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Sonko B.J.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Schmitt T.C.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Guo L.,US Toxicology | Shi Q.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | And 4 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

The lichen metabolite usnic acid (UA) has been promoted as a dietary supplement for weight loss, although cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported. Here we evaluated UA-associated hepatotoxicity in vitro using isolated rat hepatocytes. We measured cell viability and ATP content to evaluate UA induced cytotoxicity and applied 13C isotopomer distribution measuring techniques to gain a better understanding of glucose metabolism during cytotoxicity. The cells were exposed to 0, 1, 5 or 10μM UA concentrations for 2, 6 or 24h. Aliquots of media were collected at the end of these time periods and the 13C mass isotopomer distribution determined for CO 2, lactate, glucose and glutamate.The 1μM UA exposure did not appear to cause significant change in cell viability compared to controls. However, the 5 and 10μM UA concentrations significantly reduced cell viability as exposure time increased. Similar results were obtained for ATP depletion experiments. The 1 and 5μM UA doses suggest increased oxidative phosphorylation. Conversely, oxidative phosphorylation and gluconeogenesis were dramatically inhibited by 10μM UA. Augmented oxidative phosphorylation at the lower UA concentrations may be an adaptive response by the cells to compensate for diminished mitochondrial function. © 2011. Source

Huang J.,University of Utah | Simcox J.,University of Utah | Mitchell T.C.,University of Utah | Jones D.,University of Utah | And 8 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2013

Excess iron is associated with hepatic damage and diabetes in humans, although the detailed molecular mechanisms are not known. To investigate how iron regulates glucose homeostasis, we fed C57BL/6J male mice with high-iron (HI) diets (2 or 20 g Fe/kg chow). Mice fed an HI diet exhibited elevated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and impaired insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and liver. Consistent with the increased AMPK activity, glucose uptake was enhanced in mice fed an HI diet. The effects of improved glucose tolerance induced by HI feeding were abolished in transgenic mice with expression of muscle specific dominant-negative AMPK. Glucose output was suppressed in the liver of wild-type mice fed an HI diet, due to decreased expression of gluconeogenic genes and decreased substrate (lactate) from peripheral glycolysis. Iron activated AMPK by increasing deacetylase and decreasing LKB1 acetylation, in turn stimulating the phosphorylation of LKB1 and AMPK. The effects of HI diet were abrogated by treatment of the mice with N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting a redox-dependent mechanism for increasing deacetylase activity. In addition, tissue from iron-fed mice exhibited an elevated AMP/ATP ratio, further contributing to AMPK activation. In summary, a diet high in iron improves glucose tolerance by activating AMPK through mechanisms that include deacetylation. © FASEB. Source

Bhalla K.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Hwang B.J.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Dewi R.E.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Ou L.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Despite the role of aerobic glycolysis in cancer, recent studies highlight the importance of the mitochondria and biosynthetic pathways as well. PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) is a key transcriptional regulator of several metabolic pathways including oxidative metabolism and lipogenesis. Initial studies suggested that PGC1α expression is reduced in tumors compared with adjacent normal tissue. Paradoxically, other studies show that PGC1α is associated with cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, the role of PGC1α in cancer and especially carcinogenesis is unclear. Using Pgc1α -/- and Pgc1α +/+ mice, we show that loss of PGC1α protects mice from azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis. Similarly, diethylnitrosamine-induced liver carcinogenesis is reduced in Pgc1α -/- mice as compared with Pgc1α +/+ mice. Xenograft studies using gain and loss of PGC1α expression showed that PGC1α also promotes tumor growth. Interestingly, while PGC1α induced oxidative phosphorylation and tricarboxylic acid cycle gene expression, we also observed an increase in the expression of two genes required for de novo fatty acid synthesis, ACC and FASN. In addition, SLC25A1 and ACLY, which are required for the conversion of glucose into acetyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis, were also increased by PGC1α, thus linking the oxidative and lipogenic functions of PGC1α. Indeed, using stable 13C isotope tracer analysis, we show that PGC1α increased de novo lipogenesis. Importantly, inhibition of fatty acid synthesis blunted these progrowth effects of PGC1α. In conclusion, these studies show for the first time that loss of PGC1α protects against carcinogenesis and that PGC1α coordinately regulates mitochondrial and fatty acid metabolism to promote tumor growth. ©2011 AACR. Source

Cantoria M.J.,University of Arizona | Boros L.G.,SiDMAP LLC | Boros L.G.,University of California at Los Angeles | Meuillet E.J.,Arizona Cancer Center
Metabolomics | Year: 2014

Metformin, a generic glucose lowering drug, inhibits cancer growth expressly in models that employ high fat/cholesterol intake and/or low glucose availability. Here we use a targeted tracer fate association study (TTFAS) to investigate how cholesterol and metformin administration regulates glucose-derived intermediary metabolism and macromolecule synthesis in pancreatic cancer cells. Wild type K-ras BxPC-3 and HOM: GGT(Gly) → TGT(Cys) K12 transformed MIA PaCa-2 adenocarcinoma cells were cultured in the presence of [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose as the single tracer for 24 h and treated with either 100 μM metformin (MET), 1 mM cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS), or the dose matching combination of MET and CHS (CHS-MET). Wild type K-ras cells used 11.43 % (SD = ±0.32) of new acetyl-CoA for palmitate synthesis that was derived from glucose, while K-ras mutated MIA PaCa-2 cells shuttled less than half as much, 5.47 % [SD = ±0.28 (P < 0.01)] of this precursor towards FAS. Cholesterol treatment almost doubled glucose-derived acetyl-CoA enrichment to 9.54 % (SD = ±0.24) and elevated the fraction of new palmitate synthesis by over 2.5-fold in MIA PaCa-2 cells; whereby 100 μM MET treatment resulted in a 28 % inhibitory effect on FAS. Therefore, acetyl-CoA shuttling towards its carboxylase, from thiolase, produces contextual synthetic inhibition by metformin of new palmitate production. Thereby, metformin, mutated K-ras and high cholesterol each contributes to limit new fatty acid and potentially cell membrane synthesis, demonstrating a previously unknown mechanism for inhibiting cancer growth during the metabolic syndrome. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Gu W.,Amgen Inc. | Lloyd D.J.,Amgen Inc. | Chinookswong N.,Amgen Inc. | Komorowski R.,Amgen Inc. | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Pharmacologic contributions of directly agonizing glucagonlike peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor or antagonizing glucagon receptor (GCGR) on energy state and glucose homeostasis were assessed in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Metabolic rate and respiratory quotient (RQ), hyperglycemic clamp, stable isotopebased dynamic metabolic profiling (SiDMAP) studies of 13C-labeled glucose during glucose tolerance test (GTT) and gene expression were assessed in cohorts of DIO mice after a single administration of GLP-1 analog [GLP-1-(23)] or anti-GCGR antibody (Ab). GLP-1-(23) and GCGR Ab similarly improved GTT. GLP-1-(23) decreased food intake and body weight trended lower. GCGR Ab modestly decreased food intake without significant effect on body weight. GLP-1-(23) and GCGR Ab decreased RQ with GLP-1, causing a greater effect. In a hyperglycemic clamp, GLP-1-(23) reduced hepatic glucose production (HGP), increased glucose infusion rate (GIR), increased glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue, and increased whole-body glucose turnover, glycolysis, and rate of glycogen synthesis. GCGR Ab slightly decreased HGP, increased GIR, and increased glucose uptake in the heart. SiDMAP showed that GLP-1-(23) and GCGR Ab increased 13C lactate labeling from glucose, indicating that liver, muscle, and other organs were involved in the rapid disposal of glucose from plasma. GCGR Ab and GLP-1-(23) caused different changes in mRNA expression levels of glucose- and lipid metabolism-associated genes. The effect of GLP-1-(23) on energy state and glucose homeostasis was greater than GCGR Ab. Although GCGR antagonism is associated with increased circulating levels of GLP-1, most GLP-1-(23)- associated pharmacologic effects are more pronounced than GCGR Ab. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source

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