Sikkim Center

Gangtok, India

Sikkim Center

Gangtok, India
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Begum R.H.,Assam University | Rahman H.,Sikkim Center | Ahmed G.,Gauhati University
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2011

Development of a single effective vaccine against non-typhoidal salmonellosis is very challenging due to the presence of hundreds of serovars of Salmonella which are antigenically different from each other. The Salmonella enterotoxin (Stn), a common virulence factor occurring amongst a wide range of serovars, used as a formalized toxoid vaccine has been found to be effective against homologous and heterologous serovars. However, the process of formalization has its own drawbacks. Gamma radiation (γ) on the other hand is widely used as a safe and convenient method of sterilization worldwide. In this experiment we used gamma rays to inactivate the partially purified Stn of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (DT 193). The toxoid obtained was tested for its immunogenicity and loss of toxicity and then used to formulate a gamma irradiated toxoid vaccine (ITST). The efficacy of the developed ITST was tested in Kuroiler, a Broiler breed, against homologous and heterologous challenges (S. Typhimurium and S. Gallinarum) administered intra-peritoneally and orally. Birds in groups challenged with S. Typhimurium by both routes recorded protective indices (PI) of 100% while birds in groups challenged intra-peritoneally with S. Gallinarum recorded PI of 83.33% and those challenged orally scored 100%. The overall protective index (PI) being 95.83%. The antibody titres calculated as geometric mean with standard error at 1:10 -4 dilutions showed a steep rise after the first dose and peaked at week 6 post primary vaccinations. Thus the ITST was found very effective in protecting poultry against both the challenge organisms tested. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..


Ram A.,ICAR CentralAgroforestry Research Institute | Kumar D.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Babu S.,Sikkim Center | Prasad D.,ICAR CentralAgroforestry Research Institute | Dev I.,Rajasthan Agricultural University
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2017

Aim: Rice productivityisstagnantor declining due to imbalanced nutrition, including deficiency of sulphur. In India about 44% soils (out of total cultivated land) is sulphur deficient. Various sources of sulphurfertilizers are available, but gypsum and phosphogypsum can be better options for the farmers. The main aim of this study was to improve the soil fertility, soil microbial properties and rice yields with application of sulphur Methodology: The combination of two sulphur sources (gypsum & phosphogypsum) at two levels i.e., 30 and 60 kg ha-1 and control (no S) were applied to rice crop and three levels of sulphur (elemental sulphur) i.e., 0, 15 and 30 kg S ha-1were applied to succeeding wheat grown under rice-wheat cropping system. Microbial biomass carbon and microbial activities in terms of Fluorescein Diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis, Dehydrogenase and Arylsulphatase activity were estimated in different treatments by standard procedures. Organic carbon, N, P, K and S were estimated for residual fertility after harvest of rice crop. Rice grain yield was recorded at 14% moisture content. Results: Direct and residual effect of sulphur application increased the wheat grain and straw yield. Sulphur application increased 8.2 to 12.8% (microbial biomass carbon), 16.9 to 32.3% (arylsulphatase activity) and 8.7 to 11.2%(rice grain yield). Available N and P in soil were observed higher in control (no sulphur) than the other sulphurtreatments. However, sulphur status after two years of cropping system was improved by 6.4, 12.7, 5.2 and 9.7% with sulphur application through gypsum @30 and 60 kg S ha-1: phosphogypsum @ 30 and 60 kg S ha1, respectively Interpretation: Sulphur is also essential as microbial-Sforthe micro-organism. Hence, sulphurapplication increased the microbial biomass carbon and arylsulphatase activity. Application of sulphur through gypsum or phosphogypsumin soil improved the soil microbial properties and sulphur availability. Application of sulphur @30 kg ha"1 through gypsum can increase the rice yield by 10 % overcontrol (no sulphur). © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).


A field experiment was conducted at research farm of SKN College of Agriculture, Jobner, Rajasthan to assess the effect of fertility and bioinoculants on growth, yield and economics of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.). The results revealed that application of 75% recommended dose of fertilizer along with Rhizobium inoculation recorded higher growth (plant height, branches/ plant, dry matter accumulation/plant and nodules/plant); yield attributes (pods/plant, seeds/pod and 1000-seed weight) seed and stover yields, gross returns (25.05 × 103 Rs./ha), net returns (13.63 × 103 Rs./ha) and B:C ratio (1.19) as compared to control and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculation and remained at par with all other treatment combination. So, it was concluded that use of 75% RDF along with Rhizobium may be recommended for obtaining the higher yield of Cluster bean in the region.


Yadav S.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Yadav S.K.,Central Potato Research Station CPRI | Babu S.,Banaras Hindu University | Babu S.,Sikkim Center | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

A field experiment was conducted during 2005-06 and 2006-07 at Campus Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi to identify a suitable high value cropping sequence with organic nitrogen sources under rice (Oryza sativa L.) based cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. Seven rice based cropping sequences, viz. rice-potato-onion; rice-green pea-onion; rice-potatocowpea (green pod); rice-green pea-cowpea; rice-rajmash (green pod)-onion; rice-rajmash-cowpea and rice-maize (green cob)-cowpea were assigned to main plots and three organic treatments (control; 100% RDN through organic manure along with biofertilizers and 100% RDN through organic manure alone) were allocated to sub plots. Among the cropping sequences, rice-potato-onion gave the highest rice grain equivalent yield (35.57 tonnes/ha), maximum net return (268 656/ha), profitability (738/ha/day) and labour employment generation (469 man days/ha/year). However rice yield and soil fertility status was not significantly affected by cropping sequences. Application of 100% recommended dose of through organic manure along with biofertilizers (Azotobacter and PSB) had the highest rice equivalent grain yield (35.31 tonnes/ha), production efficiency (96.74 kg/ha/day), net monetary return (292 454/ ha), profitability (803/ha/day) and labour employment generation (419 man days/ha/year). Inclusion of pulses in sequence with proved superior due to its viable favorable effect on soil fertility. Thus organic nitrogen nutrition with biofertilizers had the highest rice equivalent grain yield, production efficiency, net monetary return and profitability.


Pathak P.K.,Sikkim Center | Mohanty A.K.,Sikkim Center | Rahman H.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Borah T.R.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region
Asian Agri-History | Year: 2012

Yak is an important livestock in the high reaches of Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand states of India on account of its economic benefits to the highlanders under harsh conditions of high altitude. Yaks are reared under free-range system and are found in alpine and sub-alpine regions, usually between 3,000 and 4,500 m above mean sea level with cold, semi-humid climate. Yak herdsmen traditionally follow their indigenous technique for selecting yaks for pure line breeding by selecting replacement sequentially in calves from cows, having good conformation and high milk yield. Interspecies hybridization is one of the breeding methods practiced by the yak herdsmen in the hilly terrains of Arunachal Pradesh to increase their productivity and draft capacity. This paper outlines certain ideas of traditional breeding management practices of yak in some yak rearing pockets of North Eastern Hill Region of India by the yak herdsmen. Emphasis is given on the use of established knowledge of genetics and breeding for the purpose.


Pathak P.K.,Krishi Vigyan Kendra KVK | Nath B.G.,Sikkim Center | Mohanty A.K.,Krishi Vigyan Kendra KVK | Tripathi A.K.,KVK Inc | Ngachan S.V.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region
Asian Agri-History | Year: 2013

A study was conducted to determine the production and management of village chicken in Dzongu (tribal area) in Sikkim, India. Selection of respondents of poultry farmers was done on the basis of simple random technique. In total, 120 respondents were selected from the area and data were collected through a standard questionnaire. Majority of the farmers kept up to five cocks and six to ten hens. Birds attain sexual maturity at the age of 6-7 months for male and 5-6 months for female. Average egg laying per year was 45-55 nos. and length between two laying cycles was 2-3 months. Improvement of village chicken in Sikkim was important to increase the productive performance of local chicken. Low growth intensity, low rate of laying, high mortality of one-day-old chicks, non-availability of medicines and vaccines, lack of market for birds and eggs, etc. were the major constraints faced by the poultry farmers. The present study viewed that village chicken development is necessary to improve the livelihood of rural farmers in Sikkim.


Das S.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Das S.K.,Sikkim Center | Mukherjee I.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2014

Degradation of flubendiamide as affected by microbial population count in two Indian soils (red and alluvial) varying in physicochemical properties was studied under sterile and non-sterile conditions. Recovery of flubendiamide in soil was in the range of 94.7-95.9 % at 0.5 and 1.0 μg g-1, respectively. The DT50 of flubendiamide at the level of 10 μg g-1 in red soil under sterile and non-sterile conditions was found to be 140.3 and 93.7 days, respectively, and in alluvial soil under sterile and non-sterile condition was 181.1 and 158.4 days, respectively. Residues of flubendiamide dissipated faster in red soil (non-sterile followed by sterile) as compared to alluvial (non-sterile soil followed by sterile soil). A wide difference in half-life of red and alluvial soil under sterile and non-sterile conditions indicated that the variation in physicochemical properties of red and alluvial soil as well as the presence of microbes play a great role for degradation of flubendiamide. The results revealed that slower-degrading alluvial soil possessed microbes with degradative capacity. The degradation rate in this soil was significantly reduced by some of its physicochemical characteristics, despite sterile and non-sterile conditions, which was faster in red soil. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Babu S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Babu S.,Sikkim Center | Rana D.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Yadav G.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

A fixed plot field experiment was carried out during kharif and spring seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10 at New Delhi, to study the residual effect of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) stover and P management and direct effect of N and P on productivity, nutrient uptake and economics of spring sunflower. Residual effects of sunflower stover incorporation and 30 kg P/ha and direct effect of recommended dose (RD) of NP (80 kg N + 15 kg P/ha) resulted in higher yield attributes, seed, stover and biological yields, gross returns, net returns, B:C ratio and uptake of N, P and K. Residual effect of sunflower stover incorporation increased seed yield of sunflower by 14.9 and 25.9% over the no stover incorporation during 2009 and 2010, respectively. Residual effect of 30 kg P/ha caused 22.3% and 24.4% increase in the seed yield of sunflower over the control during 2009 and 2010, respectively. Direct effect of RD of N and P (80 kg N + 15 kg P/ha) recorded the maximum seed yield (2.85 and 2.57 tonnes/ha) during both the years, which was significantly higher than 50% RD of NP (2.56 and 2.27 tonnes/ha) and control (1.70 and 1.57 tonnes/ha). Increase in seed yield due to RD of NP was 11.3 and 13.2% higher than 50% RD of NP and 67.6 and 63.7% than control. With regards to economics and nutrients uptake, residual effect of sunflower stover incorporation and 30 kg P/ha recorded significantly higher values of gross returns, net returns and B: C ratio and NPK uptake over control (no stover incorporation) and other P levels, respectively. Among the different doses of NP applied to sunflower, direct effect of RD of NP (80 kg N + 15 kg P/ha) registered the highest gross returns (64.11 × 103 and 6.13 × 103 RS/ha), net returns (48.76 × 103 and 44.66 × 103 RS/ha) and B:C ratio (3.19 and 2.80).


Babu S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Babu S.,Sikkim Center | Rana D.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Prasad D.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

A fixed plot field experiment was carried out during kharif and spring seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10 at Research farm of Division of Agronomy, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, to study the effect of sunflower stover and nutrients management on productivity, nutrient economy and phosphorus use efficiencies of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)-sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cropping system. In 2008-09, sunflower stover incorporation caused 6.17, 6.05, 4.90 and 5.1 percent increment in system productivity, production efficiency, per day returns and net returns over no stover incorporation, respectively. However, sunflower stover incorporation was failed to affect the system productivity and production efficiency during the second year of experimentation. Application of 30 kg P/ha to pigeonpea recorded maximum system productivity (4.17 and 3.24 tonnes/ha), production efficiency (11.42 and 8.88 kg/ha/day), net returns (72.8 and 71.6x103/ha), per day returns (199 and 196 ̀/ha) during 2008-09 and 2009-10, respectively. Recommended dose (RD) of NP applied directly to sunflower produced the markedly higher productivity (3.18 t/ha), production efficiency (8.71 kg/ha/day) net returns 69.1x103/ha and per day returns (189 ̀/ha). Residual effect of 8 tonnes/ha sunflower stover incorporation and 30 kg/ha P was significant on nutrient economy of succeeding sunflower crop and reduced up to 50% recommended dose of P. Direct effect of sunflower stover incorporation had significant effect on agronomic P use efficiency (APUE), agro physiological P use efficiency (APPUE), physiological efficiency index of P (PEIP) during 2009 only, while residual effect of sunflower stover incorporation significantly affected the agronomic P use efficiency (APUE), physiological efficiency index of P (PEIP) during both the years and agro physiological P use efficiency (APPUE) only during 2009. With regards to the direct and residual effect of P levels, the direct effect of 15 kg P/ha+PSB recorded the higher values of APUE during both the years. However, the maximum values of APPUE and PEIP recorded with the direct effect of 15 kg P/ha. The residual effect of P levels applied to preceding pigeonpea crop showed perceptible reduction in APPUE during both years of study, and APUE in 2009 and PEIP during 2010 with successive increment of P levels. Direct effect of 50% RD of NP had marked increase of APUE and APPUE, over control and RD of NP. In contrast and PEIP reduced with successive doses of NP up to RD of NP. The residual effect of RD of NP applied to preceding sunflower crop recorded the minimum values of APUE, APPUE and PEIP in pigeonpea.


Singh H.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University | Singh H.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Jha G.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University | Rawat A.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

A field experiment was conducted during 2009-10 to investigate the effect of seed rates (40, 60, 80 and 100 kg/ha) and seeding depths (2, 4 and 6 cm) on growth, physiological parameters and economics in wheat (var GW 273). Study was carried out in agricultural farm Department of Agronomy, JNKVV, Jabalpur located in Kymore Plateau and Satpura Hills agro-climatic zone of Madhya Pradesh. As results indicate plant height, crop growth rate (CGR) and relative growth rates (RGR) increased significantly in 80 kg/ha seed rate as well as 2 cm sowing depth. The CGR was significantly correlated with grain yield with different seed rates as well as sowing depths. Results revealed that along with increases in CGR, seeds @ 80 kg/ha sown at 2 cm depth significantly increased dry matter production and grain yield in wheat. We conclude that these agronomical practices may prove to be beneficial to enhance the resilience and yield of wheat crop in this part of the agro-climatic zone.

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