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Afzal M.,Pacific University at Udaipur | Afzal M.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Khan R.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Kazmi I.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Anwar F.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2013

The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of newly isolated stigmast-4, 20 (21), 23-trien-3-one (STO) against carbon tetrachlorideinduced hepatic injury in Wistar albino rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of CCl 4 (0.5 mL/kg CCl4 in olive oil) in experimental rats. Three different doses (2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/kg, p.o) of STO was administered to the test groups during whole experimental protocol. Changes in the activity of serum ALT, AST, ALP, TB, and TP, anti-oxidant enzymes like SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and LPO were studied in CCl4- induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis. The altered levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, TB, and TP restored toward normalization significantly by STO in a dose dependant manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Meanwhile, it also produced a significant and dosedependent reversal of CCl4-diminished activity of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and the reduced CCl4-elevated level of LPO. STO significantly prevented the increased levels of serum markers, also suppressed the free radical processes by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. It also modulates the levels of LPO and markedly increases the endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes level in CCl4-induced hepatic injury.


Kumar V.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Ahmed D.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Verma A.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Anwar F.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | And 2 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat.Methods: Diabetes was induced in rat by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The rat was divided into the following groups; I - normal control, II - diabetic control, III - UFG (10 mg/kg), IV - UFG (20 mg/kg), V - UFG (40 mg/kg), VI - Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o., once a daily dose). Diabetes was measured by change the level blood glucose, plasma insulin and the oxidative stress were assessed in the liver by estimation of the level of antioxidant markers i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antihyperlipidemic effect was measured by estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) cholesterol. However in a study, the increased body weight was observed and utilization of glucose was in the oral glucose tolerance test.Result: Daily oral administration of different dose of UFG for 28 days showed significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in fasting blood glucose level and improve plasma insulin level as compared to the diabetic control group. Also it significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the level of glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of hexokinase. UFG treatment decreased liver MDA and increased the level of SOD, GPx and CAT. UFG treatment of lipids it's increased the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, LDL cholesterol and decreased the level of HDL cholesterol. Histologically, inflammatory cell in blood vessels, intercalated disc, fat degeneration and focal necrosis observed in diabetic rat organ but was less obvious in UFG treated groups. The mechanism of action of UFG may be due to the increased level of pancreatic insulin secretion and effect on the antioxidant marker.Conclusion: UFG posses an antidiabetic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect on the STZ induced diabetic rat. Hence it could be the better choice to cure the diabetes. © 2013 Kumar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Kazmi I.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Gupta G.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Afzal M.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Anwar F.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2012

Objective: Ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside (UASG), a new terpenoid -isolated from Lantana camara L. was evaluated for its anticonvulsant and depressant activity of was in Wistar albino rats and Swiss mice. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate UASG. The intraperitonial administration of UASG (25 and 50 mg/kg) produced a significant depressant effect on CNS. Anticonvulsant potential was experimentally proved and demonstrated through Maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizure, Isoniazid (INH) induced seizure and Assessment of locomotor activity test. Results: Administration of drug reduced spontaneous motor activity (P < 0.05), the number and lethality (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) of Isoniazid (INH)-induced seizures and inhibition of hind limb extension in (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) in Maximal Electroshock (MES)-induced seizures. Conclusions: Research finding suggests that ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside possess anticonvulsant and depressant like effect. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.


Rana P.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Kazmi I.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Singh R.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Afzal M.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2013

Purpose: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) presents a major health problem for women of child-bearing age. EP refers to the pregnancy occurring outside the uterine cavity that constitutes 1.2-1.4 % of all reported pregnancies. All identified risk factors are maternal: pelvic inflammatory disease, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, smoking, tubal surgery, induced conception cycle, and endometriosis. These developments have provided the atmosphere for trials using methotrexate as a non-surgical treatment for EP. The diagnosis measure of EP is serum human chorionic gonadotropin, urinary hCGRP/i-hCG, progesterone measurement, transvaginal ultrasound scan, computed tomography, vascular endothelial growth factor, CK, disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 and hysterosalpingography. The treatment option of EP involves surgical treatment by laparotomy or laparoscopy, medical treatment is usually systemic or through local route, or by expectant treatment. Results: It was concluded that review data reflect a decrease in surgical treatment and not an actual decline in EP occurrence so that further new avenues are needed to explore early detection of the EP. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Kumar V.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Al-Abbasi F.A.,King Abdulaziz University | Ahmed D.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Verma A.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2015

The current investigation was undertaken to determine the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) along with its mechanism of action when implemented in tissue protection. HPTLC was used in the identification of the compound quercetin, while in vitro analysis confirmed the significance of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action of PF. We initially demonstrated the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of PF, evaluating it against a variety of phlogistic agents as well as turpentine oil, prostaglandin and arachidonic acid. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, were treated as follows: Group I: normal control (vehicle), Group II: PF (100 mg kg-1), Group III: arthritic control (CFA only, 0.05 ml), Group IV, V, VI: CFA (0.05 ml) + PF (25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1) and Group VII: CFA (0.05 ml) + indomethacin (10 mg per kg b.w.). PF significantly protected against paw edema, arthritic index and body weight alteration induced by Complete Fruend's Adjuvant (CFA). Other observations, like histological and macroscopic changes, were observed in CFA induced inflammation in knee joints. Subcutaneous administration of CFA was accompanied by proinflammatory cytokine status, as appraised by the amplification of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α); oxidative stress status was estimated by the enhancement of the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the depletion of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH). Pre-treatment with PF significantly (P < 0.001) protected against CFA induced oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines. More prominently, CFA administration augmented tissue and plasma superoxide (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, while the PF pre-treatment significantly (P < 0.001) reversed all CFA induced intracellular interruption. Following CFA induced arthritis, PF was tested for its free radical scavenging activity against the DPPH and ABTS radicals and its inhibitory proficiency against COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro. Considering the above, the current research confirmed momentous protection against CFA induced arthritis, which could be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and pro-oxidant nature. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Ahmad A.,King Abdulaziz University | Gupta G.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Afzal M.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Kazmi I.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Anwar F.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy
Life Sciences | Year: 2013

Aims Morus alba is a plant that is well known for its medicinal properties. In Asian countries, it is traditionally used for anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiulcer and antioxidant activity of a new steroid from M. alba. Main methods Column chromatography was employed to isolate different compounds from M. alba. The molecular structures of the compounds were characterized via IR, UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. A newly isolated compound was tested for antiulcer activity in pylorus-ligation- and ethanol-induced ulcer models and biochemically estimated for SOD, CAT, GR, GPx, GSH and LPO levels. Key findings Five new compounds were isolated; one of these was a new steroid named albosteroid. This new compound exhibits significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) antiulcer activity in pylorus-ligation- and ethanol-induced ulcer models. Furthermore, this compound showed significant dose-dependent reversal of ethanol-diminished activity in antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH, and reduced the ethanol-elevated levels of GR and LPO. Significance The present study clearly demonstrates the anti-ulcer and antioxidant potential of compound 1, which was supported by macroscopic and histopathological studies of stomach wall tissues of differently treated groups of rats. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Ali B.,P.A. College | Al-Wabel N.A.,P.A. College | Shams S.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Ahamad A.,King Abdulaziz University | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2015

Nowadays, use of alternative and complementary therapies with mainstream medicine has gained the momentum. Aromatherapy is one of the complementary therapies which use essential oils as the major therapeutic agents to treat several diseases. The essential or volatile oils are extracted from the flowers, barks, stem, leaves, roots, fruits and other parts of the plant by various methods. It came into existence after the scientists deciphered the antiseptic and skin permeability properties of essential oils. Inhalation, local application and baths are the major methods used in aromatherapy that utilize these oils to penetrate the human skin surface with marked aura. Once the oils are in the system, they remodulate themselves and work in a friendly manner at the site of malfunction or at the affected area. This type of therapy utilizes various permutation and combinations to get relief from numerous ailments like depression, indigestion, headache, insomnia, muscular pain, respiratory problems, skin ailments, swollen joints, urine associated complications etc. The essential oils are found to be more beneficial when other aspects of life and diet are given due consideration. This review explores the information available in the literature regarding therapeutic, medical, cosmetic, psychological, olfactory, massage aromatherapy, safety issues and different plants used in aromatherapy. All the available information was compiled from electronic databases such as Academic Journals, Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and library search. © 2015 Hainan Medical University.


Ahmad A.,King Abdulaziz University | Husain A.,Hamdard University | Mujeeb M.,Hamdard University | Khan S.A.,Oman Medical College | And 4 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant. © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Afzal M.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Kazmi I.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Semwal S.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Al-Abbasi F.A.,King Abdulaziz University | Anwar F.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Hypothyroidism is a chronic condition characterized by abnormally low thyroid hormone production. The decreased serum level (>5.1 mIU/l) of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in blood indicates hypothyroidism. The study was an attempt to access the effect of betulinic acid on chemically induced hypothyroidism in female albino rats. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid, which has antiretroviral, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as anticancer potential, by inhibiting topoisomerase. Hypothyroidism was induced in female albino rats using propylthiouracil (PTU) at a dose of 60 μg/kg body weight orally for 1 month. Induction of hypothyroidism was confirmed by increased TSH level. At the end of second month, blood was collected, centrifuged and serum was analyzed for TSH, T3, and T4 level and protocol was terminated by killing of animals. The animals exposed to PTU were treated with pure standard drug thyroxine at a dose of 10 μg/kg of body weight by oral route and the test drug betulinic acid 20 mg/kg by oral route through force feeding in their respective groups. Treatment was carried out for a period of 2 months. Group with PTU-induced hypothyroidism showed an elevation in serum TSH and reduction level, which was restored by the betulinic acid in treated female albino rats. Betulinic acid also reduced the damage caused in the thyroid tissues by PTU, thus minimizing the symptoms of hypothyroidism. Histopathological examinations of the thyroid tissue showed changes in the thyrocytes of PTU-treated group while thyroxine group showed normal thyroid follicles cell architecture and the group treated with betulinic acid also showed marked improvement in the follicles integrity which shows that betulinic acid has some protective activity. This study shows that the betulinic acid has thyroid-enhancing potential by lowering down the TSH levels and reducing the damage caused in the thyroid tissues, thus minimizing the symptoms of hypothyroidism when used anaphylactically in rats. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Maurya H.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Mangal V.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Gandhi S.,City Heart Center | Prabhu K.,Nova College Pharmacy | Ponnudurai K.,Nova College Pharmacy
International Journal of Inflammation | Year: 2014

Present study is to investigate the effect of Gallic acid pretreatment on survival of septic animals and oxidative stress in different organs like lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, and vascular dysfunction of mice. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in healthy adult male albino mice (25-30 g) and was divided into 3 groups each consisting of 6 animals, that is, sham-operated (SO group (Group I), SO + sepsis (Group II), and Gallic acid + sepsis (Group III)). Group III animals were pretreated with Gallic acid at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight for 2 days before induction of sepsis. Animals were sacrificed on 8th day and the tissue samples were obtained for further investigation on lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GSH). Gallic acid pretreatment significant (P < 0.05) reduces kidney, spleen, liver, and lungs' malondialdehyde level in septic mice. However, it fails to improve reduced glutathione level in all given organs, while, Gallic acid pretreated mice showed significant improvement in SOD activity of kidney and spleen when compared to septic mice. Finally, the beneficial effects of Gallic acid pretreatment in sepsis are evident from the observations that Gallic acid partially restored SOD and catalase activity and completely reversed lipid peroxidation. Further studies are required to find out the possible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of Gallic acid on large population. © 2014 Harikesh Maurya et al.

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