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Dissociative electron attachment to gas phase 2-chloro-2,2-difluoroacetic acid methyl ester (CClF2COOCH3) is studied by means of a crossed beams apparatus. Effective cleavage of the C-Cl bond is observed within a broad resonance in the energy range 0-1 eV and visible via the appearance of the light fragment Cl-. In chlorodifluoroacetic acid cleavage of the C-Cl bond was observed not only via the Cl- anion formation but predominantly via expulsion of the neutral chlorine atom leading to the formation of the (M-Cl)- anion. Similar to the previously studied esters CF3COOCH3 and CF3COOC2H5[I. Martin, J. Langer, E. Illenberger, Z. Phys. Chem. 222, 1185 (2008)], we observe reaction due to the cleavage of the ester bond resulting in the formation of the closed shell (M-CH3)- anion. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

Rosa R.,Siedlce University Of Natural Sciences And Humanities
Journal of Ecological Engineering | Year: 2014

Organic manuring is suggested to be necessary in sweet corn cultivation. It is not always possible to use farmyard manure due to economic, production or technical reasons. Catch crops used as green manures can be an alternative source of organic matter. The experiment was carried out in central-east Poland (52°06'N, 22°55'E), in years 2008-2011. The successive effect of winter catch crops (hairy vetch, white clover, winter rye, Italian ryegrass, winter turnip rape) and the type of weed control on the growth and yielding of sweet corn was examined. The catch crops were sown in early September, incorporated in early May. The effect of the winter catch crops on yield was compared to the effect of FYM at a rate of 30 t·ha-1 and the control without organic manuring. The sweet corn was grown directly after organic fertilization. Three methods of weed control was used: Hw - hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM - herbicide Guardian CompleteMix 664 SE, immediately after sowing the seed corn, Z+T - a mixture of herbicides Zeagran 340 SE + Titus 25 WG, in the 3-4 leaf stage sweet corn. The highest yields of biomass were found for winter rye (35.5 t·ha-1 FM and 7.3 t·ha-1 DM), the most of macroelements accumulated winter turnip rape (480.2kg N+P+K+Ca+Mg·ha-1). Generally, leguminous catch crops had similar to the FYM and better than non-leguminous catch crops yield-forming effect. The highest yield of marketable ears of sweet corn was obtained after FYM (14.4 t·ha-1) and after hairy vetch catch crop (14.0 t·ha-1). A similar yield-forming effect also had white clover and Italian ryegrass. The most of ears from 1ha was achieved after white clover catch crop (59.3 tausend), similar after FYM and hairy vetch catch crop. The highest kernel yields were found after FYM (10.7 t·ha-1). The yields of kernel after hairy vetch and white clover catch crops were significantly higher than after non-leguminous catch crops. Z+T weed control method increase marketable yield of sweet corn (by 25-30%) and a number of ears (by 17-22%), compared to hand weeding and GCM weed control method. Source

The stability constants and coordination modes of the copper(II) heteroligand complexes Cu2+-L1-L2 formed by ethylenediamine (en), diethylenetriamine (dien), N,N,N′,N″,N″- pentamethyldiethylene triamine (Me5dien) (=ligand L1) and DL-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid (β-Asp(P) = ligand L2) have been determined in an aqueous solution (25.00 °C and I = 0.2 mol dm -3 KCl) by pH-metric, spectrophotometric and EPR methods. Heteroligand complexes with [Cu(L1)(β-Asp(P))]- stoichiometry are formed in all studied Cu2+-L1-L 2 ternary systems. Additionally, in the system with en and dien the protonated [Cu(L1)(H-β-Asp(P))] species is postulated. The results indicate the tridentate coordination mode of β-Asp(P) and the tetragonal geometry for the [Cu(en)(β-Asp(P))]- species. If ligand L1 is dien or Me5dien, five-coordinated heteroligand copper(II) complexes are supported. For the [Cu(dien)(β-Asp(P) )]- complex the geometry slightly deviated from square pyramidal is postulated, whereas for the [Cu(Me5dien)(β-Asp(P))]- species somewhat stronger geometry distortion is observed. In both complexes of tridentate amines, β-Asp(P) reveals similar coordination ability as α-Ala and coordinates to the copper(II) ion in the amino acid manner with the formation of five-membered chelate ring. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Kopyra J.,Siedlce University Of Natural Sciences And Humanities
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

Reactions induced by the attachment of low energy electrons to an entire gas phase nucleotide (2′-deoxycytidine 5′-monophosphate) are reported for the first time. From the resonant attachment profiles information on the site of initial electron localization and from the observed ionic fragments information on final bond cleavage can be extracted. © 2012 the Owner Societies. Source

Kondera E.,Siedlce University Of Natural Sciences And Humanities
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

The morphogenesis of head kidney haematopoietic cells in common carp has been shown to be very similar to that of higher vertebrates. The erythropoietic series consisted of the erythroblasts (basophilic, polychromatic and orthochromic), young erythrocyte and erythrocyte. The morphological changes that occur during maturation process are reduction in size and further increase at mature stage, gradual chromatin condensation and the increase in haemoglobin content. Maturation stages of neutrophils and basophils encompassed the young progranulocyte, progranulocyte and metagranulocyte. The early blast cells, basophilic lineage and lymphocytes were regularly present in kidney. In the monocytoid series in kidneys, promonocytes and mature monocytes were observed. Precursor stages of the eosinophile and thrombocyte were not discernible (although mature cells were observed). Lymphoid cells were the most abundant, followed by granuloid, thrombocyte, erythroid, blast and monocytoid cells. The neutrophilic progranulocyte was the most frequent granuloid cell. The lymphocyte was the most frequent cell in the kidney and the most numerous of the lymphoid lineage. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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