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Vijayawāda, India

Kumari P.R.,Siddhartha Medical College
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2014

200 clinically suspected malaria patients from Urban Slums of Vijayawada from June to November, 2009 were chosen for the study ranging, from infants to 80 years old. Maximum number of cases were seen in the age group of 20-30 years. The mean age was 25 and SD of 12.82.The male to female ratio was 2.1: 1, showing a male predominance. 62 cases were positive by peripheral smear. Out of which 50 (81%) were positive for Plasmodium vivax and 12 (19%) cases were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. One case was positive for both. The cases which were not detected by peripheral smear and SD-Bioline were detected by Paramax-3 kit which showed a sensitivity and specificity of 88% and 100% respectively for pLDH (Plasmodium vivax), sensitivity and specificity of 83.3% and 98.9% for HRP-2 (Plasmodium falciparum). The SD-Bioline test results indicated that 22% (44 of 200) of the patient samples were positive for malaria parasites, showing a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 100% for Plasmodium vivax, Sensitivity of 58.33% and specificity of 100% for Plasmodium falciparum. The sensitivity of SD-Bioline for Plasmodium vivax was as low as 74% while that of Paramax-3 was 88%.The sensitivity of SD-Bioline for Plasmodium falciparum was as low as 58.33% while that of Paramax-3 was 88.3%. Source

Pothukuchi M.,Siddhartha Medical College | Nagaraja S.B.,WHO RNTCP Technical Assistance Project andhra Pradesh | Kelamane S.,WHO RNTCP Technical Assistance Project andhra Pradesh | Satyanarayana S.,Center for Operations Research | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Under India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), all household contacts of sputum smear positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) patients are screened for TB. In the absence of active TB disease, household contacts aged <6 years are eligible for Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) (5 milligrams/kilogram body weight/day) for 6 months. Objectives: To estimate the number of household contacts aged <6 years, of sputum smear positive PTB patients registered for treatment under RNTCP from April to June'2008 in Krishna District, to assess the extent to which they are screened for TB disease and in its absence initiated on IPT. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Households of all smear positive PTB cases (n = 848) registered for treatment from April to June'2008 were included. Data on the number of household contacts aged <6 years, the extent to which they were screened for TB disease, and the status of initiation of IPT, was collected. Results: Households of 825 (97%) patients were visited, and 172 household contacts aged <6 years were identified. Of them, 116 (67%) were evaluated for TB disease; none were found to be TB diseased and 97 (84%) contacts were initiated on IPT and 19 (16%) contacts were not initiated on IPT due to shortage of INH tablets in peripheral health centers. The reasons for non-evaluation of the remaining eligible children (n = 56, 33%) include no home visit by the health staff in 25 contacts, home visit done but not evaluated in 31 contacts. House-hold contacts in rural areas were less likely to be evaluated and initiated on IPT [risk ratio 6.65 (95% CI; 3.06-14.42)]. Conclusion: Contact screening and IPT implementation under routine programmatic conditions is sub-optimal. There is an urgent need to sensitize all concerned programme staff on its importance and establishment of mechanisms for rigorous monitoring. © 2011 Pothukuchi et al. Source

Banu A.,Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute | Sriprakash K.S.,Minto Regional Institute of Ophthalmology | Vidyadevi M.,Minto Regional Institute of Ophthalmology | Nagraj E.R.,Siddhartha Medical College
Australasian Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Endophthalmitis is a serious post-traumatic ocular complication that can lead to loss of vision. We report a case of acute post-traumatic endophthalmitis following a penetrating injury caused by an unusual organism, Brevibacterium casei. The patient was successfully treated with intravitreal antibiotics like ceftazidime and vancomycin, along with topical cefazolin and tobramycin. Brevibacterium casei can be added to the list of rare bacteria causing endophthalmitis and should be kept in mind by clinicians as a potential source of pathology. Source

Reddy Kilim S.,Rangaraya Medical College | Rao Chandala S.,Siddhartha Medical College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the menopausal status and related hormonal variation of oestradiol with plasma lipid concentrations. Material and Methods: Fifty premenopausal women and fifty postmenopausal women subjects were selected. Data was collected through clinical evaluation from questionnaires and laboratory investigations. Plasma oestradiol and lipid profile determinations were done by using competitive binding im munoassay methods and enzymatic methods respectively. Student's T test and Pearson's test of correlation were used for the statistical analysis. Pvalues of < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a significant increase in serum Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), LDLcholesterol and VLDL cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. HDLcholesterol level was significantly decreased in postmenopausal women. The calculated atherogenic index (Total Cholesterol/HDL ratio) was significantly increased in postmenopausal women as compared to that in premenopausal women. Oestradiol concentration was significantly lower (p<0.001) in postmenopausal women. Discussion: Oestrogen changes the vascular permeability by increasing nitrous oxide production. It maintains a healthy lipoprotein profile. It stabilizes the endothelial cells, enhances antioxidant effect and alters fibrinolysis protein. All these cardio protective mechanisms are lost in menopause. Postmenopausal women develop an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Menopause leads to changes in lipid profile by reducing HDL, and elevating Total Cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDLcholesterol and VLDLcholesterol, thus increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. These changes are caused by reduced oestrogen concentrations which are seen in menopause. Source

Rao D.P.,Siddhartha Medical College | Rao V.A.,Siddhartha Medical College
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2010

The purpose of this article is to review the fundamental aspects of obesity, pregnancy and a combination of both. The scientifi c aim is to understand the physiological changes, pathological clinical presentations and application of technical skills and pharmacological knowledge on this unique clinical condition. The goal of this presentation is to defi ne the diffi cult airway, highlight the main reasons for diffi cult or failed intubation and propose a practical approach to management Throughout the review, an important component is the necessity for team work between the anaesthesiologist and the obstetrician. Certain protocols are recommended to meet the anaesthetic challenges and fi nally concluding with "what is new?" in obstetric anaesthesia. Source

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