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Yang C.,University of Sichuan | Yang C.,China West Normal University | Xiao Z.,Jiangxi xinGan Middle School | Guo Y.,China West Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Zoological Science | Year: 2012

Sichuan sika deer (Cervus nippon sichuanicus) is an endangered and endemic subspecies of sika deer to Sichuan Province, China. According to our observations in the wild, the Sichuan sika deer makes alarm signals in the presence of actual or potential predators. In order to test the variation of the rhythmic alarm calls in some sex/age classes and different risk contexts, we recorded alarm calls of Sichuan sika deer from 2 October to 30 November 2008 and from 4 April to 5 September 2009 in the Tiebu Nature Reserve, Zoige County, Sichuan Province, China, and made acoustic analysis of these alarm calls. The results showed that the fundamental frequencies of alarm signals of Sichuan sika deer tended to decrease with age, and were significantly higher for females than for males. Duration tended to increase with age, and was significantly longer for males than for females. The fundamental frequencies and duration of alarm calls in adults were significantly higher and shorter respectively in high-risk than in moderate-risk contexts. © 2012 Zoological Society of Japan.


Yang C.,Sichuan University | Li P.,Sichuan University | Zhang X.,Sichuan University | Guo Y.,China West Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2012

The complete mitochondrial genomes of the Sichuan Sika deer (Cervus nippon sichuanicus) and the South China Sika deer (Cervus nippon kopschi) were determined. Their sizes were 16,429 and 16,428 base pairs, respectively. The similarity of the mitochondrial DNA genome among subspecies of the Chinese Sika deer was calculated, and the values estimated from complete nucleotide sequences and entire amino-acid sequences were 98.4-99.9% and 99.7-99.9%, respectively. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods based on the sequences of 12 concatenated heavy-strand encoded protein-coding genes. The consensus of phylogenetic trees supported the monophyly of Moschidae, Cervidae and Bovidae, and placed Moschidae as a sister group to Cervidae/Bovidae. The relationships among Chinese Sika deer inferred from the phylogenetic analysis were inconsistent with subspecies designations and the present geographic distribution. Our complete mitochondrial genomes will be available as important and basic data for phylogenetics, breeding, genetics and conservation in Cervidae. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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