis on prevalence of geriatric depression in the world. Materials & Methods: This Retrospective study based on Systematic review on prevalence of geriatric depression was conducted on the community based mental health surveys on geriatric depression conducted in continents of Asia, Europe, Australia, North America, and South America. All the studies that constituted the sample were conducted between 1956 and 2005. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 65 original research studies that surveyed a total of 99,297 elderly individuals in the age group of 60 years and above, residing in various parts of the world were included for the final analysis. Statistical procedures applied were the median prevalence rate and its corresponding inter-quartile range as well as the Chi-square for Linear Trend. P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The Median Prevalence Rate of geriatric depression in the world was determined to be 10.3% with Interquartile Range varying between 4.6% and 16.0%. The Median Prevalence Rate of geriatric depression in Indian population was determined to be 21.9% with Interquartile Range varying between 11.6% and 31.1%. Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of geriatric depression could be attributed to the fact that better diagnostic instruments with optimum validity and reliability had been developed during the recent years to diagnose geriatric depression at an early stage in the community.


Barua A.,Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical science SMIMS | Barua A.,International Medical University | Tiwari V.K.,Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical science SMIMS | Kesari S.P.,Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical science SMIMS
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2013

Background: Due to the difficult geographic terrain with lack of roads and transport, the Sikkim State in India finds difficulties in contending the respiratory diseases especially during the rainy seasons. Findings. A case-control study was conducted for two months at the Central Referral Hospital of East Sikkim involving 110 individuals in the age group of 10 years and above. Due to feasibility constraints, 55 cases and 55 controls were selected by applying the non-probability sampling method with age and sex matching. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed by using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 10.0 for windows. Findings were expressed in terms of proportion, Chi Square Test and Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis. Here, p-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. This study revealed that the presence of overcrowding, chronic exposure to allergens, smoking habits, chronic respiratory illnesses within last 5 years, family history of chronic respiratory illnesses and mental illnesses were independently associated with respiratory diseases. Conclusion: This study should be replicated in other parts of Sikkim to obtain more confirmatory evidence on determinants of respiratory diseases. © 2013 Barua et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Barua A.,Kasturba Medical College | Ghosh M.K.,Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical science SMIMS | Kar N.,Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical science SMIMS | Basilio M.A.,Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical science SMIMS
Journal International Medical Sciences Academy | Year: 2011

The pint prevalence of depressive disorders in the elderly population of the world varies between 10% and 20% depending on cultural situations. Objective of the study was to determine the median prevalence rates of depressive disorders in elderly population of India and various other countries in the world. retrospective study based on meta-analysis of various study reports of community based mental health surveys on geriatric depressive disorders conducted between 1955 and 2005in continents of Asia, Europe. Australia, North America and South America conducted . 74 original research studies that surveyed a total of 4,87,275 elderly individuals in the age group of 60 years and above, residing in various parts of the world were included for the final analysis. These studies were conducted on homogenous community of elderly population in the world, who were selected by simple random sampling technique. Median prevalence rate and its corresponding inter-quartile range, Chisquare test and Chi-square for Linear Trend were applied. P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The Median Prevalence rate of depressive disorders in the world for the elderly population was determined to be 10.3% [Interquartile Range (IQR) = (4.7% - 16.0%)]. The Median Prevalence Rate of depression among elderly Indian population was determined to be 21.9% [IQR = (11.6% -31.1%)]. Though there was a significant decrease trend in world prevalence of geriatric depression, but it was significantly higher among the Indians in recent years than the rest of the world.


Tiwari V.K.,Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical science SMIMS | Barua A.,Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical science SMIMS | Kesari S.P.,Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical science SMIMS
Journal International Medical Sciences Academy | Year: 2010

A noticeable increase in health care burden from the various respiratory sicknesses including tuberculosis in India as well as in several areas of the world had been observed. The change in epidemiology and clinical spectrum of the respiratory sicknessess is a global concern. An analytical study with case control design on socio-demographic correlates of repiratory disorders was conducted on 110 individuals in the age groups of 10 years and above, who were permanent residents of east Sikkim for two months duration. Age and Sex mathching was done to identify each case with its corresponding control and Simple random sampling method was applied to select the case and control for the study. Chi Square Test was applied for univariat analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis was done to study the independent effect of each variable over the outcome. Thirteen (13) risk factors marital status, type of fuel used literacy status, smoking habit passive smoking, overcrowding, H/O of chronic respiratory ilness within last 5 years, pets at home, H/O of chronic exposure to allergens, family H/O of chronic exposure to allergens, parasitic diseases, psychiatric and H/O of chronic respiratory illness within past 5 years.

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