Signal Transduction Research Group

Pécs, Hungary

Signal Transduction Research Group

Pécs, Hungary
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Schipp R.,University of Pécs | Schipp R.,Signal Transduction Research Group | Varga J.,University of Pécs | Varga J.,Signal Transduction Research Group | And 10 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2017

The bacterial antibiotic anisomycin is known to induce apoptosis by activating several mitogen-activated protein kinases and by inhibiting protein synthesis. In this study, the influence of p53 protein on the apoptosis-inducing effect of anisomycin was investigated. The effect of protein synthesis-inhibiting concentration of anisomycin on apoptotic events was analyzed using Western blot, DNA fragmentation, and cell viability assays in wild-type PC12 and in mutant p53 protein expressing p143p53PC12 cells. Anisomycin stimulated the main apoptotic pathways in both cell lines, but p143p53PC12 cells showed lower sensitivity to the drug than their wild-type counterparts. Anisomycin caused the activation of the main stress kinases, phosphorylation of the p53 protein and the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2α, proteolytic cleavage of protein kinase R, Bid, caspase-9 and -3. Furthermore, anisomycin treatment led to the activation of TRAIL and caspase-8, two proteins involved in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. All these changes were stronger and more sustained in wtPC12 cells. In the presence of the dominant inhibitory p53 protein, p53- dependent genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis may be less transcribed and this can lead to the decrease of apoptotic processes in p143p53PC12 cells. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Balogh A.,University of Pécs | Balogh A.,Signal Transduction Research Group | Bator J.,University of Pécs | Bator J.,Signal Transduction Research Group | And 11 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2014

Although the oncolytic potential of natural, non-engineered Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates are well-known, cellular mechanisms determining NDV sensitivity of tumor cells are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to look for gene expression changes in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells infected with an attenuated NDV strain that may be related to NDV susceptibility. PC12 cells were infected with the NDV strain MTH-68/H for 12h at a titer corresponding to the IC50 value. Total cytoplasmic RNA samples isolated from control and MTH-68/H-infected cells were analyzed using a rat specific Affymetrix exon chip. Genes with at least 2-fold increase or decrease in their expression were identified. MTH-68/H-induced gene expression changes of 9 genes were validated using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. A total of 729 genes were up- and 612 genes were down-regulated in PC12 cells infected with MTH-68/H. Using the DAVID functional annotation clustering tool, the up- and down-regulated genes can be categorized into 176 and 146 overlapping functional gene clusters, respectively. Gene expression changes affecting the most important signaling mechanisms (Toll-like receptor signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling, interferon signaling, interferon effector pathways, apoptosis pathways, endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways, cell cycle regulation) are analyzed and discussed in detail in this paper. NDV-induced gene expression changes described in this paper affect several regulatory mechanisms and dozens of putative key proteins that may determine the NDV susceptibility of various tumors. Further characterization of these proteins may identify susceptibility markers to predict the chances of virotherapeutic treatment of human tumors. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Berta G.,University of Pécs | Berta G.,Signal Transduction Research Group | Harci A.,University of Pécs | Harci A.,Signal Transduction Research Group | And 12 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2013

In this work we tried to identify mechanisms that could explain how chemical inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 reduces nerve growth factor signaling in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Geldanamycin is an antibiotic originally discovered based on its ability to bind heat-shock protein 90. This interaction can lead to the disruption of heat-shock protein 90-containing multimolecular complexes. It can also induce the inhibition or even degradation of partner proteins dissociated from the 90 kDa chaperone and, eventually, can cause apoptosis, for instance, in PC12 cells. Before the onset of initial apoptotic events, however, a marked decrease in the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK 1/2 and protein kinase B/Akt can be observed together with reduced expression of the high affinity nerve growth factor receptor, tropomyosine-related kinase, TrkA, in this cell type. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 can effectively counteract the geldanamycin-induced reduction of TrkA expression and it can render TrkA and ERK1/2 phosphorylation but not that of protein kinase B/Akt by nerve growth factor again inducible. We have found altered intracellular distribution of TrkA in geldanamycin-treated and proteasome-inhibited PC12 cells that may, at least from the viewpoint of protein localization explain why nerve growth factor remains without effect on protein kinase B/Akt. The lack of protein kinase B/Akt stimulation by nerve growth factor in turn reveals why nerve growth factor treatment cannot save PC12 cells from geldanamycin-induced programmed cell death. Our observations can help to better understand the mechanism of action of geldanamycin, a compound with strong human therapeutical potential. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Varga J.,University of Pécs | Varga J.,Signal Transduction Research Group | Bator J.,University of Pécs | Bator J.,Signal Transduction Research Group | And 7 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2015

The PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cell line is an in vitro model system widely used for the investigation of intracellular signaling events contributing to neuronal differentiation and cell death. We found earlier that the nitric oxide donor compound sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced apoptosis of PC12 cells if it was applied in high concentration (400 µM). Yoshioka et al. (J Pharmacol Sci 101:126–134, 2006) reported that cell death evoked by cytotoxic concentrations of SNP could be prevented by a 100 µM SNP pre-treatment in a murine macrophage cell line. The apoptosis caused by toxic-dose SNP treatment (400 µM) could be partially overcome in PC12 cells as well by the low-dose SNP pre-treatment. The partial inhibition of apoptosis was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of certain proteins (such as stress-activated protein kinases, the p53, and the eIF2α proteins), decreased caspase activation, and less intense internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. The 100 µM SNP pre-treatment reduced the pro-apoptotic potential of certain other stress stimuli (serum withdrawal, cisplatin and tunicamycin treatments) as well, although the underlying biochemical changes were not entirely uniform. On the contrary, the 100 µM SNP pre-treatment was unable to prevent cell death caused by the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin. Further clarification of the above-mentioned processes may be important in understanding the mechanisms by which mild nitrosative stress protects cells against certain forms of cellular stress conditions. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Varga J.,University of Pécs | Varga J.,Signal Transduction Research Group | Bator J.,University of Pécs | Bator J.,Signal Transduction Research Group | And 9 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2014

PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells are widely used to investigate signaling pathways. The p143p53PC12 cell line expresses a Val143Ala mutant p53 protein that is less capable of binding to the p53 consensus site in DNA than its wild-type counterpart. Nitric oxide (NO), depending on its concentration, is able to activate several signal transduction pathways. We used sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor compound, to analyze NO-induced cellular stress in order to clarify the mechanism and role of nitrosative stress in pathological processes, including inflammation and cancer. SNP caused cell death when applied at a concentration of 400 μM, p143p53PC12 cells showing higher sensitivity than wild-type PC12 cells. The mechanisms leading to the increased SNP-sensitivity of p143p53PC12 cells were then investigated. The 400-μM SNP treatment caused stress kinase activation, phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2α and p53 protein, proteolytic activation of protein kinase R, caspase-9, and caspase-3, p53 stabilization, CHOP induction, cytochrome c release from mitochondria, and a decline in the level of the Bcl-2 protein in both cell lines. All these SNP-induced changes were more robust and/or permanent in cells with the mutant p53 protein. We thus conclude that (1) the main cause of the SNP-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells is the repression of the bcl-2 gene, evoked through p53 stabilization, stress kinase activation, and CHOP induction; (2) the higher SNP sensitivity of p143p53PC12 cells is the consequence of the stronger and earlier activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Tarjanyi O.,University of Pécs | Tarjanyi O.,Signal Transduction Research Group | Berta G.,University of Pécs | Berta G.,Signal Transduction Research Group | And 10 more authors.
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2013

The PC12 (rat pheochromocytoma) cell line is a popular model system to study neuronal differentiation. Upon prolonged nerve growth factor (NGF) exposure these tumor cells stop to divide, become polygonal, grow projections and start to look and behave like sympathetic neurons. Differentiation of PC12 cells can also be induced by peptidyl-aldehyde proteasome inhibitors, such as Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al (also known as MG-132) or via infection of the cells with Rous sarcoma virus. The signal transduction pathways underlying process formation, however, are still not fully understood. The liganded NGF receptor initiates a protein kinase cascade a member of which is Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK). Active ERK1/2 enzymes phosphorylate various cytoplasmic proteins and can also be translocated into the nucleus, where they regulate gene expression by activating key transcription factors. Using immunological methods we detected phosphorylation of TrkA, prolongedactivation of Src, and ERK1/2 with nuclear translocation of the latter during MG-132-induced process formation of PC12 cells. Activated Src remained predominantly cytoplasmic. MG-132-induced sustained ERK1/2 activation, nuclear translocation and neuritogenesis required the intact function of Src since these phenomena were markedly reduced or failed upon chemical inhibition of Src tyrosine protein kinase activity.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pap M.,University of Pécs | Pap M.,Signal Transduction Research Group | Bator J.,University of Pécs | Bator J.,Signal Transduction Research Group | And 2 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2015

Background/Aim: Virotherapy may be a promising alternative to chemotherapy of malignant melanoma. In clinical trials using strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), only a fraction of patients with cancer responded to virotherapy. In the present study, we tried to find a correlation between the susceptibility of human melanoma cell lines to NDV and growth factor signaling pathways. Materials and Methods: Using an ATP assay, cytotoxicity of an NDV strain (MTH-68/H) was tested in 13 human melanoma cell lines. The activation state of growth factor signaling pathways was studied by the analysis of key signaling proteins. Results: MTH-68/H was found to be cytotoxic in all melanoma cells tested, but the IC50 values varied significantly. No correlation between the IC50 values and the rate of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT phosphorylation and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) expression was found. Conclusion: Susceptibility of tumor cells to NDV may be affected by alterations other than those of RAS/ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling in uninfected cells.

Szeberenyi J.,University of Pécs | Szeberenyi J.,Signal Transduction Research Group
Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Toxic concentrations of the second messenger nitric oxide cause cellular stress leading to cell death. Ras proteins, possible targets of nitric oxide-induced nitrosylation, may act as mediators in nitrosative stress. To analyze the possible involvement of Ras proteins in nitric oxide cytotoxicity, a PC12 rat phaeochromocytoma cell line expressing a dominant negative Ras mutant protein was used in this study. Cytotoxic concentrations of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside activated several proapoptotic mechanisms, including stimulation of the stress kinase pathways mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), inhibition of the translation initiation factor eIF2α, induction and phosphorylation of the p53 protein, and inhibited Akt-mediated antiapoptotic signaling, independent of Ras function. Simultaneously, Ras-dependent stimulation of the prosurvival ERK pathway was also observed, followed by an increased activation of the caspase-9/caspase-3 cascade in cells with impaired Ras function. It is concluded that nitric oxide stimulation of multiple signaling pathways contributes to the cell death program, whereas concomitant activation of the Ras/ERK pathway provides a certain degree of protection. © 2013 Published by NRC Research Press.

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