The Hague, Netherlands
The Hague, Netherlands

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Kroes E.,Significance | Kroes E.,VU University Amsterdam | Koster P.,VU University Amsterdam | Koster P.,Tinbergen Institute | Peer S.,Vienna University of Economics and Business
Transportation | Year: 2017

This paper develops and applies a practical method to estimate the benefits of improved reliability of road networks. We present a general methodology to estimate the scheduling costs due to travel time variability for car travel. In contrast to existing practical methods, we explicitly consider the effect of travel time variability on departure time choices. We focus on situations when only mean delays are known, which is typically the case when standard transport models are used. We first show how travel time variability can be predicted from mean delays. We then estimate the scheduling costs of travellers, taking into account their optimal departure time choice given the estimated travel time variability. We illustrate the methodology for air passengers traveling by car to Amsterdam Schiphol Airport. We find that on average planned improvements in network reliability only lead to a small reduction in access costs per trip in absolute terms, mainly because most air passengers drive to the airport outside peak hours, when travel time variability tends to be low. However, in relative terms the reduction in access costs due to the improvements in network reliability is substantial. In our case we find that for every 1 Euro reduction in travel time costs, there is an additional cost reduction of 0.7 Euro due to lower travel time variability, and hence lower scheduling costs. Ignoring the benefits from improved reliability may therefore lead to a severe underestimation of the total benefits of infrastructure improvements. © 2017 The Author(s)

Van Der Loop H.,KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis | Perdok J.,MuConsult | Willigers J.,Significance
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2014

This study aimed to demonstrate that travel time reliability und road network robustness from the user's perspective could be measured with the use of detailed traffic data and according to a definition proposed by international experts. These measurements can be used to describe and explain the trend of travel time reliability and to describe the trend of extreme travel time delays (or nonrecurrent congestion). In the Netherlands, The trend of travel time unreliability increased until 2008 but was followed by a decline in subsequent years until 2011. Socioeconomic factors, such us population growth and employment, appeared to be the underlying factors for the increase in travel time unreliability. Serving as a counterbalance were various transport policy measures, such as the addition of lanes, traffic management, and speed limitation and control, which were implemented primarily during the years 2009 to 2012. Finally, the study demonstrated how the volume of travel time reliability could be used as a component for the cost-benefit analyses of adding infrastructure and for calculating the social costs of travel time unreliability for users of the main trunk road network.

Pel A.J.,Technical University of Delft | Bel N.H.,ProRail | Pieters M.,Significance
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2014

Transit passengers' response to crowded conditions has been studied empirically, yet is limitedly included in transport models currently used in the design of policy and infrastructure investments. This has consequences for the practical applicability of these models in studies on, for instance, timetabling, train capacity management strategies, project appraisal, and passenger satisfaction. Here we propose four methods to include the effect of crowding, based on existing studies on passengers' perception and response as well as often-used crowding indicators. These four alternative methods are implemented in the train passenger assignment procedure of the Dutch national transport model, and evaluated with respect to their impacts on the model results for the Dutch railway network. The four methods relate to four different ways in which an additive trip penalty and/or time-multiplier can be incorporated in the train utility function for different travel purposes, to capture the disutility of crowding as measured by the load factor. The analyses of the test case favor the hybrid method using both a boarding penalty (capturing seat availability upon boarding) and a time-multiplier (capturing physical comfort and safety throughout the trip). This method produces consistent results, while the additional computational effort that it imposes is acceptable. Further empirical underpinning is needed to conclusively show which of these methods best captures passengers' response behavior quantitatively (for different travel purposes and conditions). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Reggiani A.,University of Bologna | Bucci P.,Significance | Russo G.,VU University Amsterdam | Haas A.,Institute for Employment Research | Nijkamp P.,VU University Amsterdam
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2011

Spatial labour markets are subjected to the forces of regional economic activity and competing network effects. Commuting is, therefore, an important equilibrating vehicle in a City Network constellation. Cities act as attractors of commuters, as most economic activity occurs in cities, thus providing a high share of attractive workplaces. Cities that are centrally connected in a network may act as both centripetal and centrifugal forces in the whole system. The present paper focuses on what is named the City Network (CN) approach. A central idea is the accessibility concept, which is interpreted here as the potential of opportunity for interaction, which has a positive impact on economic growth. In our paper, the accessibility concept and the CN concept are linked together by positioning accessibility in the CN system. Since accessibility measures give geographical insights into the distribution of economic activities and the related (dis)equilibrium of regional development patterns, the connection with the labour market is evident, and, therefore, a second focus of our analysis. In an applied setting, our paper aims to investigate spatial accessibility patterns in the main CN in Germany. The 17 districts which belong to the country's CN were chosen from the 439 German labour market districts on the basis of three criteria: (a) their connection to the high speed railway network; (b) the most accessible districts according to previous results (2002); (c) relevant districts for the German economy. Our applied modelling research concerns home-to-work commuters travelling between the selected districts belonging to the German CN, for both 2003 and 2007. Here, a comparative analysis of the ranking of the most accessible districts - also for different intra-zonal travel times - is carried out in order to map out the changes in accessibility between 2003 and 2007, especially in the light of new high speed connections and commuting flow dynamics. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

de Jong G.C.,Significance | de Jong G.C.,University of Leeds | Bliemer M.C.J.,University of Sydney
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2015

In many countries, decision-making on proposals for national or regional infrastructure projects in passenger and freight transport includes carrying out a cost-benefit analysis for these projects. Reductions in travel times are usually a key benefit. However, if a project also reduces the variability of travel time, travellers, freight operators and shippers will enjoy additional benefits, the 'reliability benefits'. Until now, these benefits are usually not included in the cost-benefit analysis. To include reliability of travel or transport time in the cost-benefit analysis of infrastructure projects not only monetary values of reliability, but also reliability forecasting models are needed. As a result of an extensive feasibility study carried out for the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development this paper aims to provide a literature overview and outcomes of an expert panel on how best to calculate and monetise reliability benefits, synthesised into recommendations for implementing travel time reliability into existing transport models in the short, medium, and long term. The paper focuses on road transport, which has also been the topic for most of the available literature on modelling and valuing transport time reliability. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Zondag B.,Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency | de Bok M.,Significance | Geurs K.T.,University of Twente | Molenwijk E.,Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems | Year: 2015

In current practice, transportation planning often ignores the effects of major transportation improvements on land use and the distribution of land use activities, which might affect the accessibility impacts and economic efficiency of the transportation investment strategies. In this paper, we describe the model specification and application of the land use transport interaction model TIGRIS XL for the Netherlands. The TIGRIS XL land-use and transport interaction model can internationally be positioned among the recursive or quasi-dynamic land-use and transport interaction models. The National Model System, the main transport model used in Dutch national transport policy making and evaluation, is fully integrated in the modeling framework. Accessibility modeling and evaluation are disaggregated and fully consistent, which is not common in accessibility modeling research. Logsum accessibility measures estimated by the transport model are used as explanatory variables for the residential and firm location modules and as indicators in policy evaluations, expressing accessibility benefits expressed in monetary terms. Modeling results indicate that accessibility changes from transport investments in the Netherlands have a significant but modest positive influence on the location choice of residents and firms. This is probably mainly due to the spatial structure and already dense and well developed transport networks, and the large influence of national, regional and local governments on the Dutch land use markets. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Kroes E.,Significance | Kroes E.,VU University Amsterdam | Kouwenhoven M.,Significance | Debrincat L.,Syndicat des Transports dile de France | Pauget N.,Syndicat des Transports dile de France
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2014

This paper describes the results of a research project that aimed to establish passenger values of crowding on public transport services in the Paris region. Qualitative research, stated preference (SP) experiments, and passenger counts and surveys were conducted to obtain such values. A simple method was developed to quantify the passenger benefits of specific public transport projects aiming to reduce crowding on existing lines. This method was applied in a case study to the regional rail (RER) RER Line E extension project. With regard to the value of crowding, the research indicated that the perceived disutility of crowding could be more accurately described as a constant disutility per trip than as a travel time multiplier. However, for ease of application often the multiplier formulation was preferred. When the value of crowding was expressed as a travel time multiplier, values were obtained ranging from 1.0 when all passengers could be seated to 1.7 for standing bus passengers when the vehicles reached their maximum capacity. Also for seated passengers, multipliers well above 1.0 were observed for (highly) congested vehicles (maximum value = 1.5 for bus passengers). These values were applied in a case study that estimated the effects of an extension of the regional rail line RER E in the western direction, partially running parallel to the existing RER Line A. This extension would reduce the current (very) high crowding levels on the RER A and B lines to more moderate levels and generate benefits of about €23 million per year.

Reggiani A.,University of Bologna | Bucci P.,Significance | Russo G.,VU Amsterdam
International Regional Science Review | Year: 2011

Accessibility plays a fundamental role in the transport network. In fact, accessibility may be used for investigating the (un)even distribution of economic activities, or the (dis)equilibrium in the development of different regional performances. In particular, accessibility analysis can be considered as a first exploratory step in the understanding of people's needs and behaviour, especially in the framework of transport network structures. From the methodological viewpoint, accessibility has a long tradition, starting in the 1950's with the pioneering work by Hansen, who defined accessibility as the potential of opportunity for interaction. Such a definition can also be considered as an integrated framework of all subsequent definitions. The aim of this paper is to explore accessibility in the German commuting network, by focusing attention on the relevance of the impedance form associated with it. The conventional (potential) accessibility function - in the light of the related economic activities - is used as a suitable instrument to identify the major German hub/ attraction nodes. In this formulation, different types of decay functions are used as impedance forms. In our applications we consider home-to-work commuters travelling between 439 German districts, for both 2003 and 2007. We carry out a comparative analysis of the accessibility values in these years, by outlining the different emerging hierarchies, resulting from the use of different impedance forms. In addition, we explore which type of accessibility indicator best matches the connectivity network. The final aim is to identify - by means of different accessibility functions - homogeneous vs. heterogeneous characteristics of the German commuting network. © 2011 SAGE Publications.

Willigers J.,Significance | Van Wee B.,Technical University of Delft
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2011

High-speed rail is seen as a factor contributing to the attractiveness of a location for economic activities. This paper focuses on how the level-of-service characteristics of railway stations, and in particular the presence of high-speed train services, influence the attractiveness of locations for specific types of offices. The results are presented for a stated choice experiment for location choices of offices in the Netherlands. It is concluded that the availability of high-speed train services contributes to the attractiveness of a location for offices. For internationally-oriented offices the areas around stations with international high-speed train services are attractive because of their good international accessibility. We also found an indication that high-speed train services can raise the status of an office site. In the Netherlands, the domestic high-speed train services are less relevant for location choices, because of the small domestic distances. Besides high-speed train services, other location characteristics that determine how well a site is connected to the railway network are also found to be important for location choices. Thereby differences between offices occur, which can partly be explained by the number of trips to/from an office. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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