Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been proposed as a condition of intermediate symptomatology between the cognitive changes of ageing and fully developed symptoms of dementia. Treatment in the stages of MCI may delay the deterioration of cognitive impairment and delay the progression to dementia. Currently, the treatments for Alzheimer's disease have been focused on increasing acetylcholine levels in the brain. However, these drugs have not been proven to be effective for MCI and have numerous side effects. Huperzine A may have some beneficial effects in MCI. To assess the clinical efficacy and safety of huperzine A for the treatment of patients with MCI. We searched ALOIS: the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on 23 May 2011 using the terms: huperzine, ayapin, scoparon. ALOIS contains records of clinical trials identified from monthly searches of a number of major healthcare databases, numerous trial registries and grey literature sources. Additional searches were also performed separately in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS, clinicalTrials.gov, the ICTRP (WHO portal), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library) and Web of Science with Conference Proceedings.The following Chinese databases were searched: The Chinese Biomedical Database, VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and The Chinese Clinical Trials Register. In addition, we handsearched 20 Chinese traditional medicine journals from between 1970 and 1989. Randomised, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trials comparing huperzine A with placebo in patients with MCI were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed studies for their eligibility for inclusion. No eligible trials were identified. In the absence of any suitable randomised placebo-controlled trials in this area, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. The currently available evidence is insufficient to assess the potential for huperzine A in the treatment of MCI. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trials are needed.
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013
Acetaminophen is frequently prescribed for treating patients with the common cold, but there is little evidence as to whether it is effective. To determine the efficacy and safety of acetaminophen in the treatment of the common cold in adults. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 1, Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to January week 5, 2013), EMBASE (1980 to February 2013), CINAHL (1982 to February 2013) and LILACS (1985 to February 2013). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing acetaminophen to placebo or no treatment in adults with the common cold. Studies were included if the trials used acetaminophen as one ingredient of a combination therapy. We excluded studies in which the participants had complications. Primary outcomes included subjective symptom score and duration of common cold symptoms. Secondary outcomes were overall well being, adverse events and financial costs. Two review authors independently screened studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We performed standard statistical analyses. We included four RCTs involving 758 participants. We did not pool data because of heterogeneity in study designs, outcomes and time points. The studies provided sparse information about effects longer than a few hours, as three of four included studies were short trials of only four to six hours. Participants treated with acetaminophen had significant improvements in nasal obstruction in two of the four studies. One study showed that acetaminophen was superior to placebo in decreasing rhinorrhoea severity, but was not superior for treating sneezing and coughing. Acetaminophen did not improve sore throat or malaise in two of the four studies. Results were inconsistent for some symptoms. Two studies showed that headache and achiness improved more in the acetaminophen group than in the placebo group, while one study showed no difference between the acetaminophen and placebo group. None of the included studies reported the duration of common cold symptoms. Minor side effects (including gastrointestinal adverse events, dizziness, dry mouth, somnolence and increased sweating) in the acetaminophen group were reported in two of the four studies. One of them used a combination of pseudoephedrine and acetaminophen. Acetaminophen may help relieve nasal obstruction and rhinorrhoea but does not appear to improve some other cold symptoms (including sore throat, malaise, sneezing and cough). However, two of the four included studies in this review were small and allocation concealment was unclear in all four studies. The data in this review do not provide sufficient evidence to inform practice regarding the use of acetaminophen for the common cold in adults. Further large-scale, well-designed trials are needed to determine whether this intervention is beneficial in the treatment of adults with the common cold.
Wang Y.,SichuanUniversity |
Wang Y.,Technical University of Denmark |
Roijakkers N.,Hasselt University |
Vanhaverbeke W.,Hasselt University |
Vanhaverbeke W.,Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School
IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management | Year: 2013
This paper explores how interfirm variations in their in-licensed technology portfolios influence subsequent innovation performance. Existing studies mainly assume licensed technologies are homogeneously accessible to firms, and a prevailing explanation as to why firms vary in their innovation performance lies in differences of absorptive capacity. In this study, we intend to relax this assumption and use data about 186 Chinese indigenous firms to investigate how differences in in-licensing portfolios lead to different effects on innovation performance. We find that firms benefit from prior in-licensing technologies and the result is related to four dimensions of their licensing portfolios. We find that 1) the scale of firms' technology in-licensing has an inverted-U relationship with their subsequent innovation performance; 2) firms that license-in foreign technologies tend to outperform those that predominantly license-in technologies from domestic sources; 3) the newness of firms' technology in-licensing yields a positive effect on subsequent innovation performance; and 4) a diverse portfolio of licensors from whom technologies are licensed-in has an inverted-U relationship with firms' subsequent technological diversity. © 1988-2012 IEEE.
Wu Z.-G.,SichuanUniversity |
Wu Z.-G.,Xiamen University |
Li J.-T.,Xiamen University |
Zhong Y.-J.,SichuanUniversity |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2015
The present paper reports a synthetic strategy of hierarchical worm-like SnO2@C aggregates with enhanced electrochemical performances. Specifically, a glucose-assisted hydrothermal treatment of the intermediate Co-Sn alloy nanoparticles, which were formed by carbothermal reduction of mixed commercial SnO2 and Co3O4 nanoparticles. The SnO2@C sample exhibits enhanced cycling performance in comparison with raw commercial SnO2 nanoparticles and intermediate Co-Sn alloy nanoparticles when used as anode of lithium ion battery. A stable capacity of 533.6 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and 477.0 mA h g-1 at 400 mA g-1 remains after 60 cycles. When the current density increases to 1600 mA g-1, the SnO2@C sample still deliver a high capacity of 384.2 mA h g-1. The superior electrochemical performances could be attributed to the synergistic effect of unique worm-like aggregates structure and carbon surface-layer, which facilitate the electron transportation and buffer the large volume change. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cheng Y.,SichuanUniversity |
Zhou S.,SichuanUniversity |
Zhou R.,SichuanUniversity |
Lu J.,SichuanUniversity |
And 6 more authors.
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2015
BACKGROUND: Appendectomy, the surgical removal of the appendix, is performed primarily for acute appendicitis. Patients who undergo appendectomy for complicated appendicitis, defined as gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, are more likely to suffer from postoperative complications. The routine use of abdominal drainage to reduce postoperative complications after appendectomy for complicated appendicitis is controversial.OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of abdominal drainage to prevent intra-peritoneal abscess after open appendectomy for complicated appendicitis.SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2014), MEDLINE (1950 to February 2014), EMBASE (1974 to February 2014), Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to February 2014), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to February 2014).SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared abdominal drainage and no drainage in patients undergoing emergency open appendectomy for complicated appendicitis.DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors identified the trials for inclusion, collected the data, and assessed the risk of bias independently. We performed the meta-analyses using Review Manager 5. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes (or a Peto odds ratio for very rare outcomes), and the mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI).MAIN RESULTS: We included five trials involving 453 patients with complicated appendicitis who were randomised to the drainage group (n = 228) and the no drainage group (n = 225) after emergency open appendectomies. All of the trials were at a high risk of bias. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the rates of intra-peritoneal abscess or wound infection. The hospital stay was longer in the drainage group than in the no drainage group (MD 2.04 days; 95% CI 1.46 to 2.62) (34.4% increase of an 'average' hospital stay).AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The quality of the current evidence is very low. It is not clear whether routine abdominal drainage has any effect on the prevention of intra-peritoneal abscess after open appendectomy for complicated appendicitis. Abdominal drainage after an emergency open appendectomy may be associated with delayed hospital discharge for patients with complicated appendicitis.