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Shen X.,East China University of Science and Technology | He X.,Sichuan Fire Research Institute | Sun J.,Hefei University of Technology
Fuel | Year: 2015

The premixed hydrogen-air and propane-air flames in a closed duct were experimentally studied for a deep insight into the tulip distortion phenomenon. High speed schlieren photography and pressure sensors recorded the flame images and pressure dynamics at different equivalence ratios for detailed analyses and comparisons. The distorted tulip shape which was first scrutinized and distinguished as an exclusive feature in premixed hydrogen-air flame, was also observed in stoichiometric premixed propane-air flame with a similar behavior on flame shape changes. Tulip distortions are always accompanied by remarkable flame tip velocity fluctuations with near-constant amplitudes. But the pressure dynamics is totally different. There are no observable oscillation and stepped rise in pressure trajectory of stoichiometric premixed propane-air flame. The pressure wave effect is definitely not the incitation factor, but an additional enhancement of flame acceleration, deceleration and deformation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Richard Horrocks A.,University of Bolton | Liu W.,Sichuan Fire Research Institute
Materials China | Year: 2015

Almost 50 years ago, the 1950-1960 period witnessed the development of the chemistry underlying most of today's successful and durable flame retardant treatments for fibres and textiles. In today's more critical markets in terms of environmental sustainability, chemical toxicological acceptability, performance and cost, many of these are now being questioned. "Are there potential replacements for established, durable formaldehyde-based flame retardants such as those based on tetrakis (hydroxylmethyl) phosphonium salt and alkyl-substituted, N-methylol phosphonopropionamide chemistries for cellulosic textiles?" is an often-asked question. "Can we produce char-forming polyester flame retardants?" and "Can we really produce effective halogen-free replacements for coatings and back-coated textiles?" are others. These questions are addressed initially within the context of a historical review of research undertaken in the second half of the twentieth century which is the basis of most currently available, commercialised flame retardant fibres and textiles. Secondly, research reported during the first decade of the twenty first century and which primarily addresses the current issues of environmental sustainability and the search for alternative flame retardant solutions, the need to increase char-forming character in synthetic fibres and the current interest in nanotechnology are critically discussed. The possible roles of micro- and nano-surface treatments of fibre surfaces and their development using techniques such as plasma technology and layer-by-layer and sol gel chemistries are also reviewed. ©, 2015, Materials China. All right reserved. Source

Liu W.,University of Sichuan | Liu W.,Sichuan Fire Research Institute | Chen L.,University of Sichuan | Wang Y.-Z.,University of Sichuan
Polymer Degradation and Stability | Year: 2012

A novel flame retardant, poly (1,2-dicarboxyl ethylene spirocyclic pentaerythritol bisphosphonate) (PEPBP) has been synthesized by the reaction of spirocyclic pentaerythritol bisphosphorate disphosphoryl chloride (SPDPC) with tartaric acid (TA). PEPBP was used as the flame-retardant finishing agent for cotton fabrics. The flame retardancy of the samples was characterized by limiting oxygen index (LOI) and the vertical burning test. The cotton fabric sample with 21.2 wt% of PEPBP has a LOI value of 33.8, which is 14.4 higher than that of the untreated cotton sample. The treated cotton fabrics have shorter after-glow time, shorter char length and no after-flame during the vertical burning test. The thermal decomposition behaviors of the fabrics, the chemical structures and morphologies of the residues of the fabrics were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, and a possible flame retardant mechanism was discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Hu Z.-R.,Sichuan Fire Research Institute
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2013

It introduces the fire situation of China in recent years and puts forward the urgency to develop the building fire engineering technology in this study. Besides urging to compile the fire control regulations and develop the fire control engineering standards, the fire-test-based experimental techniques also advance to application of the new fire engineering techniques and products. Emphasis is given to introducing recent fire tests aiming at promoting the new fire engineering techniques and products. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Gao W.,University of Tokyo | Zhong S.,Northeastern University China | Mogi T.,University of Tokyo | Liu H.,Northeastern University China | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries | Year: 2013

Sensitivity and severity parameters are critical for risk assessment and safety management of dust explosions. In this paper, to reveal the effects of material thermal characteristics on dust explosions parameters during monobasic alcohols dust explosions, three long chain monobasic alcohols, being solid at room temperature and similar in physical-chemical properties, were chosen to carry out experiments in different functional test apparatus according to the internationally accepted ASTM standards. As a result, it was found that the material thermal characteristics strongly affected these basic explosive parameters. On the one hand, for the sensitivity parameters, Minimum Ignition Temperature, Minimum Ignition Energy and Electrical Resistivity were the highest in the Eicosanol dust cloud, while Minimum Explosible Concentration in this cloud was the lowest. On the other hand, for severity parameters, Maximum Explosion Pressure in Eicosanol dust cloud always maintained the highest values as varying the dust concentrations. In contrast, Deflagration Index showed a complex trend. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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