Göteborg, Sweden
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Lahteenmaki L.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Lahteenmaki L.,University of Aarhus | Lampila P.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Grunert K.,University of Aarhus | And 4 more authors.
Food Policy | Year: 2010

New EU legislation (EU Regulation 1924/2006) will allow a number of nutrition and health claims in food products. The objective of this research was to study how health claims affect consumers' perception of other product attributes. A survey with a total of 4612 respondents from the Nordic countries explored consumers' perceptions of attractiveness, healthiness, naturalness, tastiness and ability to reduce risk of disease by comparing ratings of products with and without health claims. Used claims varied in their benefit, active ingredient, claim structure and framing. The results showed that health claims had a moderate but mostly negative impact on the. perception of other product attributes; the most significant impact was decrease in perceived naturalness. Consumers could also interpret the benefits in claims as intended. The wording of the claim had only small impact on the perception of the products, whereas earlier market presence of the ingredient had a large impact: differences among the Nordic countries reflected the previous exposure to health claims. The findings from this study suggest that consumers do not imply other health benefits from health claims and the health claim per se is not likely to cause any unrealistic positive inferences in perceived product quality. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ali L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Alsanius B.W.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Rosberg A.K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Svensson B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2012

The effects of nutrition strategy on levels of nutrients and bioactive compounds in fruit and leaves of blackberries were studied in greenhouse-grown blackberry plants fertilised with combinations of two levels (low, high) of nitrogen (60 and 100 kg ha -1, respectively) and potassium (66.4 and 104 kg ha -1, respectively). Plant concentrations of organic phytochemicals were quantitatively analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. High amounts of both fertilisers produced high amounts of all nutrients and bioactive compounds analysed in fruit except total acidity and ellagic acid. There were major differences in compounds affecting taste in fruit, e. g., sugars (fructose and glucose), total soluble solids and pH, and also in anthocyanin content. The concentrations of secondary metabolites, vitamin C and ellagic acid in fruit also varied significantly between treatments, although the differences were smaller. Storage of blackberries showed variable effects in the different levels of compounds, and the changes found were small. Nutrient regime did not affect blackberry leaves to the same extent, and only minor changes were found. The findings show that by optimising plant nutrition, phytonutrient levels can be maximised and maintained in fresh and stored berry crops, especially those grown in greenhouses, where conditions can easily be regulated. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Ziegler F.,SIK | Winther U.,SIK | Hognes E.S.,SIK | Emanuelsson A.,SIK | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2013

Greenhouse gas emissions caused by food production are receiving increased attention worldwide. A problem with many studies is that they only consider one product; methodological differences also make it difficult to compare results across studies. Using a consistent methodology to ensure comparability, we quantified the carbon footprint of more than 20 Norwegian seafood products, including fresh and frozen, processed and unprocessed cod, haddock, saithe, herring, mackerel, farmed salmon, and farmed blue mussels. The previous finding that fuel use in fishing and feed production in aquaculture are key inputs was confirmed. Additional key aspects identified were refrigerants used on fishing vessels, product yield, and by-product use. Results also include that product form (fresh or frozen) only matters when freezing makes slower transportation possible. Processing before export was favorable due to the greater potential to use by-products and the reduced need for transportation. The most efficient seafood product was herring shipped frozen in bulk to Moscow at 0.7 kilograms CO2 equivalents per kilogram (kg CO2-eq/kg) edible product. At the other end we found fresh gutted salmon airfreighted to Tokyo at 14 kg CO2-eq/kg edible product. This wide range points to major differences between seafood products and room for considerable improvement within supply chains and in product choices. In fisheries, we found considerable variability between fishing methods used to land the same species, which indicates the importance of fisheries management favoring the most resource-efficient ways of fishing. Both production and consumption patterns matter, and a range of improvements could benefit the carbon performance of Norwegian seafood products. © 2012 by Yale University.

Alminger M.L.,Chalmers University of Technology | Eklund-Jonsson C.,Chalmers University of Technology | Kidman S.,SIK | Langton M.,SIK | Langton M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Food Digestion | Year: 2012

Various botanical and structural characteristics of starchy foods are considered to modify the rate of starch digestion and the glycaemic responses in humans. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of fermented barley and oat microstructure on the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis. A dynamic gastrointestinal model was used to estimate the degree of starch hydrolysis during in vitro digestion of fermented whole grain cereal meals. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study the microstructural changes. In parallel to the in vitro studies, the impact of fermented barley and oats on postprandial plasma glucose responses was evaluated in a human study. Micrographs were taken during in vitro digestion experiments with fermented whole grains and compared with micrographs of boiled barley (undigested). Images showed that most of the oat starch granules were degraded after 120 min of digestion, whereas barley starch granules were less degraded, even after 180 min of digestion. The findings were confirmed by faster starch hydrolysis from the fermented oat meal, measured as maltose generated during in vitro digestion. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated from the plotted maltose curves of the meals. AUC for barley tempe (266 ± 33) was 40 % of the AUC for oat tempe (663 ± 8) and significantly different (p < 0.007) from AUC oat tempe. The in vitro data closely resembled the AUCs for plasma glucose from the parallel human study. In terms of glucose response, the mean AUC for barley tempe was 46 % of the AUC for oat tempe in the human study. The agreement between the in vitro and in vivo data indicates the potential of the in vitro method as a tool to predict the rate of starch degradation of cereal products. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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