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Peng D.P.,Southwest Jiaotong University | Huang T.,Southwest Jiaotong University | Li Y.Z.,Sichuan Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Zhao R.,Southwest Jiaotong University | Tao X.F.,Southwest Jiaotong University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

The total exergy and exergy efficiencies have been calculated based on the energy utilization of China's railway transport from 2006 to 2010. The preliminary results indicate that: (1) the major fuels for China railway transport are diesel, coal and electricity; (2) The total exergy consumption is calculated as 491.59 PJ in 2006 and 480.19 PJ in 2010, which is approximately in accordance with China's economic growth rate. (3) With railway electrification and green technology being emerged in the transport system, the energy structure is considered upgrading gradually, e.g. more environment-friendly energy is used to be the alternative fuels. (4) The weighted mean of exergy efficiencies range from 26.41% to 26.62%, which are less than the conventional efficiency 28%, due to the irreversibility of exergy loss. In addition, both time and structural variation of the total exergy consumption and efficiency provides an insight to China's socio-economy, but also helps improve the national energy policies. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Chen M.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology | Wang H.,Sichuan Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Zhou H.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology | Li Y.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology | Year: 2013

In In this study for bioaugmentation in the treatment of high nitrogen content wastewater, a well functioning heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria strain was isolated from activated sludge and named HN-02. By morphological, physiological, biochemical identification and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the short rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria strain was identified as Aeromonas bacteria. It's partial napA gene was cloned. The best carbon source for HN-02 bacteria was succinic acid, followed by sucrose and sodium citrate; the optimum temperature was 30 °C; and the optimum pH range was 6 to 9. Under aerobic conditions, various forms of nitrogen could be removed by HN-02 independently. The 24 h TN removal efficiencies were 77.71%, 53.34%, 56.80%, respectively, with ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate as sole nitrogen source. By qualitative verification, the nitrogen removal product gas contained nitrogen oxides.

Ou J.,South China University of Technology | Feng X.,South China University of Technology | Feng X.,Sichuan Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Liu Y.,South China University of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2014

Based upon VOCs emission contributions from on-road mobile sources in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), light-duty gasoline-fueled vehicles (LDGV), light-duty diesel-fueled vehicles (LDDV), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-fueled taxis and motorcycles were chosen to develop VOCs emission source profiles including 59 PAMs compounds by using chassis dynamometer and road measurements. VOCs compositions of LDGV and motorcycles were similar featuring high percentages of aromatics and alkanes. Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes and trimethyl benzene (BTEX), i-pentane and acetylene made up 54.5% of detected VOCs in LDGV exhausts, while BTEX, i-pentane and ethylene were responsible for 41.2% compositions in motorcycle exhaust. For LDDV exhaust, percentage of alkanes was the highest, followed by aromatics and alkenes. In addition to benzene and toluene, n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-decane, ethylene, propylene and 1-butene were also abundant, in diesel-fueled vehicular exhaust. LPG vehicular exhaust were characterized by propane and i/n-butane, as well as 1,2,4 & 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene and toluene. Compared to similar studies, differences in vehicle emission source profiles still exist due to differences in fuel quality and emission standards, and inconsistence in source sampling and chemical analytical standards. Regulations and guidelines on emission source sampling and chemical analysis are needed in future vehicle emission source profile studies.

He M.,Sichuan Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Wang X.,Sichuan Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Han L.,Sichuan Research Institute of Environmental Protection
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2013

Based on the collected activity data and emission factors of power plants, industrial and residential sectors, a 2010-based stationary emission inventory was developed for Sichuan Province with the use of appropriate emission estimation methods. The results showed: (1) The total SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5 and VOC emissions from stationary sources in Sichuan Province for the year of 2010 were 0.841 million tons, 0.449 million tons, 3.188 million tons, 0.441 million tons, 0.255 million tons and 0.179 million tons, respectively; (2) The stationary source emissions were mainly from power plants and industrial processes; (3) Coal combustion was the largest sub-sources to power plants, industry combustion and residential combustion emissions; coal residue, coke and natural gas combustion also had relatively important contributions to stationary combustion sources; cement production, steel and iron production and manufacture-light were three major industrial processes emission sources in Sichuan; (4) Yibin, Chengdu and Panzhihua were cities with the largest stationary sources emissions, with a sum-contribution about 20%~40% of total emissions in Sichuan Province; and (5) The key uncertainty sources for power plants and industry combustion were the emission factors; as for industry processes, uncertainties may be relatively higher due to the absence of local emission measurements.

Feng X.,Sichuan Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Wang X.,Sichuan Research Institute of Environmental Protection | He M.,Sichuan Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Han L.,Sichuan Research Institute of Environmental Protection
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2015

Based on the best available activity data and emission factors, a 2012-based anthropogenic ammonia emission inventory was developed for the Sichuan Province with spatial resolution of 9 km×9 km. Results showed that the total NH3 emission from anthropogenic sources in Sichuan Province was 994.8×103 t, and the average ammonia emission intensity was 2.12 t·km-2. Livestock source was the largest contributor, accounting for 62.31% of the total anthropogenic NH3 emissions, followed by nitrogen fertilizers with a contribution of 23.14%. Hog and cow were the major contributors under the category of livestock sources, together contributing to 64% of the livestock emissions. Ammonia emissions from Chengdu and Dazhou were larger than other cities, both contributing 10% to the total NH3 emission in Sichuan province. In term of spatial distribution, there were higher emissions in the east of Sichuan and other suburban and rural areas. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

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