Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy

Dehradun, India

Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy

Dehradun, India
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Kazmi I.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Akhter S.,Jamia Hamdard University | Afzal M.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Gupta G.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | And 2 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2012

Introduction: Nanotechnology has gained wider importance for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. Multifunctional or theranostic agents are emerging as promising therapeutic paradigms, which provide attractive vehicles for both image and therapeutic agents. Nanosystems are capable of diagnosis, specific targeted drug therapy and monitoring therapeutic response. Due to their well-developed surface nature, nanomolecules are easy to anchor with multifunctional groups. Areas covered: The present review aims to give an extensive account on the progress of multifunctional nanoparticles throughout the blooming research with regards to their clinical application in cancer. This paper discusses graphene, a newly developed multifunctional vehicle in nanotechnology. Furthermore, it focuses on the development of tumor cells, the advantages of novel multifunctional nanoparticles over traditional methods and the use of nanoparticles in cancer therapy. In addition, patents issued by the US office are also included. Expert opinion: Despite numerous advantages, multifunctional nanoparticles are still at an infancy stage. Many great achievements have been attained in this field to date, but many challenges still remain. A problem that limits the use of multifunctional nanoparticles is toxicity. If this toxicity can be overcome then the advancement in nanocomposite material science will be well on the way to a prospective treatment of cancer. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.


Bisht R.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics | Year: 2011

With the advancement in the field of chronobiology, modern drug delivery approaches have been elevated to a new concept of chronopharmacology, that is, the ability to deliver the therapeutic agent to a patient in a staggered profile. The mammalian circadian pacemaker resides in the paired suprachiasmatic nuclei and influences a multitude of biological processes, including the sleep-wake rhythm. Clock genes are the genes that control the circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior. Twenty-four hours rhythms are demonstrated for the function of physiology and the pathophysiology of diseases. The effectiveness and toxicity of many drugs vary depending on the dosing time. Such chronopharmacological phenomena are influenced by not only the pharmacodynamics, but also the pharmacokinetics of medications. The underlying mechanisms are associated with the 24-hour rhythms of biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes under the control of the circadian clock. New technology for delivering medications precisely in a time-modulated fashion, by bedside or ambulatory pumps, is being developed to manage human diseases. From the point of view of pharmaceutics, the application of a biological rhythm to pharmacotherapy may be accomplished by the appropriate timing of conventionally formulated tablets and capsules, and a special drug delivery system, to synchronize the drug concentrations with the rhythms in the disease activity. Therefore, the present article gives an overview of the dosing time-dependent alterations in the therapeutic outcome and safety of the drug. The underlying mechanisms and usefulness are introduced from the point of view of chronopharmacology and chronotherapy.


Bhatt N.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Upadhyaya K.,Kumaun University
Pharmacologyonline | Year: 2010

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of ethanolic extract of the stem barks of Zanthoxylum armatum D.C. The different anti-inflammatory models used to induce paw oedema are Carrageenan, dextran, histamine, serotonin and Cotton pellet-induced granuloma. The ethanolic extract of Z. armatum at dose (250 and 500 mgkg-1 p.o) was given to observe % inhibition of paw oedema which were comparable with indomethacin (10 mgkg-1 p.o) used as a reference drug. The ethanolic extract of Z. armatum exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity on the tested experimental animal models. The extract (500 mgkg-1 b.w.) exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory effect i.e., 30.01, 21.72, 32.34 and 29.62% (P < 0.001) at the end of 4 h with carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin respectively. Administration of the extract of Z. armatum (500 mgkg-1 b.w.) and indomethacin (10 mgkg-1 b.w.) significantly reduced the formation of granuloma tissue induced by cotton pellet method at a rate of 44.81 and 51.64% respectively. The effect produced by the extract was comparable to that of indomethacin a prototype nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent. A significant percentage inhibition of paw oedema by the ethanolic extract of Z. armatum as compared to standard drug suggests its usefulness in acute and chronic anti-inflammatory models.


Afzal M.,Pacific University at Udaipur | Afzal M.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Kazmi I.,Pacific University at Udaipur | Anwar F.,Pacific University at Udaipur
Pharmacognosy Research | Year: 2013

Background: Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. used in folk medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China and Australia contains a wide range of active compounds, well known for their haemostatic and wound-healing properties. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. on N-diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced hepatic injury in rats. Material and Methods: The aerial part of B. pinnatum aqueous and ethanolic extract was prepared in doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Hepatic injury was induced by DENA. Acute toxicity was also carried out. Result: Treatment with different doses of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum (250 mg/kg, p.o.) was not significantly able to treat the liver injury induced by DENA, but 500 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum protects the liver slightly. Treatment with different doses of aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (PFNx01<0.05; PFNx08<0.01 and PFNx18<0.001) treated the liver injury induced by DENA. Conclusion: It may be inferred from the present study that the hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum leaves in DENA-induced hepatotoxicity may involve its antioxidant or oxidative free radical scavenging activities by alleviating lipid peroxidation through scavenging of free radicals, or by enhancing the activity of antioxidants.


Pervaiz A.,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan | Khan R.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Anwar F.,King Abdulaziz University | Mushtaq G.,King Abdulaziz University | And 3 more authors.
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2016

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a Gram-positive bacterium which causes community and hospital-acquired infections. Synthetic drug/antibiotic treatment for MRSA-related infections is becoming less effective and natural products may be an emerging new alternative for future antibacterial drug development. Alkaloids are a class of natural compounds which are known for their phytochemistry and pharmacology. This review focuses on 32 alkaloids isolated from various plants that showed marked antibacterial activity against MRSA by acting through different mechanisms such as inhibition of pyruvate kinase, Quorum quenching effect, alteration in efflux pump in MRSA and intercalating of bacterial DNA, to name just a few. In addition, the use of recent plant alkaloids against clinical isolates of MRSA has also been discussed. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.


Kumar V.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Ahmed D.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Verma A.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Anwar F.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | And 2 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat.Methods: Diabetes was induced in rat by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The rat was divided into the following groups; I - normal control, II - diabetic control, III - UFG (10 mg/kg), IV - UFG (20 mg/kg), V - UFG (40 mg/kg), VI - Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o., once a daily dose). Diabetes was measured by change the level blood glucose, plasma insulin and the oxidative stress were assessed in the liver by estimation of the level of antioxidant markers i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antihyperlipidemic effect was measured by estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) cholesterol. However in a study, the increased body weight was observed and utilization of glucose was in the oral glucose tolerance test.Result: Daily oral administration of different dose of UFG for 28 days showed significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in fasting blood glucose level and improve plasma insulin level as compared to the diabetic control group. Also it significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the level of glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of hexokinase. UFG treatment decreased liver MDA and increased the level of SOD, GPx and CAT. UFG treatment of lipids it's increased the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, LDL cholesterol and decreased the level of HDL cholesterol. Histologically, inflammatory cell in blood vessels, intercalated disc, fat degeneration and focal necrosis observed in diabetic rat organ but was less obvious in UFG treated groups. The mechanism of action of UFG may be due to the increased level of pancreatic insulin secretion and effect on the antioxidant marker.Conclusion: UFG posses an antidiabetic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect on the STZ induced diabetic rat. Hence it could be the better choice to cure the diabetes. © 2013 Kumar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Ahmad A.,King Abdulaziz University | Gupta G.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Afzal M.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Kazmi I.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Anwar F.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy
Life Sciences | Year: 2013

Aims Morus alba is a plant that is well known for its medicinal properties. In Asian countries, it is traditionally used for anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiulcer and antioxidant activity of a new steroid from M. alba. Main methods Column chromatography was employed to isolate different compounds from M. alba. The molecular structures of the compounds were characterized via IR, UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. A newly isolated compound was tested for antiulcer activity in pylorus-ligation- and ethanol-induced ulcer models and biochemically estimated for SOD, CAT, GR, GPx, GSH and LPO levels. Key findings Five new compounds were isolated; one of these was a new steroid named albosteroid. This new compound exhibits significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) antiulcer activity in pylorus-ligation- and ethanol-induced ulcer models. Furthermore, this compound showed significant dose-dependent reversal of ethanol-diminished activity in antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH, and reduced the ethanol-elevated levels of GR and LPO. Significance The present study clearly demonstrates the anti-ulcer and antioxidant potential of compound 1, which was supported by macroscopic and histopathological studies of stomach wall tissues of differently treated groups of rats. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Ahmad A.,King Abdulaziz University | Husain A.,Hamdard University | Mujeeb M.,Hamdard University | Khan S.A.,Oman Medical College | And 4 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant. © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Afzal M.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Kazmi I.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Semwal S.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Al-Abbasi F.A.,King Abdulaziz University | Anwar F.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Hypothyroidism is a chronic condition characterized by abnormally low thyroid hormone production. The decreased serum level (>5.1 mIU/l) of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in blood indicates hypothyroidism. The study was an attempt to access the effect of betulinic acid on chemically induced hypothyroidism in female albino rats. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid, which has antiretroviral, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as anticancer potential, by inhibiting topoisomerase. Hypothyroidism was induced in female albino rats using propylthiouracil (PTU) at a dose of 60 μg/kg body weight orally for 1 month. Induction of hypothyroidism was confirmed by increased TSH level. At the end of second month, blood was collected, centrifuged and serum was analyzed for TSH, T3, and T4 level and protocol was terminated by killing of animals. The animals exposed to PTU were treated with pure standard drug thyroxine at a dose of 10 μg/kg of body weight by oral route and the test drug betulinic acid 20 mg/kg by oral route through force feeding in their respective groups. Treatment was carried out for a period of 2 months. Group with PTU-induced hypothyroidism showed an elevation in serum TSH and reduction level, which was restored by the betulinic acid in treated female albino rats. Betulinic acid also reduced the damage caused in the thyroid tissues by PTU, thus minimizing the symptoms of hypothyroidism. Histopathological examinations of the thyroid tissue showed changes in the thyrocytes of PTU-treated group while thyroxine group showed normal thyroid follicles cell architecture and the group treated with betulinic acid also showed marked improvement in the follicles integrity which shows that betulinic acid has some protective activity. This study shows that the betulinic acid has thyroid-enhancing potential by lowering down the TSH levels and reducing the damage caused in the thyroid tissues, thus minimizing the symptoms of hypothyroidism when used anaphylactically in rats. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Maurya H.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Mangal V.,Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy | Gandhi S.,City Heart Center | Prabhu K.,Nova College Pharmacy | Ponnudurai K.,Nova College Pharmacy
International Journal of Inflammation | Year: 2014

Present study is to investigate the effect of Gallic acid pretreatment on survival of septic animals and oxidative stress in different organs like lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, and vascular dysfunction of mice. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in healthy adult male albino mice (25-30 g) and was divided into 3 groups each consisting of 6 animals, that is, sham-operated (SO group (Group I), SO + sepsis (Group II), and Gallic acid + sepsis (Group III)). Group III animals were pretreated with Gallic acid at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight for 2 days before induction of sepsis. Animals were sacrificed on 8th day and the tissue samples were obtained for further investigation on lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GSH). Gallic acid pretreatment significant (P < 0.05) reduces kidney, spleen, liver, and lungs' malondialdehyde level in septic mice. However, it fails to improve reduced glutathione level in all given organs, while, Gallic acid pretreated mice showed significant improvement in SOD activity of kidney and spleen when compared to septic mice. Finally, the beneficial effects of Gallic acid pretreatment in sepsis are evident from the observations that Gallic acid partially restored SOD and catalase activity and completely reversed lipid peroxidation. Further studies are required to find out the possible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of Gallic acid on large population. © 2014 Harikesh Maurya et al.

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