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Patent
Signal Sciences | Date: 2015-08-28

A system for web application security includes an interface and a processor. The interface of a web server is to receive a pending request made to the web server using an in-line request process. The processor of the web server is to provide information regarding the pending request to an agent process; and in the event that an instruction to block the pending request is received from the agent process at the in-line request process within a time constraint, block the pending request using the in-line request process.


Yao J.,Signal Sciences
2016 3rd International Conference on Systems and Informatics, ICSAI 2016 | Year: 2016

Production system, which is also named as rule engiue, lias been widely used in artificial intelligence. Rete algorithm is the most popular rule-match algorithm, which speeds up the whole procedure by sharing the conditions among the productions and storing the temporary results. However, when the size of rules and facts continues to grow, Rete algorithm becomes computationally expensive and slow. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach for rule matching in production system based on Multi-Agent, which treats each node in rete algorithm as an agent, and every agent individually performs its own computational tasks and shares the state by passing messages. We also introduce indexes on tokens to accelerate the match and design a mechanism to balance the computational tasks among agents. Finally we conduct experiment to show its efficiency. © 2016 IEEE.


News Article | February 23, 2017
Site: www.techrepublic.com

In 2017 DevOps will go mainstream," said Signal Sciences' co-founder & chief security officer Zane Lackey. Historically, in enterprise organizations software developers and IT engineers operate in discrete silos. DevOps, however, is changing the way legacy organizations manage technology. DevOps is the technology process that marries software development with IT operations. The trend emerged as an inevitable response to the rise of Agile and iterative software project management. The advantage, experts say, is that DevOps helps organizations scale, yet remain nimble. "While it's been steadily picking up speed, in 2017 DevOps will start being a symbol for teams with integrated skills to build, deploy, and maintain applications in a continuous way," Lackey said. DevOps is a particularly useful cybersecurity tool, Lackey said. The DevOps trend has emerged rapidly, "as [silos] realize the need to integrate with each other in order to survive," Lackey explained. "With IoT on the rise, security will continue to be the primary obstacle preventing consumers from fully welcoming connected devices into their homes and lifestyles. Consumers and businesses are getting smarter and security vendors will be held more accountable in keeping them safe ... DevOps requires a reinvention of security, including a cultural change. To meet this need, security as a whole will recognize the need to integrate into DevOps to survive." Many companies, however, remain wary of the potential security risks posed by DevOps. "Continuous delivery and continuous integration pipelines that are now widely adopted in Agile development and DevOps shops are just such a target," said Carson Sweet, CTO and co-founder of CloudPassage. "Consider the impact of advanced persistent threat (APT) malware, but applied at the application level instead of the system level. If a threat actor (one of the nasty people) is able to breach the software development pipeline, they can essentially control the company by subverting their software code and components." Healthcare and financial services, Sweet said, are high-stakes industries most at risk by APT threats. "These attacks are likely to be aggressive and very public, meaning that DevOps teams will need to live up to new standards of testing and prevention, preferably harmonizing these operations with existing devops tools and functions." What do you think: Is DevOps the next big thing, or is a trend that will soon fade? Take the TechRepublic poll and explain your thoughts in the comments below.


Darvesh A.S.,Northeast Ohio Medical University | Bishayee A.,Signal Sciences
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2013

The prophylactic and therapeutic properties of tea have been attributed to green tea catechins and black tea theaflavins besides several other polyphenolic compounds. Tea polyphenols possess potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties and modulate several signaling pathways. These biochemical facets of tea polyphenols are responsible for its anticancer properties. Several lethal cancers, such as liver cancer, develop within a background of oxidative stress and inflammation. Liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has been shown to occur throughout the world including Asia, Africa, Western Europe, and the United States. Phytochemicals, such as tea polyphenols, provide an effective and promising alternative for the chemoprevention and treatment of HCC. In this article, we systematically review, for the first time, the effects of tea polyphenols in the preclinical in vitro and in vivo HCC models. The review also examines, in critical detail, the biochemical mechanisms involved in the chemopreventive and antineoplastic effects of tea polyphenols in hepatic cancer. Finally, we highlight the role of synergy, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of tea polyphenols, current status of clinical trials, discuss future directions, and comment on the future challenges involved in the effective use of tea polyphenols for the prevention and management of liver cancer. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


News Article | December 13, 2016
Site: www.techrepublic.com

If 2016 was the year hacking went mainstream, 2017 will be the year hackers innovate, said Adam Meyer, chief security strategist at SurfWatch Labs. Meyer analyzes large and diverse piles of data to help companies identify emerging cyber-threat trends. "2017 will be the year of increasingly creative [hacks]," he said. In the past, cybersecurity was considered the realm of IT departments, Meyer explained, but no longer. As smart companies systematically integrate security into their systems, the culture hackers too will evolve. "Cybercriminals follow the money trail," Meyer said, and smart companies should adopt proactive policies. Ransomware attacks grew quickly, he said, because the attacks are "cheap to operate, and many organizations are not yet applying the proper analysis and decision-making to appropriately defend against this threat." SEE: How risk analytics can help your organization plug security holes (Tech Pro Research) It's equally cheap to identify internal vulnerability to hacks and to apply preventative best practices, Meyer said. But for many companies it's not as easy to understand the cybersecurity threats most likely to impact business. To help, TechRepublic spoke with a number of prominent security experts about their predictions for near-future cybersecurity trends likely to impact enterprise and small business in 2017. Cyber-offense and cyber-defense capacities will increase - Mark Testoni, CEO at SAP's national security arm, NS2 We will see an increased rate of sharing of cyber capabilities between the commercial and government spaces. Commercial threat intelligence capabilities will be adopted more broadly by organizations and corporations... High performance computing (HPC), in conjunction with adaptive machine learning (ML) capabilities, will be an essential part of network flow processing because forensic analysis can't stop an impending attack. HPC + adaptive ML capabilities will be required to implement real-time network event forecasting based on prior network behavior and current network operations... [Companies will] use HPC and adaptive ML to implement real-time behavior and pattern analysis to evaluate all network activity based on individual user roles and responsibilities to identify potential individuals within an organization that exhibit "out of the ordinary" tendencies with respect to their use of corporate data and application access. Ransomware and extortion will increase - Stephen Gates, chief research intelligence analyst at NSFOCUS The days of single-target ransomware will soon be a thing of the past. Next-generation ransomware paints a pretty dark picture as the self-propagating worms of the past, such as Conficker, Nimda, and Code Red, will return to prominence—but this time they will carry ransomware payloads capable of infecting hundreds of machines in an incredibly short timespan. We have already seen this start to come to fruition with the recent attack on the San Francisco Municipal Transport Agency, where over 2,000 systems were completely locked with ransomware and likely spread on its own as a self-propagating worm. As cybercriminals become more adept at carrying out these tactics, there is a good chance that these attacks will become more common. As more devices become internet-enabled and accessible and the security measures in place continue to lag behind, the associated risks are on the rise. Aside from the obvious risks for attacks on consumer IoT devices, there is a growing threat against industrial and municipal IoT as well. As leading manufacturers and grid power producers transition to Industry 4.0, sufficient safeguards are lacking. Not only do these IoT devices run the risk of being used to attack others, but their vulnerabilities leave them open to being used against the industrial organizations operating critical infrastructure themselves. This can lead to theft of intellectual property, collecting competitive intelligence, and even the disruption or destruction of critical infrastructure. Not only is the potential scale of these attacks larger, most of these industrial firms do not have the skills in place to deal with web attacks in real-time, which can cause long-lasting, damaging results. This alone will become one of the greatest threats that countries and corporations need to brace themselves for in 2017 and beyond. IoT security threats have been talked about, but not really worried about by most because a serious incident had yet to occur. With the 2016 DDoS attack on Dyn, and the ripple effect it created, we will see more scrutiny on security within the IoT marketplace. Vendors will work in new security precautions, but at the same time, criminals will also increase their attention on new ways to leverage IoT devices for their own malicious purposes. There are plenty of "As-A- Service" attack capabilities on the Dark Web for hire now and we should expect creative new IoT hack services to pop up in the near future. As organizations adopt more effective strategies to defeat malware, attackers will shift their approach and start to use legitimate credentials and software - think physical insiders, credential theft, man-in-the-app. The increased targeting of social media and personal email bypasses many network defenses, like email scans and URL filters. The most dangerous aspect is how attackers manipulate victims with offers or threats that they would not want to present to an employer, like employment offers or illicit content. Defenders will begin to appreciate that inconsistent user behaviors are the most effective way to differentiate malware and insider threats from safe and acceptable content. A big part of the challenge with cyberattacks is how businesses think threats can be filtered at the perimeter. Be warned that this is not the case. Attackers are aware of how to directly target users and endpoints using social engineering. The industry needs to be more proactive in thinking about how to reduce the attack surface, as opposed to chasing known threats and detecting millions of unknown threats. With an increasingly mobile workforce and threats coming through both personal and business devices and services, the impact of perimeter defenses has decreased. Security needs to be built from the endpoint outwards. Business security spending will increase - Ed Solis, Director of Strategy & Business Development at CommScope Security is part of every business and IT discussion these days and it will only become more intense in 2017. We see an increase in the demand for video for surveillance, both for government and private businesses. This issue includes physical security—securing the building, people, and assets—as well as network and data security... In 2017, security conversations will continue to intensify around not only securing data and networks but physical security as well-think buildings, people, and assets. We also expect to see an increased demand for video surveillance across the public sector and private business. Security will no longer be an afterthought - Signal Sciences' Co-Founder & Chief Security Officer, Zane Lackey 2017 will be a critical year for security, starting with how it's built into technology. DevOps and security will change the way they work together as they realize the need to integrate with each other in order to survive. With IoT on the rise, security will continue to be the primary obstacle preventing consumers from fully welcoming connected devices into their homes and lifestyles. Consumers and businesses are getting smarter and security vendors will be held more accountable in keeping them safe.


Sinha D.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Biswas J.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Bishayee A.,Signal Sciences
Archives of Toxicology | Year: 2013

Arsenic is a ubiquitous toxic metalloid whose natural leaching from geogenic resources of earths crust into groundwater has become a dreadful health hazard to millions of people across the globe. Arsenic has been documented as a top most potent human carcinogen by Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. There have been a number of schools of opinions regarding the underlying mechanism of arsenic-induced carcinogenicity, but the theory of oxidative stress generated by arsenic has gained much importance. Imbalance in the cellular redox state and its associated complications have been closely associated with nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that activates the antioxidant responsive element and electrophilic responsive element, thereby upregulating the expression of a variety of downstream genes. This review has been framed on the lines of differential molecular responses of Nrf2 on arsenic exposure as well as the chemopreventive strategy which may be improvised to regulate Nrf2 in order to combat arsenic-induced oxidative stress and its long-term carcinogenic effect. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Wu Y.J.,Signal Sciences | Abhayapala T.D.,Signal Sciences
IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing | Year: 2011

Spatial multizone soundfield reproduction overan extended region of open space is a complex and challenging problem in acoustic signal processing. In this paper, we provide a framework to recreate 2-D spatial multizone soundfields using a single array of loudspeakers which encompasses all spatial regions of interest. The reproduction is based on the derivation of an equivalent global soundfield consisting of a number of individual multizone soundfields. This is achieved by using spatial harmonic coefficients translation between coordinate systems. Amultizone soundfield reproduction problem is then reduced to the reproduction over the entire region. An important advantage of this approach is the full use of the available dimensionality of the soundfield. This paper provides quantitative performances of a 2-D multizone system and reveals some fundamental limits on 2-D multizone soundfield reproduction. The extensions of the multizone soundfield reproduction design in reverberant rooms are also included. © 2010 IEEE.


Bishayee A.,Signal Sciences
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

Persistent inflammation is known to promote and exacerbate malignancy. Primary liver cancer, mostly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is a clear example of inflammation-related cancer as more than 90% of HCCs arise in the context of hepatic injury and inflammation. HCC represents the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide with about one million new cases diagnosed every year with almost an equal number of deaths. Chronic unresolved inflammation is associated with persistent hepatic injury and concurrent regeneration, leading to sequential development of fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually HCC. Irrespective of the intrinsic differences among various etiological factors, a common denominator at the origin of HCC is the perpetuation of a wound-healing response activated by parenchymal cell death and the resulting inflammatory cascade. Hence, the identification of fundamental inflammatory signaling pathways causing transition from chronic liver injury to dysplasia and HCC could depict new predictive biomarkers and targets to identify and treat patients with chronic liver inflammation. This chapter critically discusses the roles of several major cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, transcription factors, and enzymes as well as a distinct network of inflammatory signaling pathways in the development and progression of HCC. It also highlights and analyzes preclinical animal studies showing innovative approaches of targeting inflammatory mediators and signaling by a variety of natural compounds and synthetic agents to achieve effective therapy as well as prevention of hepatic malignancy. Additionally, current limitations and potential challenges associated with the inhibition of inflammatory signaling as well as future directions of research to accelerate clinical development of anti-inflammatory agents to prevent and treat liver cancer are presented. © Springer Basel 2014.


Bishayee A.,Signal Sciences
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

Persistent inflammation is known to promote and exacerbate malignancy. Primary liver cancer, mostly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is a clear example of inflammation-related cancer as more than 90 % of HCCs arise in the context of hepatic injury and inflammation. HCC represents the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide with about one million new cases diagnosed every year with almost an equal number of deaths. Chronic unresolved inflammation is associated with persistent hepatic injury and concurrent regeneration, leading to sequential development of fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually HCC. Irrespective of the intrinsic differences among various etiological factors, a common denominator at the origin of HCC is the perpetuation of a wound-healing response activated by parenchymal cell death and the resulting inflammatory cascade. Hence, the identification of fundamental inflammatory signaling pathways causing transition from chronic liver injury to dysplasia and HCC could depict new predictive biomarkers and targets to identify and treat patients with chronic liver inflammation. This chapter critically discusses the roles of several major cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, transcription factors, and enzymes as well as a distinct network of inflammatory signaling pathways in the development and progression of HCC. It also highlights and analyzes preclinical animal studies showing innovative approaches of targeting inflammatory mediators and signaling by a variety of natural compounds and synthetic agents to achieve effective therapy as well as prevention of hepatic malignancy. Additionally, current limitations and potential challenges associated with the inhibition of inflammatory signaling as well as future directions of research to accelerate clinical development of anti-inflammatory agents to prevent and treat liver cancer are presented. © 2014 Springer Basel.


News Article | July 11, 2014
Site: www.builtinla.com

Venice-based SaaS company Signal Sciences announced a $2 million seed round last week. The two-month-old startup, which provides security monitoring and defense for web applications, will be using the funds for private deployments over the next few months before they launch for general use. “Right now, we're heads down on development with our first customers,” CEO Andrew Peterson said. Also on deck this year is beefing up their engineering team - thanks to the round led by Harrison Metal and O’Reilly AlphaTech Ventures. Big names in the tech world also signed on to support Signal Sciences last week: Yahoo CISO Alex Stamos, technologist Bob Pasker, Etsy CEO Chad Dickerson and Tripwire founder Gene Kim just to name a few. The company’s very first hire just started last week and many more hires will come this year right here in LA. “When we decided to start Signal Sciences our team was spread across the world in NYC, Tokyo and Seattle,” Peterson said. “Ultimately, we decided to set up our offices in LA because of how promising the tech landscape is here. We just moved into our Venice office and we're extremely excited to be a part of the growing community in Los Angeles.”

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