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Baltimore Highlands, MD, United States

Chaudhary N.,Johns Hopkins University | Datta K.,Johns Hopkins University | Askin F.B.,Johns Hopkins University | Staab J.F.,Johns Hopkins University | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2012

Rationale: Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) alter epithelial cell (EC) interactions with multiple microbes, such that dysregulated inflammation and injury occur with airway colonization in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Aspergillus fumigatus frequently colonizes CF airways, but it has been assumed tobe an innocent saprophyte; its potential role as a cause of lung disease is controversial. Objectives: To study the interactions between Aspergillus and EC, and the role of the fungus in evoking inflammatory responses. Methods: A. fumigatus expressing green fluorescent protein was developed for in vitro and in vivo models, which used cell lines and mouse tracheal EC. Measurements and Main Results: Fungal spores (conidia) are rapidly ingested by ECs derived from bronchial cell lines and murine tracheas, supporting a role for EC in early airway clearance. Bronchial ECs harboring CFTR mutations (ΔF508) or deletion demonstrate impaired uptake and killing of conidia, and ECs with CFTR mutation undergo more conidial-induced apoptosis. Germinated (hyphal) forms of the fungus evoke secretion ofinflammatory mediators, with CFTR mutation resulting in increased airway levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and KC, and higher lung monocyte chemotactic protein-1. After A. fumigatus inhalation, CFTR -/- mice develop exaggerated lymphocytic inflammation, mucin accumulation, and lung injury. Conclusions: Data demonstrate a critical role for CFTR in mediating EC responses to A. fumigatus. Results suggest that the fungus elicits aberrant pulmonary inflammation in the setting of CFTR mutation, supporting the potential role of antifungals to halt progressive CF lung disease. Copyright © 2012 by the American Thoracic Society.

Li R.,Viral Oncology Program | Hayward S.D.,Viral Oncology Program | Hayward S.D.,Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2013

Herpesviruses are ubiquitous human pathogens that establish lifelong persistent infections. Clinical manifestations range from mild self-limiting outbreaks such as childhood rashes and cold sores to the more severe and life-threatening outcomes of disseminated infection, encephalitis, and cancer. Nucleoside analog drugs that target viral DNA replication provide the primary means of treatment. However, extended use of these drugs can result in selection for drug-resistant strains, particularly in immunocompromised patients. In this review we will present recent observations about the participation of cellular protein kinases in herpesvirus biology and discuss the potential for targeting these protein kinases as well as the herpesvirus-encoded protein kinases as an anti-herpesvirus therapeutic strategy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Peiris-Pages M.,University of Manchester | Martinez-Outschoorn U.E.,Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center | Sotgia F.,University of Manchester | Lisanti M.P.,University of Manchester
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2015

The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in cancer is controversial because of their context-dependent ability to promote or suppress tumorigenesis. Piskounova et al. (2015) now show that ROS limit distant metastasis: only cells with increased antioxidant capacity are able to succeed in their purpose to metastasize. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Le D.T.,Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center | Dubenksy Jr. T.W.,Aduro Biotech | Brockstedt D.G.,Aduro Biotech
Seminars in Oncology | Year: 2012

Active immunotherapy targeting dendritic cells (DCs) has shown great promise in preclinical models and in human clinical trials for the treatment of malignant disease. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge, Dendreon, Seattle, WA), which consists of antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs), recently became the first targeted therapeutic cancer vaccine to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, ex vivo therapies such as Provenge have practical limitations and elicit an immune response with limited scope. By contrast, live-attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) naturally targets DCs in vivo and stimulates both innate and adaptive cellular immunity. Lm-based vaccines engineered to express cancer antigens have demonstrated striking efficacy in several animal models and have resulted in encouraging anecdotal survival benefit in early human clinical trials. Two different Lm-based vaccine platforms have advanced into phase II clinical trials in cervical and pancreatic cancer. Future Lm-based clinical vaccine candidates are expected to feature polyvalent antigen expression and to be used in combination with other immunotherapies or conventional therapies such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy to augment efficacy. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Zikherman J.,University of California at San Francisco | Jenne C.,University of California at San Francisco | Watson S.,University of California at San Francisco | Doan K.,University of California at San Francisco | And 6 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2010

The kinase-phosphatase pair Csk and CD45 reciprocally regulate phosphorylation of the inhibitory tyrosine of the Src family kinases Lck and Fyn. T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and thymic development require CD45 expression but proceed constitutively in the absence of Csk. Here, we show that relative titration of CD45 and Csk expression reveals distinct regulation of basal and inducible TCR signaling during thymic development. Low CD45 expression is sufficient to rescue inducible TCR signaling and positive selection, whereas high expression is required to reconstitute basal TCR signaling and beta selection. CD45 has a dual positive and negative regulatory role during inducible but not basal TCR signaling. By contrast, Csk titration regulates basal but not inducible signaling. High physiologic expression of CD45 is thus required for two reasons-to downmodulate inducible TCR signaling during positive selection and to counteract Csk during basal TCR signaling. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

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