Yucheng, China

Sichuan Agricultural University is a university located in Ya'an city, Sichuan province, China and part of the “Project 211”,“PLANT 111”,“plant 2011”, specialized in biotechnology and agricultural science, and as well as offering degrees in physical science, engineering, economics, management, veterinary medicine, liberal arts, pedagogy and law. Wikipedia.

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Luo L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Luo L.,University of Hong Kong | Han M.,University of Hong Kong | Wu R.-N.,University of Hong Kong | Gu J.-D.,University of Hong Kong
Chemosphere | Year: 2017

This study applied different concentration of NaNO3 solution to simulate the effect of inorganic nitrogen (N) deposition/pollution on carbon (C) storage in coastal mangrove sediment through observing the changes of enzyme activity and microbial abundance. Sediment collected from mangrove forest (MG) and intertidal zone (IZ) were incubated with different N rates (0 (control), 5 (low-N) and 20 (high-N) μg N g−1 dry sediment, respectively). After incubation, the activities of phenol oxidase (PHO) and acid phosphatase (ACP) were enhanced, but β-glucosidase (GLU) and N-β-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) activities were reduced by N addition. The altered enzymatic stoichiometries by N input implied that microbial phosphorus (P) limitation was increased, whereas C and N limitation were alleviated. Besides, N input decreased the bacterial abundance but increased fungal abundance in both types of sediment. The increased pH and soluble phenolics along with the exacerbated P limitation by N addition might explain these changes. Furthermore, sediment with N addition (except high-N treated MG sediment) showed a trend of C sequestration, which might be largely caused by the decrease of bacterial abundance and GLU activity. However, MG sediment with high-N suggested a trend of C loss, and the possible reason for this discrepancy might be the relatively higher increase of PHO and ACP activity. To better understand the influence of N deposition/pollution on C cycling, the long-term N effect on microorganisms, enzymes, and thus C storage should be paid more attention in the future. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Lin S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Sun Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang N.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience | Year: 2016

As online social contact has become the main means of social communication and cooperation, users, as the basic element of social contact, also present multiple characteristics. How to capture the characteristics of users among mass social data and evaluate their influence has gained the attention of many researchers. This paper, based on the improved co-evolutionary algorithm, conducts collaborative exploration on user characteristics and introduces neural network to optimize the algorithm, to improve the accuracy and fault tolerant ability of the algorithm. Based on the improved co-evolutionary algorithm, this paper conducts exploration and empirical analysis on the influence of multi-feature users, and gets a user rating model with good robustness and high accuracy. And through comparing three different algorithms, it conducts sensitivity analysis, showing that the optimized co-evolutionary algorithm has higher adaptability. © Copyright 2016 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Liu G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wei Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience | Year: 2016

Based on the failure pattern of concrete under tri-axial compression and tested data by ultimate compression experiment, and elastic mechanics assumption and General Hooke Law, the paper calculates the main strain values of concrete in other directions under ultimate compression. The paper also studies the relation between spatial strain tensor and ultimate strain compression of concrete, divides the spatial strain value of regular hexahedron concrete into strain spherical tensor and strain partial tensor, and introduces three ratios of strain partial tensor and strain spherical tensor α1, α2 and α3, and structure five non-dimensional parameters S(α), βt, βc, β and ω by the three ratios. The paper gives inverse quadratic polynomial equations of ultimate compression of concrete under tri-axial compressions by applying curve fitting least squares and making Matlab program. The paper finally establishes the strength destruction principle of tri-axial compression concrete based on strain by referring to the existing strength destruction principle and the law of internal cracks in concrete. Copyright © 2016 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Dankwa K.O.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Y.-J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Pu Z.-E.,Sichuan Agricultural University
British Food Journal | Year: 2017

Purpose: Due to the rise in urbanization, demand for easily prepared foods such as pastries and noodles has risen. But the high price of wheat in the global market puts financial stress on low-income people, especially on those living in tropical regions, where wheat does not thrive well. They depend solely on imported wheat, which is expensive due to importation cost, or seek other relatively less-nutritious cereals. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of supplementing wheat flour with flour from relatively cheap and easy-to-produce root tuber, such as cassava, potato and sweet potato. Design/methodology/approach: Strong-, medium- and weak-gluten wheat flours were supplemented with flour from cassava, potato and sweet potato at 10, 20 and 30 percent. Strong gluten composites were used to make bread, whereas medium and weak gluten composites were used for cookie and noodle production, respectively. Protein, ash, fat, crude fiber, moisture, carbohydrate, gluten, zeleny and energy contents of each composite were tested. Findings: The nutritional and sensory quality of bread, cookies and noodles made from wheat flour supplemented with root tuber flour at 10, 20 and 30 percent was assessed. Results revealed that mixing wheat flour and root tuber flour has important effects on the moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash, gluten, zeleny sedimentation value and crude fiber content of the resulting mixture. Moisture and carbohydrate increased while protein and fat significantly (p<0.05) decreased with increasing root tuber flour levels in formulations. Gluten content also decreased significantly with rising root tuber flour concentrations. There was a mild reduction in bread’s general acceptability at 10 and 20 percent in potato composites; thus potato flour was still acceptable at 20 percent. Cassava flour composite also topped with a general acceptability score of 69.26 at 20 percent in cookies, whereas sweet potato composite achieved a score of 84.81 in noodles. Originality/value: This work has successfully confirmed that wheat flour could be supplemented up to 20 percent with root tuber flour without compromising the nutritional and sensory quality of products. It has also demonstrated that different products require different root tuber flour substitution for optimum results. Potato at 10 percent substitution was found to be best for bread production. Cassava and sweet potato at 10 percent substitution were also best for cookies and noodles, respectively. With respect to protein content only, sweet potato substitution is better than cassava and potato. © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited.

Lin F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yuan D.,Neijiang Normal University | Chen D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Agri Gene | Year: 2017

Schizothorax prenanti (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Schizothoracinae) is an endemic, valuable fish in the southwest of China. Although a series of studies concerning the genetic and endocrine control of feeding and growth in S. prenanti have been examined in our laboratory, the mechanism is still unclear. To better understand these mechanisms, complete coding sequences of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding proteins (4E-BP1, 4E-BP2 and 4E-BP3) were isolated in S. prenanti and their mRNA distributions examined in different tissues. S. prenanti 4E-BP1, 4E-BP2 and 4E-BP3 consisted of 120, 113 and 111 amino acids and exhibited a quite high degree of amino acid identity, respectively, to their cyprinid fish homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of the 4E-BPs sequences showed three main branches of vertebrate 4E-BPs. However, it was of interest that teleost 4E-BP1 clustered with vertebrate 4E-BP3, while the tetrapod 4E-BP1 formed a distinct clade. The mRNAs of all 4E-BPs were ubiquitously expressed in S. prenanti tissues, including brain, pituitary, eye, heart, gut, hepatopancreas, kidney, spleen, gonad, muscle, skin and gill. The widespread distributions suggest that 4E-BPs might have distinct physiological actions in S. prenanti, in particular on the brain, pituitary, gut, hepatopancreas and muscle, which involved feeding and growth regulation. This preliminary study opens the way for further functional studies on the mechanisms of the regulation of feeding and growth in S. prenanti and other teleost. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Sun X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen X.F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | du J.B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang W.Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Photosynthetica | Year: 2017

Our present work showed that the expression of genes encoding PTOX (terminal oxidase of chlororespiration) and PGR5 (one essential component of cyclic electron transfer) were stimulated by red and blue light, but the stimulation under red light was soon reversed by subsequent far-red light. The expression levels of PTOX and PGR5 under simulated light quality conditions in line with maize–soybean relay strip intercropping (SRI) were obviously lower than those under simulated soybean monocropping (SM), since the lower red:far-red ratio under SRI. Measurements on photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters suggested a decline of assimilatory power supply and a lower nonphotochemical quenching under SRI as compared to SM. In this case, weaker PGR-dependent cyclic electron transfer and chlororespiration under SRI, suggested by lower expression levels of PGR5 and PTOX, could be considered as means of reducing excitation energy dissipation to allocate more power toward CO2 assimilation. © 2017 The Institute of Experimental Botany

Kang B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ma R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | He H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

An increasing number of studies suggest that ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1), which is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene, regulates follicular development, ovulation, and steroidogenesis. The granulosa cells in the ovary play a critical role in these ovarian functions. However, the action of OAZ1 mediating physiological functions of granulosa cells is obscure. OAZ1 knockdown in granulosa cells of geese was carried out in the current study. The effect of OAZ1 knockdown on polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and hormone receptor transcription of primary granulosa cells in geese was measured. The viability of granulosa cells transfected with the shRNA OAZ1 at 48 h was significantly higher than the control (p<0.05). The level of putrescine and spermidine in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 was 7.04- and 2.11- fold higher compared with the control, respectively (p<0.05). The CCND1, SMAD1, and BCL-2 mRNA expression levels in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 were each significantly higher than the control, respectively (p<0.05), whereas the PCNA and CASPASE 3 expression levels were significantly lower than the control (p<0.05). The estradiol concentration, ER and LHR mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 compared with the control (p<0.05). Taken together, our results indicated that OAZ1 knockdown elevated the putrescine and spermidine contents and enhanced granulosa cell viability and inhibited ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese. © 2017 Kang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Xiang S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Bao D.-X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li Y.-C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Luminescence | Year: 2017

The rapidly growing number of luminescent compounds based on lanthanide ions illustrates high interest due to the numerous applications on lighting, optical communications, sensors, photonics and biomedical devices. In this review, we choose luminescent compounds based on pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid to discuss the synthetic strategy of functional luminescent compounds, various types of emitting, tunable emission colors, and the mechanism of enhancing and quenching fluorescence. The unique luminescence features them as promising materials. We focus on recent significant advances of this field and provide a comprehensive review on multifunctional lanthanide compounds. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Jiang S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Gan L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2017

The evaluation of community public health services (CPHS) has received increasing attention in today’s social environment. This study focuses on developing an evaluation model to test the quality of community public health service organizations, (CPHS) using a fuzzy Delphi method and weighted TOPSIS method. The main contributions of this paper are the evaluation system for reconstructive community public health service systems by using specific cases. Specifically, it can save resources in a reliable way by adopting a quantifiable evaluation index system, utilising software calculation methods, and combining the construction services. Moreover, the system can be easily used in CPHSO building after disasters. © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2017.

Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang F.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2017

Cities are complex artificial systems with an effect of strong leading role and radiation. This article reflects the four areas selected departure city group resources, environment, economic and social indicators from 24 representatives divided into pressure force and support force. Firstly, using entropy method gives 24 index weights. Then, using TOPSIS method to evaluate Chengdu city group’s comprehensive carrying capacity and various subsystems’ carrying capacity in 2013. During the evaluation process, using the System Cluster method to differentiate the cities. Chengdu city group is separated into three levels. And then dynamically evaluating Chengdu city group’s each subsystem carrying capacity and comprehensive carrying capacity from 2009 to 2013 using Coefficient of variation. Observing the changes of situation and trends of each subsystem carrying capacity and comprehensive carrying capacity. The results show that Chengdu city group space has a significant degree of difference. Chengdu is the absolute leader and the Ya’an City is the disadvantaged. The degree of resource dependence is high. Social subsystem carrying capacity is lacking and weak. Cities’ comprehensive carrying capacity fell and then has stabilized trend. Lastly, in this paper, based on analysis results, referring to the features of Chengdu city group and coming up with the suggestions and development strategies of improving the comprehensive carrying capacity. © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2017.

Meng Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jian X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2017

Ecological footprintmethodology is to quantitatively evaluatewhether the development of a specific zone is within the range of its ecological carrying capacity by measuring the gap between the human ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity, so as to provide a scientific basis for sustainable development of the assessed object. Analyzing the carrying capacity of the current environmental resources in downtown Leshan from the perspective of ecological footprint methodology, the paper concludes with the current conditions and features of the ecological supply and its demand, which provides an ecological and environmental basis for the urban planning of Leshan. Moreover, comparing Leshan with its neighboring areas as well as some more developed zones, the paper also finds out some specific approaches to optimizing its ecological carrying capacity. © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2017.

Luo Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Tan H.,Sichuan Agricultural University
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine | Year: 2017

The Ministry of Health in China has been releasing statistical bulletins of foodborne illness outbreaks quarterly and annually on its website to keep foodborne illnesses under constant surveillance. In this study, we summarized reports concerning all foodborne illness outbreaks in China announced by the Ministry of Health during 2000-2014. Published reports from 2000 to 2014 were also included to explore the general characteristics and trends of outbreaks of China’s foodborne illnesses. Results showed that the total incidence of foodborne illness outbreak has a downward trend and that outbreaks mainly occurred in April to September, clustered in the Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangdong, Guizhou, and Guangxi provinces. More than half of foodborne illness outbreaks were caused by bacteria, whereas poisonous animals and plants and chemicals accounted for approximately 80% of the reported deaths. The laws and regulations related to food safety in China were also presented. © 2017, E-Century Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.

Xian H.,Chengdu Women and Childrens Central Hospital | Wang F.,Chengdu Women and Childrens Central Hospital | Teng W.,Chengdu Women and Childrens Central Hospital | Yang D.,Chengdu Women and Childrens Central Hospital | Zhang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Gene | Year: 2017

Accumulating evidences showed that thyroid hormone was participated in the functioning of the reproductive system, and an elevated level of thyroid hormones had a negative impact on reproductive system. However, the molecular basis for this observation still remains to be fully understood. Here, we show that L-Thyroxine significantly impaired human sperm motility. The molecular basis showed that thyroxine receptor stimulation triggers Phosphatidyl Inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling activation leading to the E3 ligase MDM2 phosphorylation at serine 166, which directly interacted with p53 for degradation. p53 degradation caused a p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint or repair dysfunction, which eventually results in DNA damage accumulation in sperm. Our results highlight that inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway or p53 degradation is important in maintaining sperm motility in a thyroxine receptor (TR)-dependent manner. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Wang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang X.,National United University | Wang X.,Henan Agricultural University | Lewis Liu Z.,National United University | And 2 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2017

Aldehyde inhibitory compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment have been identified as a major class of toxic chemicals that interfere with microbial growth and subsequent fermentation for advanced biofuel production. Development of robust next-generation biocatalyst is a key for a low-cost biofuel production industry. Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis is a naturally occurring C-5 sugar utilization yeast; however, little is known about the genetic background underlying its potential tolerance to biomass conversion inhibitors. We investigated and identified five uncharacterized putative aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase genes (SsAADs) from this yeast as a new source of resistance against biomass fermentation inhibitor 2-furaldehyde (furfural) by gene expression, gene cloning, and direct enzyme assay analysis using partially purified proteins. All five proteins from S. stipitis showed furfural reduction using cofactor NADH. An optimum active temperature was observed at 40 °C for SsAad1p; 30 °C for SsAad3p, SsAad4p, and SsAad5p; and 20 °C for SsAad2p. SsAad2p, SsAad3p, and SsAad4p showed tolerance to a wide range of pH from 4.5 to 8, but SsAad1p and SsAad5p were sensitive to pH changes beyond 7. Genes SsAAD2, SsAAD3, and SsAAD4 displayed significantly enhanced higher levels of expression in response to the challenge of furfural. Their encoding proteins also showed higher levels of specific activity toward furfural and were suggested as core functional enzymes contributing aldehyde resistance in S. stipitis. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA)

Kang B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | He H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ma R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Amino Acids | Year: 2017

Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1) regulates both polyamine biosynthesis and transport and acts as a tumor suppressor because of its functions in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and growth. However, the roles of OAZ1 in the regulation of polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis and hormone receptor expression in granulosa cells (GCs) from geese have not been determined. To define the roles of OAZ1 in primary GCs, we constructed and transfected an Oaz1 overexpression vector with a thymidine deletion into primary GCs. Oaz1 overexpression induced 65 and 30% decreases in the putrescine and spermidine contents, respectively, 225% increase in the spermine content and up-regulated the expression levels of genes associated with polyamine metabolism (but Oaz2). The Ccnd1, Pcna, Bax and Caspase 3 mRNA expression levels in GCs overexpressing Oaz1 were significantly higher than the expression levels in the vehicle group (p < 0.05). Additionally, a slight increase in the E2 concentration in the culture medium and enhanced Er, Fshr and Lhr expression were observed in the GCs 24 h after Oaz1 overexpression (p < 0.05). These data suggested that Oaz1 up-regulated the expression of genes related to polyamine metabolic enzymes and reproductive hormone receptors, disturbed intracellular polyamine homeostasis, and affected the transcription of genes associated to cell proliferation and apoptosis in goose primary GCs. Taken together, our results indicate that modifying polyamine metabolism by Oaz1 may interfere with the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis and responsiveness of ovary toward hormones in goose GCs. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Wien

Chen X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Luo Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jia G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2017

Dietary l-arginine supplementation decreases backfat thickness and increases intramuscular fat content in growing-finishing pigs, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, the effect of arginine on differentiation of porcine intramuscular preadipocytes was investigated in vitro. We showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α were upregulated by arginine supplementation. Furthermore, the intracellular triglyceride level was increased by arginine supplementation. We also showed that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway by using lithium chloride (LiCl) significantly attenuated arginine-induced upregulation of PPARγ and increased the phospho-β-catenin level. These findings suggested that arginine promotes porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation, which might be via repressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. © 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Zhang L.,Shangqiu Normal University | Zhang L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xu H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yao Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Aquaculture International | Year: 2017

Prenant’s schizothoracin (Schizothorax prenanti) is an important existemic commercial fish in Yangtze River. Oxidized konjac glucomannan (OKGM) is a kind of polysaccharide oxidative degraded from konjac glucomannan. The diet of S. prenanti was supplemented with 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 mg/kg OKGM. After a 60-day feeding trial, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium in the intestines of S. prenanti were quantified, and intestinal flora was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Intestinal plica mucosa height, mucosa epithelial height, submucosa thickness, inner circular muscularis thickness, and outer longitudinal muscularis thickness were measured. In the foregut and midgut, Lactobacillus in the 2000, 4000, and 8000 mg/kg dose groups were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the control group. In the hindgut, E. coli and Salmonella of the 4000 and 8000 mg/kg dose groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of the control group, but Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in these groups were significantly (P < 0.05) more than those of the control group. The bands from PCR-DGGE of the control and 500 mg/kg dose groups were found to be highly similar, as well as the 4000 and 8000 mg/kg dose groups. The intestinal length index of the 8000 mg/kg dose group was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of the control group. The plica mucosa height in the gut of the 8000 mg/kg dose group was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the control group. The mucosa epithelial height and inner circular muscularis thickness in the midgut and hindgut of the 8000 mg/kg dose group were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the control group. Hence, OKGM is beneficial to gut health. OKGM doses of 4000 and 8000 mg/kg in the diet significantly affected the intestinal morphology and intestinal microflora of S. prenanti, and the optimal dose was 8000 mg/kg. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Xia J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cui J.-Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | He X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Y.-Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) has caused significant losses in chicken flocks throughout china in recent years. There is a limited understanding of the genetic and antigenic characteristics of the H9N2 virus isolated in chickens in southwestern China. In this study a total of 12 field strains were isolated from tissue samples from diseased chickens between 2013 and 2016. Phylogenetic analysis of the Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) nucleotide sequences from the 12 field isolates and other reference strains showed that most of the isolates in the past four years could be clustered into a major branch (HA-branch A and NA-branch I) in the Clade h9.4.2 lineages. These sequences are accompanied by nine and seven new amino acids mutations in the HA and NA proteins, respectively, when compared with those previous to 2013. In addition, four new isolates were grouped into a minor branch (HA-branch B) in the Clade h9.4.2 lineages and two potential N-glycosylation sites were observed due to amino acid mutations in the HA protein. Three antigenic groups (1-3), which had low antigenic relatedness with two commonly used vaccines in China, were identified among the 12 isolates by antigenMap analysis. Immunoprotection testing showed that those two vaccines could efficiently prevent the shedding of branch A viruses but not branch B viruses. In conclusion, these results indicate the genotype of branch B may become epidemic in the next few years and that a new vaccine should be developed for the prevention of H9N2 AIV. © 2017 Xia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Zhang J.H.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment | Wang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jia L.Z.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment | Zhang Z.H.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment
Catena | Year: 2017

The interaction between vertical and lateral movements of soil constituents by tillage needs to be addressed to better understand the transfer processes of soil constituents on a hillslope. In this experiment, traditional tillage by consecutive hoeing during a few days and the cesium-137 (137Cs) tracing were performed in the Sichuan Basin, China to demonstrate direct effects of intensive tillage on the vertical redistribution of soil constituents and the interaction between vertical and lateral transfers of soil constituents. The changes in 137Cs residual rates showed that intensive downslope movement of soil by tillage occurred along the transect of slopes, and the lateral transfer of those soil constituents proceeded in the same direction as the soil movement by tillage. The vertical transfer patterns differed from one another for the upper, middle, and lower slope positions. At the upper slope positions, intensive tillage notably decreased the concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the whole soil profile. At the middle and lower slope positions, SOC concentrations in the surface soil layer (0–15 cm) markedly declined after intensive tillage, suggesting that the downslope movement of soil by tillage translocated the soil with low concentrations of SOC and TN derived from upslope towards the middle and lower slopes. The decreases in SOC and TN of the surface soil exerted an important impact on the underlying soil near the surface soil due to the vertical transfer of soil constituents by mixture effects of tillage. Significant changes in the depth distribution pattern of soil constituents by intensive tillage occurred close to the upslope and downslope boundaries of the field Our results revealed that the vertical movement of soil constituents interacted with their downslope movement under intensive tillage, which resulted in a chain transfer process of soil constituents: effects of the vertical transfer at all landscape positions on the lateral transfer along the transect of slopes, and conversely, effects of the lateral transfer on the vertical transfer. © 2017

Zhang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang X.,North Carolina State University | Valdes-Lopez O.,University of Missouri | Valdes-Lopez O.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 4 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2017

Key message: Loci associated with variation in maize responses to two microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) were identified. MAMP responses were correlated. No relationship between MAMP responses and quantitative disease resistance was identified. Abstract: Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are highly conserved molecules commonly found in microbes which can be recognized by plant pattern recognition receptors. Recognition triggers a suite of responses including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) and expression changes of defense-related genes. In this study, we used two well-studied MAMPs (flg22 and chitooctaose) to challenge different maize lines to determine whether there was variation in the level of responses to these MAMPs, to dissect the genetic basis underlying that variation and to understand the relationship between MAMP response and quantitative disease resistance (QDR). Naturally occurring quantitative variation in ROS, NO production, and defense genes expression levels triggered by MAMPs was observed. A major quantitative traits locus (QTL) associated with variation in the ROS production response to both flg22 and chitooctaose was identified on chromosome 2 in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the maize inbred lines B73 and CML228. Minor QTL associated with variation in the flg22 ROS response was identified on chromosomes 1 and 4. Comparison of these results with data previously obtained for variation in QDR and the defense response in the same RIL population did not provide any evidence for a common genetic basis controlling variation in these traits. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA)

Zhang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang X.,North Carolina State University | Yang Q.,North Carolina State University | Rucker E.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2017

Key message: In this study we mapped the QTL Qgls8 for gray leaf spot (GLS) resistance in maize to a ~130 kb region on chromosome 8 including five predicted genes. Abstract: In previous work, using near isogenic line (NIL) populations in which segments of the teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) genome had been introgressed into the background of the maize line B73, we had identified a QTL on chromosome 8, here called Qgls8, for gray leaf spot (GLS) resistance. We identified alternate teosinte alleles at this QTL, one conferring increased GLS resistance and one increased susceptibility relative to the B73 allele. Using segregating populations derived from NIL parents carrying these contrasting alleles, we were able to delimit the QTL region to a ~130 kb (based on the B73 genome) which encompassed five predicted genes. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA)

Cao Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang Q.,Sichuan Dadishanchuan Environmental Engineering Co. | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2017

Soil washing is an effective approach to remove soil heavy metals, and the washing agent is generally regarded as one of the primary factors in the process, but there is still a lack of efficient and eco-friendly agents for this technique. Here, we showed that four plant washing agents—from water extracts of Coriaria nepalensis (CN), Clematis brevicaudata (CB), Pistacia weinmannifolia (PW), and Ricinus communis (RC)—could be feasible agents for the removal of soil lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd). The metal removal efficiencies of the agents increased with their concentrations from 20 to 80 g L−1, decreased with the increasing solution pH, and presented different trends with the reaction time increasing. CN among the four agents had the highest removal efficiencies of soil Pb (62.02%) and Zn (29.18%) but owned the relatively low Cd removal efficiencies (21.59%). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the abilities of plant washing agents for the removal of soil heavy metals may result from bioactive substances with specific functional groups such as –COOH, −NH2, and −OH. Our study provided CN as the best washing agents for the remediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Wang S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zheng Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Catena | Year: 2017

Variations in microbial biomass and activity within aggregate fractions can provide valuable information regarding mechanisms for enhancing carbon (C) sequestration and nutrient status in agricultural soils. The effects of different chronosequence phases on these variations in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plantations have not yet been well documented. In this study, we assessed the relationship between tea plantation age and microbial biomass and activity at the aggregate scale. Microbial biomass C and respiration rate were determined in different size fractions from soil depths of 0–20 and 20–40 cm under four tea plantations of varying ages (16, 23, 31, and 53 years) in the hilly region of Western Sichuan, China. Aggregates were separated by an improved dry-sieving procedure into four fractions: > 2 mm (large macro-aggregates), 2–1 mm (medium macro-aggregates), 1–0.25 mm (small macro-aggregates), and < 0.25 mm (micro-aggregates). All the tea plantations we observed were dominated by large macro-aggregates with values of 41.25%–61.12% at both soil depths. Their proportion and mean weight diameter (MWD) were higher in 23-year tea plantation than those in other plantations, indicating that the soil structure in the 23-year tea plantation was more stable than the others. Notably, we found that aggregate stability is closely correlated with microbial biomass and their relationship is dependent on aggregate size. Aggregates with different particle sizes exhibited different levels of microbial biomass C and respiration rate regardless of tea plantation age. The soil properties we examined were at their highest levels in large macro-aggregates, implying that microorganisms associated with these fractions are more biologically active there than elsewhere in the present ecosystem. Decreases in soil microbial biomass and activity after 23 years of tea planting occurred mainly due to reduction in large macro-aggregates in the whole soil over time. To this effect, it is crucial to establish appropriate management protocol tailored to the prevention of soil structure degradation after 23 years of tea planting in such plantations. © 2017

Chen M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lyu J.-H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li S.-G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advances in Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2017

As an important part of modern furniture, panel furniture already has a large number of consumers and good long-term prospects. Panel furniture is also an important product type in the modern forestry products supply chain. Therefore, scientific qualitative and quantitative evaluation on the design of panel furniture is of great significance. This article focuses on the research of the establishment of an evaluation system at the design stage of panel furniture, according to the concept and feature requirements of panel furniture. The article also establishes a design evaluation system combining Kansei engineering and analytic hierarchy process methods. Additionally, this article will discuss in detail the authors' methodological approach on the procedures used, statistical methods, and evaluation model of panel furniture design. © The Author(s) 2017.

Hong J.-C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Qin G.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2017

With the continuous development of science and technology, the function of the electrochemical biosensor is becoming more and more diversified. The fourth generation of enzyme-free glucose sensor because of its particular advantages has become one of research focuses in glucose sensor now. For all sorts of optimization also are not enzyme glucose as the new material was born has made great progress. Enzyme-free glucose sensors are becoming more and more an integral part of electrochemical research. This article summarizes the characteristics of all kinds of conventional materials of enzyme-free glucose sensor, the domestic and foreign general preparation methods of enzyme-free glucose sensors, the specific characterization of the electrode, its application fields, and prospects for future development. © 2017 Trans Tech Publications.

Kamboh A.A.,Sindh Agriculture University | Memon A.M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Mughal M.J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Memon J.,Government of Pakistan | Bakhetgul M.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2017

The current study investigated dietary effects of soy genistein (SG) and citrus hesperidin (CH) on microbial spoilage and antioxidant quality of chicken meat. Broilers were divided to six treatment groups: control (C), SG and CH, supplemented with 5 mg of SG and 20 mg of CH per kg of feed, respectively, and SGCH1, SGCH2 and SGCH3, supplemented with 5, 10 or 20 mg of SG + CH (1:4) per kg of feed respectively. Both SG and CH reduced (p < .01) the microbial load of spoilage organisms in breast meat at 0 and 15 days of refrigeration. Hepatic and muscle total antioxidant and superoxide dismutase activities, and crude protein contents were generally improved (p < .05), whereas hepatic malondialdehyde concentration and muscle fat was decreased (p < .01) by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, soy genistein and CH supplementation could improve meat composition, antioxidant and microbial quality of broilers meat. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Zou T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zou T.,Washington State University | Chen D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang Q.,Washington State University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2017

Key points: Maternal high-fat diet impairs brown adipocyte function and correlates with obesity in offspring. Maternal resveratrol administration recovers metabolic activity of offspring brown adipose tissue. Maternal resveratrol promotes beige adipocyte development in offspring white adipose tissue. Maternal resveratrol intervention protects offspring against high-fat diet-induced obesity. Abstract: Promoting beige/brite adipogenesis and thermogenic activity is considered as a promising therapeutic approach to reduce obesity and metabolic syndrome. Maternal obesity impairs offspring brown adipocyte function and correlates with obesity in offspring. We previously found that dietary resveratrol (RES) induces beige adipocyte formation in adult mice. Here, we evaluated further the effect of resveratrol supplementation of pregnant mice on offspring thermogenesis and energy expenditure. Female C57BL/6 J mice were fed a control diet (CON) or a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without 0.2% (w/w) RES during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were weaned onto a HFD and maintained on this diet for 11 weeks. The offspring thermogenesis and related regulatory factors in adipose tissue were evaluated. At weaning, HFD offspring had lower thermogenesis in brown and white adipose tissues compared with CON offspring, which was recovered by maternal RES supplementation, along with the appearance of multilocular brown/beige adipocytes and elevated thermogenic gene expression. Adult offspring of RES-treated mothers showed increased energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity when on an obesogenic diet compared with HFD offspring. The elevated metabolic activity was correlated with enhanced brown adipose function and white adipose tissue browning in HFD+RES compared with HFD offspring. In conclusion, RES supplementation of HFD-fed dams during pregnancy and lactation promoted white adipose browning and thermogenesis in offspring at weaning accompanied by persistent beneficial effects in protecting against HFD-induced obesity and metabolic disorders. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society

Piper M.D.W.,University College London | Soultoukis G.A.,Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing | Blanc E.,Berlin Institute of Health | Mesaros A.,Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing | And 10 more authors.
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2017

Balancing the quantity and quality of dietary protein relative to other nutrients is a key determinant of evolutionary fitness. A theoretical framework for defining a balanced diet would both reduce the enormous workload to optimize diets empirically and represent a breakthrough toward tailoring diets to the needs of consumers. Here, we report a simple and powerful in silico technique that uses the genome information of an organism to define its dietary amino acid requirements. We show for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster that such “exome-matched” diets are more satiating, enhance growth, and increase reproduction relative to non-matched diets. Thus, early life fitness traits can be enhanced at low levels of dietary amino acids that do not impose a cost to lifespan. Exome matching also enhanced mouse growth, indicating that it can be applied to other organisms whose genome sequence is known. © 2017 The Author(s)

Xu M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yu B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Oncotarget | Year: 2017

FoxO1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor forkhead box protein O (FoxO) family, is predominantly expressed in most muscle types. FoxO1 is a key regulator of muscle growth, metabolism, cell proliferation and differentiation. In the past two decades, many researches have indicated that FoxO1 is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation while contrasting opinions consider that FoxO1 is crucial for myoblast fusion. FoxO1 is expressed much higher in fast twitch fiber enriched muscles than in slow muscles and is also closely related to muscle fiber type specification. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of FoxO1 in the regulation of skeletal muscle differentiation and fiber type specification.

Li Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2017

Yellow fever virus (YFV) has emerged as the causative agent of a vector-borne disease with devastating mortality in the tropics of Africa and the Americas. YFV phylogenies indicate that the isolates collected from West Africa, East and Central Africa, and South America cluster into different lineages and the virus spread into the Americas from Africa. To determine the nature of genetic variation accompanying the intercontinental epidemic, we performed a genome-wide evolutionary study on the West African and South American lineages of YFV. Our results reveal that adaptive genetic diversification has occurred on viral nonstructural protein 5 (NS5), which is crucially required for viral genome replication, in the early epidemic phase of these currently circulating lineages. Furthermore, major amino acid changes relevant to the adaptive diversification generally cluster in different structural regions of NS5 in a lineage-specific manner. These results suggest that YFV has experienced adaptive diversification in the epidemic spread between the continents and shed insights into the genetic determinants of such diversification, which might be beneficial for understanding the emergence and re-emergence of yellow fever as an important global public health issue. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Wang X.G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang S.R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang J.Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2017

Musca domestica is one of the most important pests of human health, and has developed strong resistance to many chemicals used for its control. One important approach for creating new pesticides is the exploration of novel compounds from plants. During a wide screening of plants with insecticidal properties that grow in southern China, we found that the methanolic extracts of Myrsine stolonifera had insecticidal activity against the adults of M. domestica. However, the insecticidal constituents and mechanisms of the M. stolonifera extracts remain unclear. The insecticidal components of the methanolic extracts of M. stolonifera were isolated with activity-guided fractionation. From the spectra of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), the compounds were identified as syringing (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol-1-O-β-D-glu (2), kaempferol-3-O-glu-rha-glu (3), and quercetin-3-O-glu-rha-glu (4). This study is the first to report the spectral data for compounds 3 and 4, and their LC50 values were 0.52 mg/g sugar and 0.36 mg/g sugar 24 h after treatment of the adults of M. domestica, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 (LC25) also inhibited the activities of the enzymes carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, mixed function oxidase, and acetylcholine esterase of adult M. domestica, particularly mixed function oxidase and acetylcholine esterase. The cytotoxic effects of compounds 3 and 4 on cell proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were demonstrated on SL-1 cells. From the extracts of M. stolonifera, quercetin-3-O-glu-rha-glu and kaempferol-3-O-glu-rha-glu have displayed comparable toxicities to rotenone on M. domestica and also exhibited cytotoxic effects on SL-1 cells; therefore, the extracts of M. stolonifera and their compounds have potential as botanical insecticides to control M. domestica. © 2017

Guan T.-W.,Xihua University | Wang P.-H.,Xihua University | Tian L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Tang S.-K.,Yunnan University | Xiang H.-P.,Xihua University
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2016

A novel actinomycete strain, designated XHU 5089T, was isolated from a hypersaline habitat in China. The strain was aerobic, Gram-stain-positive and the optimum NaCl concentration for growth was 1–3% (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on the almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain XHU 5089T showed that the organism was related most closely to Glycomyces albus TRM 49136T (97.7% similarity). However, it had a relatively low mean DNA– DNA relatedness value with G. albus TRM 49136T (18.9±5.8%). The whole-cell sugar pattern consisted of glucose and galactose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H4) and MK-9 (H4). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15: 0, iso-C16: 0, iso-C16: 1 and anteiso-C17: 0. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, two unidentified glycolipids and two unknown phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.6 mol%. A novel species, Glycomyces lacisalsi sp. nov., is proposed, with XHU 5089T (=CCTCC AA 2015034T=KCTC 39688T) as the type strain. © 2016 IUMS.

Hu B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Pan W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Su Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

The Objective of this study is to optimize microwave-assisted extraction of Hazelnut oil and fatty acid composition analysis. On the basis of single-factor test, the response surface methodology was optimize the processing parameters, including microwave power, solvent/material ratio and extraction time. The extraction rate of oil was chosen as response value, establishing mathematical model by regression-rotate design. Meanwhile, the fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC. The optimum technological conditions were the volume ratio of anhydrous ethanol to petroleum ether (60-90℃)1:1, particle size of material 40 screen mesh, microwave power of 460 W, solvent/material ratio of 12:1 (mL/g), extraction time of 28 min. The extraction rate of Hazelnut oil was up to 59.05%. The oil obtained under these conditions was abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, in which the contents of oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively were 77.28% and 13.93%. The extraction of oil assisted by microwave would be an efficient method. © 2016, Editorial Office of Journal of CIFST. All right reserved.

Zhang D.,Neijiang Normal University | Feng S.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Carpathian Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

This research focuses on the current situation of sports health food. It has made comprehensive analysis of the current situation of sports health food approved by Ministry of Health and SFDA as well as the sales and operation situation of sports health food on the market based on the comprehensive and systematic analysis of formation and development of our traditional health care theory; drawn lessons from the specific measures and methods of registration examination and approval management of sports health food at abroad, proposed comments and suggestions for the existing problems and development trend in the future of our sports health food and expected to provide scientific basis for the healthy and orderly development of our sports health food industry and provide important reference for further establishment and improvement of our standard system of laws and regulations for sports health food.

Huang Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Duan H.-F.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Zhao M.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Zhang Q.,Harbin Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Water Resources Management | Year: 2017

Computational efficiency and accuracy of transient analysis for urban water distribution networks (WDN) become progressively important to the design and management of the system. In addition to the improvement of numerical model and computational capacity, which has been widely studied in the literature, efficient and accurate treatment of practical and complex WDN is another potential way to enhance the transient analysis. This paper aims to develop a zonal method for effective decomposition of WDN, which is mainly based on the transient sources and their influence regions in the system, in order to achieve efficient transient analysis. A concept of transient influence zone (TIZ) is firstly proposed and implemented to demonstrate the critical influence region of transient wave propagation in the system under specific design criteria. The obtained TIZ for each transient source is then mapped by introducing appropriate and equivalent boundaries so as to separate the TIZ from the entire WDN. To this end, the efficient Lagrangian model for prior-estimating pressure fluctuation extremes, the pressure fluctuation limitation for mapping TIZ borders and the quasi-reservoir condition for representing border boundaries are applied for characterizing the TIZs. A realistic network is adopted to demonstrate the applicability and accuracy of the proposed method. The application results and analysis indicate that the developed TIZ-based decomposition method provides a considerable efficiency improvement for transient analysis with sufficient modeling accuracy. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Luo Q.,University of Sichuan | Luo Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Beaver J.M.,Florida International University | Liu Y.,Florida International University | And 2 more authors.
Genes | Year: 2017

Cellular stress‐induced temporal alterations-i.e., dynamics-are typically exemplified by the dynamics of p53 that serve as a master to determine cell fate. p53 dynamics were initially identified as the variations of p53 protein levels. However, a growing number of studies have shown that p53 dynamics are also manifested in variations in the activity, spatial location, and posttranslational modifications of p53 proteins, as well as the interplay among all p53 dynamical features. These are essential in determining a specific outcome of cell fate. In this review, we discuss the importance of the multifaceted features of p53 dynamics and their roles in the cell fate decision process, as well as their potential applications in p53‐based cancer therapy. The review provides new insights into p53 signaling pathways and their potentials in the development of new strategies in p53‐based cancer therapy. © 2017 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Justine M.F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Khan M.N.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences | Year: 2017

The changes of forest biomass stock and carbon (C) sequestration with stand ages at fixed intervals in the different vegetation components remain unknown. Using the masson pine (Pinus massoniana) relative growth equation, biomass carbon stocks were obtained in four masson pine plantations at 12year intervals (3years, 15years, 27years, and 39years). Meanwhile, the changes in soil organic C (SOC) stock with stand ages were also estimated. The biomass stock varied from 1.41 to 265.33Mgha-1, 6.87 to 7.49Mgha-1, and 2.66 to 4.86Mgha-1 in the tree, shrub, and herb layers. Carbon concentrations in plant tissues were 51.6%, 39.0%, and 42.2% in the tree, shrub, and herb layers. The aboveground biomass C contributed 81.7% and 60.5% in the tree and shrub layers, and the root to shoot (R/S) ratio of the tree and shrub layer biomass averaged 0.23 and 0.69. Biomass C stock increased significantly (p<0.05) with forest age, whereas the changes in biomass accumulation rate decreased significantly (p<0.05). The annual net C sequestration increased with age from 0.47 to 9.83Mgha-1yr-1 in the tree layer but decreased in the shrub and herb layers. The SOC content decreased with soil depth but increased with age, whereas the SOC stock increased with depth and age. However, the total ecosystem C stock increased significantly (p<0.05) with stand age suggesting that age is the controlling factor of photosynthetic and biological processes and thus changes in biomass accumulation and C sequestration in masson pine plantations. Therefore, in-depth studies are needed for continuous monitoring of the changes in nutrients and elements cycling with stand ages in this forest ecosystem. © 2017. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Huang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Feng S.,Sichuan Agricultural University
RISTI - Revista Iberica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informacao | Year: 2016

Network education is a new teaching mode along with the development of computer network technology, and the domestic sports has also been committed to the research on exploring the integration of network education technology and college physical education. This paper takes Shenzhen University and Hunan University of Science and Technology as an example to use the field investigation, questionnaire survey, comparative analysis and other research methods to describe the application of the network education technology in the universities' physical education, analyze the application mode of the network education technology in universities' physical education, teaching advantages and existing problems, in order to determine the role of the network teaching in the public physical education teaching in colleges and universities. © AISTI 2016.

Jin S.Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Bing du xue bao = Chinese journal of virology / [bian ji, Bing du xue bao bian ji wei yuan hui] | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study is trying to analysis the homology between four lentogenic Class I genotype 3 Newcastle disease virus isolates from different hosts with NDV strain NDV 08-004, which was the first obtained complete genome sequence virus of class I genotype 3. The full-length genome of NDV isolates, JS/3/09/Ch, ZJ/3/10/Ch, AH/2/10/Du and JS/9/08/Go,were determined by RT-PCR and then an alyzed. All the genomes are 15 198 nucleotides (nt) in length. Compared with the full genome sequences of Class II NDV stains (genotype IV-IX),four isolates has a 6-nt deletion in the non-coding region of nuclear phosphoprotein gene between nucleotides 1 640-1 641 and 12-nt insertion in the coding region of phospho protein gene between nucleotides 2 381-2 382. All the isolates have the motifs 112EQ/RQE/GRL117 at the cleavage site of the fusion protein, which is typical of lenogenic NDV strains, and it is in agreement with the result of pathogenic tests. The full-length genome of 4 genotype 3 NDV isolates shared 93% nucleotide identity with NDV08-004. The results of alignment of 6 viral genes showed that NP gene shared the highest identity (98.3%-96.4%) and P gene shared the lowest identity (96.1%-91.9%). The results show the following two points. First, it is concluded that the isolates from different hosts share the same genotype has the insignificant divergence in the genetic information. Second, it is proposed that the mutation rates of NP/F/L genes are lower than P/M/HN genes.

Wang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xiao X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Gene | Year: 2016

The emerin protein is a nuclear membrane protein and has important functions in muscle development, regeneration, and cell signal transduction. However, knowledge regarding emerin in the domestic animal is limited. In this study, we cloned and characterized the pig emerin (EMD) gene. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the EMD gene was expressed at the highest level in the heart and fat at 120 d. However, the fetal skeletal muscles displayed a greater abundance of EMD mRNA than that in skeletal muscles at postnatal development stages. In addition, the expression level of EMD at 60 day was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in Meishan than Large White pigs. Pig EMD protein displayed the sarcolemma and perinuclear distribution in skeletal muscle sections, and there was no distribution change of EMD in skeletal muscle sections between Large White and Meishan pigs. These studies provide useful information for further research on the functions of pig EMD gene in skeletal muscle. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Wang H.-J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cao C.-Q.,Leshan Normal University | Shi F.-M.,Hebei University
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

The paper describes one new species, i.e. Neocyrtopsis (Neocyrtopsis) emeishanensis Shi sp. nov., transfers Phlugiolopsis platycata Shi & Zheng, 1994 to the genus Neocyrtopsis and redescribes the species. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Pan F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Hou K.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Gao F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Hu B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Phytomedicine | Year: 2014

Steroidal alkaloids, as the major biologically active components in Bulbus Fritillariae, possess a variety of toxicological and pharmacological effects on humans. The objective of this work was to determine whether endophytic fungi isolated from fresh bulbs of Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabensis can produce one or more alkaloids like its host plant. Four classical reagents including Wagner's, iodine-potassium iodide, Mayer's and improved Dragendorff's were used for primary screening. Then thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) were employed to identify the fermentation products of the selected strains. The results showed that extract from one stain (WBS007) has positive reactions in process of primary screening. A further TLC scan and HPLC-ELSD showed that strain WBS007 had two components with the same TLC relative front (Rf) value and HPLC retention time (RT) as authentic peimisine and peiminine. In addition, strain WBS007 was identified as Fusarium sp. based on phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences. Thus, strain WBS007 produced the bioactive ingredient peimisine and peiminine, as does its host plant, and could be used for the production of peimisine and peiminine by fermentation. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.

Li D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li D.,University of Michigan | Zhang J.,University of Michigan
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Vertebrate Tas2r taste receptors bind to bitter compounds, which are typically poisonous, to elicit bitter sensation to prevent the ingestion of toxins. Previous studies noted a marked variation in the number of Tas2r genes among species, but the underlying cause is unclear. To address this question, we compile the Tas2r gene repertoires from 41 mammals, 4 birds, 2 reptiles, 1 amphibian, and 6 fishes. The number of intact Tas2r genes varies from 0 in the bottlenose dolphin to 51 in the Western clawed frog, with numerous expansions and contractions of the gene family throughout vertebrates, especially among tetrapods. The Tas2r gene number in a species correlates with the fraction of plants in its diet. Because plant tissues contain more toxic compounds than animal tissues do, our observation supports the hypothesis that dietary toxins are a major selective force shaping the diversity of the Tas2r repertoire. © 2013 The Author.

Zhao T.,Northwest University, China | Xia H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu J.,Northwest University, China | Ma F.,Northwest University, China
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2014

The dehydration responsive element-binding (DREB) proteins play a critical role in plant development and abiotic stress-mediated gene expression. Therefore, they represent one of the most attractive regulons for breeding programs. However, no comprehensive summary of grapevine DREB family genes is available. During this study, 38 VvDREB members were identified from the entire grapevine genome and its expression sequence tag assembly. These were organized into the same subgroups, A1 through A6, as for Arabidopsis DREBs. The VvDREB genes were distributed in 15 out of 19 chromosomes in grapevine. Multiple sequence alignments were performed and a three-dimensional structure was created to demonstrate sequence conservation. Microarray analysis showed potential regulatory roles for VvDREBs in responses to various abiotic stresses, hormone treatments, berry ripening, exposure to light, and bud development. Cis-acting regulatory elements, such as W-box, MYB-binding site, and light-responsive elements, were the most frequently found in the putative promoter regions. Furthermore, microarray transcriptional profiling of grapevine plants that over-expressed VvDREB23 revealed 248 up-regulated and 229 down-regulated genes, with fold-changes of >1.5 when compared with the empty vector control. Gene ontology classifications showed that different genes function in cellular glucan metabolism, lipid transport, the endomembrane system, cell wall structure, and other important metabolic and developmental processes, as well as in the regulation of molecular functions. Our report provides an overview and constitutes a foundation for further study of this VvDREB gene family. All the microarray data and transcription profiling of transgenic versus empty-vector control transformant grapevines were retrieved from the online resources. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

Lu X.,Chuzhou University | Lu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Shouchun N.,Chuzhou University
Chinese Journal of Sensors and Actuators | Year: 2010

A kind of image identification method is designed toward tomatoes-harvesting robot vision system. Through statistical analysis of color characteristics of the picking objective and the background in different color space, the color features of the image segmentation is determined. From comparison of image segmentation effects of different segmentation algorithm, the best segmentation algorithm of different harvesting period is determined. To extract and improve target image, the segmentation can access to more complete profile information for picking to-matoes of color, shape features to meet the requirements. The goals extraction of the experimental samples can reach about 95% of success rate, and it spends 0.21 s of average time.

Lu C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang D.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

Tourism interpretation system refers to making tourist understand specific information by means of communication media so as to realize the basic functions of resource protection, service, and education. This paper, based on previous studies on the current situation of Pingle Ancient Town, proposes that to provide tourist with complete process and experience of travelling by using static writing interpretation, dynamic commentary of tour guide and touring lines. At the same time, personal suggestions are also proposed for the construction of tourism interpretation system in Pingle Ancient Town. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

An elite maize inbred line with high tolerance to low phosphorus, 178, was studied for constructing root library and analyzing some genes closely related to phosphorus (P) deficiency using SSH and Semi-quantitative RT-PCR. As a result, 3648 preliminary clones were obtained for root library under stress of P deficiency. By DNA sequencing of 34 random clones, we obtained 23 unique EST sequences which are involved in functions of root cell structure, tolerance and defense, protein modification and composition, transcription regulation, metabolism, and other unknown aspects. Five representative genes were further analyzed for their expression models. The results suggested that the molecular mechanism to adapt P deficiency in maize, performed by multi-genes with different contributions, is similar to rice, Arabidopsis and soybean. The expression order of 5 low P tolerant genes in maize root was PAP, GCS, TOM, PDI and AIP. And it was considered preliminarily that physiological and biochemical changes were prior to morphologic changes in maize root and the essential tolerance to low P may be determined by extending absorption of P to wide soil range through adaption of root architecture and root secretions, which is the greatest difference between tolerant and sensitive maize varieties under low P stress.

Zou T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yu H.,Zhejiang University | Huang H.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2012

Screening out plants that are hyper-tolerant to certain heavy metals plays a fundamental role in remediation of mine tailing. In this study, nine dominant plant species growing on lead-zinc mine tailing and their corresponding non-mining ecotypes were investigated for their potential phytostabilization of lead. Lead concentration in roots of these plants was higher than in shoots, and the highest concentrations of lead were found in Athyrium wardii: 15542 and 10720 mg kg-1 in the early growth stage (May) and vigorous growth stage (August) respectively, which were 426 and 455 times higher than those of the non-mining ecotypes. Because of poor lead translocation ability, lead accumulation in roots reached as high as 42 mg per plant. Available lead in the rhizosphere soils of A. wardii was 310 mg kg-1, which was 17 times higher than that of the non-rhizosphere soil. Lead concentrations of roots for the nine mining ecotypes were positively correlated with available lead in the rhizosphere soils, whereas a negative correlation was observed in the non-mining ecotypes. These results suggest that A. wardii was the most promising candidate among the tested species for lead accumulation in roots, and it could be used for phytostabilization in lead polluted soils. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

He H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Kang B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ma R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Bai L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Gene | Year: 2014

The ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 2 (OAZ2) gene is a member of the antizyme gene family. Antizymes play pivotal roles in various cellular pathways, including polyamine anabolism and apoptosis. The molecular structure and expression profile of the OAZ2 in goose ovarian follicles have not been reported. In this study, the OAZ2 cDNA sequence of the Sichuan white goose was cloned (Anser cygnoides), and phylogenetic and structural analyses of the OAZ2 were performed. The expression profiling of OAZ2 mRNA in goose ovarian follicles was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The sequence analysis showed that the 756. bp OAZ2 sequence contained two overlapping open reading frames (ORF). ORF1 was 99. bp in length, and encoded a 32 aa polypeptide. ORF2 was 477. bp in length, and encoded a 158 aa polypeptide. The frameshift site that initiates the translation of ORF2 was located at nucleotide position 97 in the OAZ2. The analysis of OAZ2 mRNA expression in hierarchical follicles showed that the level of OAZ2 mRNA was higher in the SWF and F2 follicular stages than that in the ovarian stroma (P<. 0.05). The lowest level of OAZ2 expression was detected in the ovarian stroma. These results suggest that the highly conserved frameshift region plays an important role in sustaining the function of OAZs. Furthermore, the significantly higher level of OAZ2 mRNA in the SWF stage indicates that OAZ2 may be involved in recruiting hierarchical follicles. Our results also suggest that OAZ2 may augment the effects of OAZ1 in follicle development. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Wang Z.Y.,Tsinghua University | Qi L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang X.,Beijing Institute of Geology for Mineral Resources
Natural Hazards | Year: 2012

Large-volume debris flow events are defined when the volume of solid materials exceeds 1 million m 3. Traditional engineering measures, such as check dams, diversion channels, and flumes, are effective for normal debris flow control but are not sufficient to control large-volume debris flows. Experiments were conducted with an artificial step-pool system on the new Wenjiagou Gully to mitigate large-volume debris flows. The old Wenjiagou Gully was buried by 81.6 million m 3 of loose solid material created by a landslide that was triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake on May 12, 2008. The new gully was formed during the scouring process caused by debris flows in 2008. Large-volume debris flows were initiated by rainstorm flood with high kinetic energy. The artificial step-pool system was constructed with huge and big boulders on the new Wenjiagou Gully in 2009. The step-pool system dissipated flow energy in steps and hydraulic jumps. Analysis proved that the step-pool system dissipated two-third of the kinetic energy of flow; thus, the critical discharge for triggering debris flow increased threefold. Due to the step-pool system maximized the flow resistance and protected the bed sediment and banks from erosion, the rainstorm floods in 2009 did not trigger debris flows. In 2010, the step-pool system was replaced with 20 check dams. Huge boulders were broken into small pieces of diameter less than 0.5 m and were used as building materials for the 20 dams. Without the protection of the step-pool system, a rainstorm flood scoured the base of the dams and caused failures for all of the 20 check dams in August 2010. The flow incised the gully bed by 50 m. The loose bank materials slid into the flow mixed with water and formed a large-volume debris flow with a volume of 4. 5 million m 3. Many houses were buried by the debris flow, and 12 people were killed. Comparison of the two strategies proved that energy dissipation structures are necessary for controlling large-volume debris flows. Check dams, if they are stable, may reduce the potential of bank failures and control debris flows. The step-pool system dissipates flow energy and control gully bed incision and bank failure. A combination of check dams and step-pool systems may be the most effective for mitigating debris flows. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Zhang D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu F.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Soil Research | Year: 2012

It is generally believed that plantations of Eucalyptus bring about a decrease in soil fertility. Soil physicochemical and microbiological properties were measured across a range of E. grandis plantation ages (110 years) in south-western China to determine whether and how eucalypt afforestation of agricultural land affected the soil fertility. The results indicate that afforestation with E. grandis caused changes in soil properties with soil depth, and the changes were dependent on the stand age. Soil bulk density decreased significantly, but water-holding capacity increased significantly with time. Soil organic matter content, C:N ratio, and soil microbial biomass C and N concentrations showed an initial phase of decline and then increased significantly over time in the upper soil layers of E. grandis plantations aged from 1 to 4 or 5 years. Soil pH in E. grandis plantations did not change significantly with stand age or soil layer. Cation exchange capacity in the upper soil layer of E. grandis plantations increased significantly over time. Total exchangeable bases and base saturation in the soil decreased significantly with depth and with increasing plantation age. Furthermore, E. grandis afforestation of arable soils had no significant effects on total N, total P, and available P contents. The requirements of the trees, understory microenvironmental conditions, and allelopathic effects might play important roles in the dynamic changes of soil physicochemical and microbiological properties. The results demonstrate the progressive development of processes that lead to the restoration of soil fertility following E. grandis afforestation of arable soils. However, most of the properties measured for the afforested soils resembled the properties of arable soils and did not resemble those of the soil of control forests. Thus, reversion of soil properties in the study plantations is likely to require a considerable period of time. Long-term research is needed to understand changes in the soil properties resulting from afforestation with Eucalyptus and to predict future trends. © CSIRO 2012.

Feng S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cheng H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Fu L.,Dazhou Institute of Agricultural science | Ding C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2014

Polysaccharides from Camellia oleifera leaves were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and optimized with response surface methodology. The optimal conditions of the extraction of polysaccharides were determined to be the extraction time of 1.6. h, extraction temperature of 88. °C and ratio of liquid to raw material of 20, which contributed to the highest yield of 3.77%. The crude polysaccharide was purified and three fractions (CLP-1, CLP-2 and CLP-3) were obtained. Their physicochemical properties were investigated with chemical method. The results indicated that the uronic acid content of CLP-2 was significantly higher than those of CLP-1 and CLP-3, and CLPs were mainly composed of glucose and galactose residue. In vitro antioxidant assay indicated that three polysaccharide fractions showed remarkable antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with CLP-1 and CLP-2, CLP-3 exhibited higher iron chelating activity. CLP-2 possessed significant higher hydroxyl radial and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activities than those of CLP-1 and CLP-3. Overall, the polysaccharides derived from C. oleifera leaves might be explored as potential natural antioxidant. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Yue G.,Sichuan University | Yue G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang X.,Sichuan University | Liu B.,Sichuan University | Liu B.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry
Chinese Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Terpenoids are one of hotspots in the field of chemical study of natural products and important sources of discovering potential drug leads. trans-Hydrindane-containing terpenoids attracted many organic chemists' attention because of their complex structures and versatile bioactivities. This review focuses on the synthetic methodologies and strategies toward the trans-hydrindane motif in terpenoids. © 2013 Chinese Chemical Society & SIOC, CAS.

Chen J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Hou K.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Qin P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is an important medicinal plant that yields diterpenoid steviol glycosides (SGs). SGs are currently used in the preparation of medicines, food products and neutraceuticals because of its sweetening property (zero calories and about 300 times sweeter than sugar). Recently, some progress has been made in understanding the biosynthesis of SGs in Stevia, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this process. Additionally, the genomics of Stevia, a non-model species, remains uncharacterized. The recent advent of RNA-Seq, a next generation sequencing technology, provides an opportunity to expand the identification of Stevia genes through in-depth transcript profiling.Results: We present a comprehensive landscape of the transcriptome profiles of three genotypes of Stevia with divergent SG compositions characterized using RNA-seq. 191,590,282 high-quality reads were generated and then assembled into 171,837 transcripts with an average sequence length of 969 base pairs. A total of 80,160 unigenes were annotated, and 14,211 of the unique sequences were assigned to specific metabolic pathways by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Gene sequences of all enzymes known to be involved in SG synthesis were examined. A total of 143 UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) unigenes were identified, some of which might be involved in SG biosynthesis. The expression patterns of eight of these genes were further confirmed by RT-QPCR.Conclusion: RNA-seq analysis identified candidate genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of SGs in Stevia, a non-model plant without a reference genome. The transcriptome data from this study yielded new insights into the process of SG accumulation in Stevia. Our results demonstrate that RNA-Seq can be successfully used for gene identification and transcript profiling in a non-model species. © 2014 Chen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Xia H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xia H.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu S.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Ma F.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2014

There is now biochemical and genetic evidence that oxidative cleavage of cis-epoxycarotenoids by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the critical step in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis in higher plants. To understand the expression characteristics of NCED during ABA biosynthesis in apple (Malus), two NCED genes cDNA sequence were cloned from Malus prunifolia using RT-PCR techniques, named MpNCED1 and MpNCED2. The two cDNA sequences have full-length open reading frame, encoding a polypeptide of 607 and 614 amino acids, respectively. Sequences analysis showed that the deduced two apple NCED proteins were highly homologous to other NCED proteins from different plant species. Real-time PCR analysis revealed MpNCED2 were expressed continuously during the whole period of apple fruit development with the pattern of “higher-low-highest”, while the expression of MpNCED1 clearly declined to a steady low level in the mid-later period of fruit development. Expression of the MpNCED2 increased under the drought stress, high temperature and low temperature strongly and rapidly, whereas expression of the MpNCED1 was detected in response to temperature stress, but did not detected under drought stress. These results revealed that MpNCED1 and MpNCED2 may play different roles in regulation of the ABA biosynthesis in fruit development and various stresses response. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Fu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Mu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Duan X.L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
MATEC Web of Conferences | Year: 2016

By means of the model of extreme learning machine based upon DE optimization, this article particularly centers on the optimization thinking of such a model as well as its application effect in the field of listed company's financial position classification. It proves that the improved extreme learning machine algorithm based upon DE optimization eclipses the traditional extreme learning machine algorithm following comparison. Meanwhile, this article also intends to introduce certain research thinking concerning extreme learning machine into the economics classification area so as to fulfill the purpose of computerizing the speedy but effective evaluation of massive financial statements of listed companies pertain to different classes. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

Zhou D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou D.,Shenzhen Premix Inve Nutrition Co. | Zhuo Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Che L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2014

People on a diet to lose weight may be at risk of reproductive failure. To investigate the effects of nutrient restriction on reproductive function and the underlying mechanism, changes of reproductive traits, hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis were examined in postpubertal gilts at anestrus induced by nutrient restriction. Gilts having experienced two estrus cycles were fed a normal (CON, 2.86 kg/d) or nutrient restricted (NR, 1 kg/d) food regimens to expect anestrus. NR gilts experienced another three estrus cycles, but did not express estrus symptoms at the anticipated fourth estrus. Blood samples were collected at 5 days' interval for consecutive three times for measurement of hormone concentrations at the 23th day of the fourth estrus cycle. Individual progesterone concentrations of NR gilts from three consecutive blood samples were below 1.0 ng/mL versus 2.0 ng/mL in CON gilts, which was considered anestrus. NR gilts had impaired development of reproductive tract characterized by absence of large follicles (diameter ≥ 6 mm), decreased number of corepus lutea and atrophy of uterus and ovary tissues. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I, kisspeptin, estradiol, progesterone and leptin were significantly lower in NR gilts than that in CON gilts. Nutrient restriction down-regulated gene expressions of kiss-1, G-protein coupled protein 54, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, leptin receptor, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in hypothalamus-pituitary- gonadal axis of gilts. Collectively, nutrient restriction resulted in impairment of reproductive function and changes of hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, which shed light on the underlying mechanism by which nutrient restriction influenced reproductive function. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

Luo P.G.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2010

With the quick increase of new knowledge in genetics, undergraduate teaching of genetics is becoming a challenge for many teachers. In this paper, the author suggested that it would be important to construct the knowledge network of genetics and to develop the self-learning ability of students. This could help students to read textbooks "from the thicker to the thinner in classroom" and "from the thinner to the thicker outside classroom", so that students would turn to be the talents with new ideas and have more competent ability in biology-related fields.

Yu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu X.,Northwest University, China | Zhu T.H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu G.H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Mao C.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2011

The objectives of this work were to isolate and characterize walnut phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and to evaluate the effect of inoculation with the selected PSB stains to walnut seedlings fertilized with or without insoluble phosphate. Thirty-four PSB strains were isolated and identified under the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Cupriavidus, Agrobacterium, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Pantoea, and Rhodococcus through a comparison of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences. All isolated PSB strains could solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in solid and liquid media. Phosphate-solubilizing activity of these strains was associated with a drop in the pH of medium. A significantly negative linear correlation was found between culture pH and phosphorus (P) solubilized from inorganic phosphate. Three isolates Pseudomonas chlororaphis (W24), Bacillus cereus (W9), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (W12) were selected for shade house assays because of their higher phosphate-solubilizing abilities. Under shade house conditions, application of W24 or W12 remarkably improved plant height, shoot and root dry weight, and P and nitrogen (N) uptake of walnut seedlings. These increases were higher on combined inoculation of PSB with TCP addition. The most pronounced beneficial effect on growth of walnut plants was observed in the co-inoculation of the three PSB strains with TCP addition. In comparison, the isolate of W9 failed to increase available soil P, nutrient levels in plants, or to promote plant growth, suggesting that more insoluble phosphate compounds than tricalcium phosphate should be used as substrates to assess the phosphate-solubilizing ability of PSB under greenhouse conditions. The present results indicated that strains P. chlororaphis or P. fluorescens could be considered for the formulation of new inoculants of walnut, even of more woody plants. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Yi Y.M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cheng D.H.,North University of China
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Carbon fiber reinforcement polymer could be used to replace steel tendon to bear loads together with concrete to solve the problem of steel tendon corrosion in concrete members. To study mechanical behavior of this kind of member, four concrete beams of partially prestressed with non-bonded carbon fiber reinforcement tendon were fabricated. In these beams, the reinforcement was taken as non prestressed tendon and carbon fiber reinforcement polymer tendon was taken as non-bonded prestressed tendon. Four points bending experiment were completed. Then the mechanical behavior of these beams has been studied through finite element analysis. The results show that a good agreement between experimental and finite element analysis results. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Wu W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhu Y.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology | Zhang L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

Four polysaccharides were extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge using hot water, ultrasonic, alkali, and enzyme methods. Preliminary structural characterization was conducted by physicochemical property, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Antioxidant activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals were also evaluated. The physicochemical property analysis indicated the identicalness of the polysaccharide indices obtained by the hot water and ultrasonic methods. The indices obtained by the alkali and enzyme methods were significantly different. The FTIR spectra revealed the general characteristic absorption peaks of the four polysaccharides. The SEM images demonstrated significant differences in the surface features of the different polysaccharides. The antioxidant activity assay revealed the significant antioxidant activities of three polysaccharides. Overall, the polysaccharides from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge may have potential applications in the medical and food industries. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jia F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xu L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Sensors and Transducers | Year: 2013

Aiming at low automation degree and backward aquatic product management of current aquaculture in China, this paper designed a set of radio communication and control system which consists of 3 parts of information collection module, control module and radio communication module. This system both realizes wireless monitoring of quality parameters of water for aquaculture and realizes wireless control of water level and dissolved oxygen value through radio communication. Test results show that data transfer is more accurate and reliable after adding customized protocol and answer signals in radio communication. The highest error and missing rate within 1000 m is 0.36, the lowest error and missing rate is 0.05 and the longest response time is 49 ms. The dissolved oxygen value detection system designed in this paper is close to the testing value of existing dissolved oxygen value transmitter DO6309. With wireless data transfer mode, it has higher practicality. The wireless control of dissolved oxygen value and water level can be controlled within the appropriate range with stable and precise control. The study results can provide intelligent aquaculture model with simple operation and precise control for enormous aquatic breeders. © 2013 IFSA.

Chen G.,CSIRO | Chen G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yan W.,CSIRO | Yan W.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 8 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Background: Studies in Arabidopsis show that DELLA genes may differentially affect responses to biotrophic and necrophic pathogens. A recent report based on the study of DELLA-producing reduced height (Rht) genes in wheat and barley also hypothesized that DELLA genes likely increased susceptibility to necrotrophs but increased resistance to biotrophs. Results: Effects of uzu, a non-GA (gibberellic acid)-responsive semi-dwarfing gene, on Fusarium crown rot (FCR) resistance in barley were investigated. Fifteen pairs of near isogenic lines for this gene were generated and assessed under two different temperature regimes. Similar to its impacts on plant height, the semi-dwarfing gene uzu also showed larger effects on FCR severity in the high temperature regime when compared with that in the low temperature regime. Conclusions: Results from this study add to the growing evidence showing that the effects of plant height on Fusarium resistances are unlikely related to DELLA genes but due to direct or indirect effects of height difference per se. The interaction between these two characteristics highlights the importance of understanding relationships between resistance and other traits of agronomic importance as the value of a resistance gene could be compromised if it dramatically affects plant development and morphology. © 2014 Chen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Henry I.M.,University of California at Davis | Dilkes B.P.,University of California at Davis | Dilkes B.P.,University of Washington | Dilkes B.P.,Purdue University | And 5 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2014

Whole-genome duplication resulting from polyploidy is ubiquitous in the evolutionary history of plant species. Yet, polyploids must overcome the meiotic challenge of pairing, recombining, and segregating more than two sets of chromosomes. Using genomic sequencing of synthetic and natural allopolyploids of Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa, we determined that dosage variation and chromosomal translocations consistent with homoeologous pairing were more frequent in the synthetic allopolyploids. To test the role of structural chromosomal differentiation versus genetic regulation of meiotic pairing, we performed sequenced-based, high-density genetic mapping in F2 hybrids between synthetic and natural lines. This F2 population displayed frequent dosage variation and deleterious homoeologous recombination. The genetic map derived from this population provided no indication of structural evolution of the genome of the natural allopolyploid Arabidopsis suecica, compared with its predicted parents. The F2 population displayed variation in meiotic regularity and pollen viability that correlated with a single quantitative trait locus, which we named BOY NAMED SUE, and whose beneficial allele was contributed by A. suecica. This demonstrates that an additive, gain-of-function allele contributes to meiotic stability and fertility in a recently established allopolyploid and provides an Arabidopsis system to decipher evolutionary and molecular mechanisms of meiotic regularity in polyploids. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Lin J.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2010

Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in trehalose synthesis pathway of plant, plays an important role in response to abiotic stress in xerophilous rock lily and other resurrection plants. In this study, homologous amplification and RACE technique were used to clone gene SpTPS1 for trehalose-6-phosphate synthase from Selaginella pulvinata, which is an endemic xerophilous plant in China. The full-length cDNA is 3223 bp long, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 2790 bp. Protein sequence comparison showed that the pupative amino acid sequence of this ORF shares high similarity to trehalose-6-phosphate synthases of mode species, especially at the conserved sites of catalytic activity centers. Yeast functional complementation test showed that trehalose-6-phosphate synthase mutant (tps1 big up tri, open), transformed by the ORF of SpTPS1 gene, can restore growth on the medium supplemented with glucose as a sole carbon source. This result indicated that SpTPS1 of S. pulvinata encodes for an active protein and is hopeful to be applied in transgenic improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in plant.

Wu B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cui H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Peng X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Fang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2013

The purpose of this 42-day study was to investigate the effects of methionine (Met) deficiency on immune function by determining the relative weight, morphological and ultrastructural changes of bursae of Fabricius, cell cycle, and apoptosis of bursa cells. One hundred and twenty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into two groups and fed on a control diet (starter diet, Met 0.50%; grower diet, Met 0.40%) and Met-deficient diet (starter diet, Met 0.26%; grower diet, Met 0.28%) for six weeks. The relative weight of bursae was decreased with Met deficiency when compared to that of the control group. Lesions were also observed in the Met-deficient group. Histopathologically, the numbers of lymphocytes in the follicles were decreased. Ultrastructurally, the mitochondria of lymphocytes were swollen in the Met-deficient group. As measured by flow cytometry, bursal cells in the G0G1 phase were significantly higher (P < 0.01), and bursal cells in the S, G2M phases and proliferating index were obviously lower (P < 0.01) with Met deficiency than in the control group. Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic cells in the bursae were significantly increased in Met-deficient birds (P < 0.01). It was concluded that Met deficiency restrained the development of the bursae of Fabricius and affected the humoral immunity of the chickens. © 2013 license MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Yu X.,Northwest University, China | Yu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu X.,Northwest University, China | Zhu T.-H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Soil Biology | Year: 2012

The aim of this work was to evaluate effects of co-inoculation with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) on solubilization of rock phosphate (RP) and their effect on growth promotion and nutrient uptake by walnut seedlings. Two PSB strains, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Bacillus megaterium, and two NFB strains, Arthrobacter pascens and Burkholderia cepacia, were selected to investigate interaction between PSB and NFB in liquid medium. The maximum concentration of soluble phosphorus (P) was determined in the mixing culture of P. chlororaphis and A. pascens. A strong correlation was found between pH and soluble P concentration, as well as the total organic acid production and P solubilization. Co-inoculation with P. chlororaphis and A. pascens amendment with RP resulted in the highest plant height, shoot and root dry weight, P and nitrogen (N) uptake of walnut seedlings, and the maximum amounts of available P and N in soils under shade house conditions. However, mixed inoculation with B. megaterium and A. pascens failed to increase these parameters. The results demonstrated that co-inoculation with PSB and NFB amendment with RP could be a promising and alternative option for utilizing this potent source as P fertilizer in walnut plants and maintaining greater nutrient availability in soils. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Xia L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu F.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology | Year: 2012

The characteristics of community structure and diversity of soil animal in alpine forest of western Sichuan, China in the progress from non-growing season to growing season were investigated in this study to explain the changes in soil animal community adapting themselves to environment. Totally 3 167 individuals of macro-fauna were collected in the six microhabitats, and all the samples were classified to 2 phyla, 8 classes and 16 orders. It was found that the highest density was 530.71 ind m-2 and the largest number of groups was 10 taxon in macro-fauna. 10 585 individuals of micro-fauna and meso-fauna were collected in the six microhabitats which belonged to 4 phyla, 8 classes and 8 orders among the primary (Abies faxoniana) forest of western Sichuan, China. The highest density was 148 400.00 ind m-2 in the microhabitat of moss and the largest number of groups was 10 taxon in the microhabitat of forest gap The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') and Pielou homogeneity index (J) of macro-soil fauna community were the maximum in the microhabitat of forest gap, and Simpson dominance index (C) was the minimum, b ut these parameters were opposite in the microhabitat of fallen tree. Furthermore, the diversity index (H') of meso-soil fauna community was the maximum and C was the minimum in the microhabitat of forest floor litter, but they were opposite in the microhabitat of shrub.

Lu Z.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Yu H.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Xiong G.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Wang J.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | And 11 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2013

IDEAL PLANT ARCHITECTURE1 (IPA1) is critical in regulating rice (Oryza sativa) plant architecture and substantially enhances grain yield. To elucidate its molecular basis, we first confirmed IPA1 as a functional transcription activator and then identified 1067 and 2185 genes associated with IPA1 binding sites in shoot apices and young panicles, respectively, through chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing assays. The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-box direct binding core motif GTAC was highly enriched in IPA1 binding peaks; interestingly, a previously uncharacterized indirect binding motif TGGGCC/T was found to be significantly enriched through the interaction of IPA1 with proliferating cell nuclear antigen PROMOTER BINDING FACTOR1 or PROMOTER BINDING FACTOR2. Genome-wide expression profiling by RNA sequencing revealed IPA1 roles in diverse pathways. Moreover, our results demonstrated that IPA1 could directly bind to the promoter of rice TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, a negative regulator of tiller bud outgrowth, to suppress rice tillering, and directly and positively regulate DENSE AND ERECT PANICLE1, an important gene regulating panicle architecture, to influence plant height and panicle length. The elucidation of target genes of IPA1 genome-wide will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying plant architecture and to facilitating the breeding of elite varieties with ideal plant architecture. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Jia C.-S.,Southwest Petroleum University | Chen T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | He S.,Southwest Petroleum University
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2013

By employing the improved Greene-Aldrich approximation scheme to deal with the centrifugal term, we solve approximately the Klein-Gordon equation with the improved expression of the Manning-Rosen empirical potential energy model. The bound state energy equation and the unnormalized radial wave functions have been approximately obtained by using the supersymmetric WKB approach and the function analysis method. The relativistic vibrational transition frequencies for the a3Σu+ state of 7Li2 molecule have been computed by using the Manning-Rosen potential model. The relativistic vibrational transition frequencies are in good agreement with the observed data. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Jiang Y.Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhu L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li X.W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Si T.,Improved Station
Animal | Year: 2011

The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate growth and carcass characteristics, organ weight, meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid (FA) and amino acid composition between the Chinese indigenous pig breed Dahe and the crossbred Dawu. The Dahe pigs had lower average daily gain (P < 0.001) and a higher feed conversion ratio (P < 0.001) compared with the Dawu pigs. The Dahe pigs contained less lean meat percentage (P < 0.001) and more carcass fat percentage (P < 0.001) compared with the Dawu pigs. For organ weight, the Dahe pigs had lower relative heart weight and small intestine weight, respectively, compared with that of the Dawu pigs (P < 0.001). In addition, the Dahe pigs showed higher pH values (at 45 min and 24 h, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively), higher Marbling score (P < 0.05), lower Minolta L values (at 45 min and 24 h, P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) and lower muscle fiber area (P < 0.05) than did the Dawu pigs. C18:1, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:2 were the main FAs and nine essential amino acids were found in the Longissimus dorsi of the two breeds. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.

Shen F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Peng L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2011

The chopped sweet sorghum stalk was thin-layer-dried for long-term storage and ethanol production. The drying kinetics and the effects of drying temperature on the qualities of sweet sorghum stalk were investigated in this work. The results showed that the drying process could be simulated well by Wang and Singh's model. The diffusivity constant (D0) and active energy (Ea) were estimated as 4.4×10-5m2/s and 21.4kJ/(molK) for drying the chopped fresh stalk. According to the sugar composition, browning degree, and fermentability of the dried stalk obtained at various temperatures, the approximate drying temperature could be suggested as 50-60°C for application. In this range, the moisture of the chopped fresh stalk could drop below the safe moisture for storage in 7-5.5h with 12.1-9.7% total sugar loss during the drying process. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Babu R.,CIMMYT | Rojas N.P.,CIMMYT | Gao S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yan J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Pixley K.,CIMMYT
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) compromises immune function and is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children in many developing countries. Biofortification, or breeding staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, provides a sustainable way to fight VAD and other micronutrient malnutrition problems. Polymorphisms, with associated molecular markers, have recently been identified for two loci, LcyE (lycopene epsilon cyclase) and CrtRB1 (β-carotene hydroxylase 1) that govern critical steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in maize endosperm, thereby enabling the opportunity to integrate marker-assisted selection (MAS) into carotenoid breeding programs. We validated the effects of 3 polymorphisms (LcyE5′TE, LcyE3′Indel and CrtRB1-3′TE) in 26 diverse tropical genetic backgrounds. CrtRB1-3′TE had a two-ten fold effect on enhancing beta-carotene (BC) and total provitamin A (proA) content. Reduced-function, favorable polymorphisms within LcyE resulted in 0-30 % reduction in the ratio of alpha- to beta-branch carotenoids, and increase in proA content (sometimes statistically significant). CrtRB1-3′TE had large, significant effect on enhancing BC and total ProA content, irrespective of genetic constitution for LcyE5′TE. Genotypes with homozygous favorable CrtRB1-3′TE alleles had much less zeaxanthin and an average of 25 % less total carotenoid than other genotypes, suggesting that feedback inhibition may be reducing the total flux into the carotenoid pathway. Because this feedback inhibition was most pronounced in the homozygous favorable LcyE (reduced-function) genotypes, and because maximum total proA concentrations were achieved in genotypes with homozygous unfavorable or heterozygous LcyE, we recommend not selecting for both reduced-function genes in breeding programs. LcyE exhibited significant segregation distortion (SD) in all the eight, while CrtRB1 in five of eight digenic populations studied, with favorable alleles of both the genes frequently under-represented. MAS using markers reported herein can efficiently increase proA carotenoid concentration in maize. © 2012 The Author(s).

Wang P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wan C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xu Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Divinyl reductase (DVR) converts 8-vinyl groups on various chlorophyll intermediates to ethyl groups, which is indispensable for chlorophyll biosynthesis. To date, five DVR activities have been detected, but adequate evidence of enzymatic assays using purified or recombinant DVR proteins has not been demonstrated, and it is unclear whether one or multiple enzymes catalyze these activities. In this study, we systematically carried out enzymatic assays using four recombinant DVR proteins and five divinyl substrates and then investigated the in vivo accumulation of various chlorophyll intermediates in rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The results demonstrated that both rice and maize DVR proteins can convert all of the five divinyl substrates to corresponding monovinyl compounds, while both cucumber and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) DVR proteins can convert three of them. Meanwhile, the OsDVR (Os03g22780)-inactivated 824ys mutant of rice exclusively accumulated divinyl chlorophylls in its various organs during different developmental stages. Collectively, we conclude that a single DVR with broad substrate specificity is responsible for reducing the 8-vinyl groups of various chlorophyll intermediates in higher plants, but DVR proteins from different species have diverse and differing substrate preferences, although they are homologous. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Loraine A.E.,University of North Carolina | McCormick S.,University of California at Berkeley | Estrada A.,University of North Carolina | Patel K.,University of North Carolina | And 3 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Pollen grains of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contain two haploid sperm cells enclosed in a haploid vegetative cell. Upon germination, the vegetative cell extrudes a pollen tube that carries the sperm to an ovule for fertilization. Knowing the identity, relative abundance, and splicing patterns of pollen transcripts will improve our understanding of pollen and allow investigation of tissue-specific splicing in plants. Most Arabidopsis pollen transcriptome studies have used the ATH1 microarray, which does not assay splice variants and lacks specific probe sets for many genes. To investigate the pollen transcriptome, we performed high-throughput sequencing (RNA-Seq) of Arabidopsis pollen and seedlings for comparison. Gene expression was more diverse in seedling, and genes involved in cell wall biogenesis were highly expressed in pollen. RNA-Seq detected at least 4,172 protein-coding genes expressed in pollen, including 289 assayed only by nonspecific probe sets. Additional exons and previously unannotated 59 and 39 untranslated regions for pollen-expressed genes were revealed. We detected regions in the genome not previously annotated as expressed; 14 were tested and 12 were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Gapped read alignments revealed 1,908 high-confidence new splicing events supported by 10 or more spliced read alignments. Alternative splicing patterns in pollen and seedling were highly correlated. For most alternatively spliced genes, the ratio of variants in pollen and seedling was similar, except for some encoding proteins involved in RNA splicing. This study highlights the robustness of splicing patterns in plants and the importance of ongoing annotation and visualization of RNA-Seq data using interactive tools such as Integrated Genome Browser. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Yang E.-N.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology | Rosewarne G.M.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology | Rosewarne G.M.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Herrera-Foessel S.A.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | And 5 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Chapio is a spring wheat developed by CIMMYT in Mexico by a breeding program that focused on multigenic resistances to leaf rust and stripe rust. A population consisting of 277 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed by crossing Chapio with Avocet. The RILs were genotyped with DArT markers (137 randomly selected RILs) and bulked segregant analysis conducted to supplement the map with informative SSR markers. The final map consisted of 264 markers. Phenotyping against stripe rust was conducted for three seasons in Toluca, Mexico and at three sites over two seasons (total of four environments) in Sichuan Province, China. Significant loci across the two inter-continental regions included Lr34/Yr18 on 7DS, Sr2/Yr30 on 3BS, and a QTL on 3D. There were significant genotype × environment interactions with resistance gene Yr31 on 2BS being effective in most of the Toluca environments; however, a late incursion of a virulent pathotype in 2009 rendered this gene ineffective. This locus also had no effect in China. Conversely, a 5BL locus was only effective in the Chinese environments. There were also complex additive interactions. In the Mexican environments, Yr31 suppressed the additive effect of Yr30 and the 3D locus, but not of Lr34/Yr18, while in China, the 3D and 5BL loci were generally not additive with each other, but were additive when combined with other loci. These results indicate the importance of maintaining diverse, multi-genic resistances as Chapio had stable inter-continental resistance despite the fact that there were QTLs that were not effective in either one or the other region. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

Tian S.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tian S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Mao X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

Environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold are major adverse factors that significantly affect agricultural productivity. Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is a major signalling event induced by osmotic stress in higher plants. Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family members play essential roles in the response to hyperosmotic stresses in plants. In this study, the TaSnRK2.3 gene, a novel SnRK2 member was cloned, and three copies located on chromosomes 1A, 1B, and 1D were identified in common wheat. TaSnRK2.3 was strongly expressed in leaves, and responded to polyethylene glycol, NaCl, abscisic acid, and cold stresses. To characterize its function, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaSnRK2.3-GFP controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was generated and subjected to severe abiotic stresses. Overexpression of TaSnRK2.3 resulted in an improved root system and significantly enhanced tolerance to drought, salt, and freezing stresses, simultaneously demonstrated by enhanced expression of abiotic stress-responsive genes and ameliorative physiological indices, including a decreased rate of water loss, enhanced cell membrane stability, improved photosynthetic potential, and significantly increased osmotic potential and free proline content under normal and/or stressed conditions. These results demonstrate that TaSnRK2.3 is a multifunctional regulator, with potential for utilization in transgenic breeding for improved abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. © The Author(s) [2013].

Yu L.,Hefei University of Technology | Chen X.,Hefei University of Technology | Wang Z.,Hefei University of Technology | Wang S.,Anhui Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Enhancing drought tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. Here, we report the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor Enhanced Drought Tolerance/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (EDT1/HDG11) was able to confer drought tolerance and increase grain yield in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The improved drought tolerance was associated with a more extensive root system, reduced stomatal density, and higher water use efficiency. The transgenic rice plants also had higher levels of abscisic acid, proline, soluble sugar, and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activities during stress treatments. The increased grain yield of the transgenic rice was contributed by improved seed setting, larger panicle, and more tillers as well as increased photosynthetic capacity. Digital gene expression analysis indicated that AtEDT1/HDG11 had a significant influence on gene expression profile in rice, which was consistent with the observed phenotypes of transgenic rice plants. Our study shows that AtEDT1/HDG11 can improve both stress tolerance and grain yield in rice, demonstrating the efficacy of AtEDT1/HDG11 in crop improvement. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Zhou S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li Q.,Southwest University of Science and Technology | Jiang H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lindstrom K.,University of Helsinki | Zhang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2013

Our previous published data indicated that the two rhizobial strains SCAU7T and SCAU27, which were isolated from the root nodules of Astragalus luteolus and Astragalus ernestii respectively, in Sichuan Province, China, might be novel species of the genus Mesorhizobium. Their exact taxonomic position was determined in the present study by using polyphasic approaches. Comparative analysis of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these strains belonged to the genus Mesorhizobium, with Mesorhizobium ciceri USDA 3383T, Mesorhizobium loti NZP 2213T, Mesorhizobium shangrilense CCBAU 65327T and Mesorhizobium australicum WSM2073T as the closest neighbours (>99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Phylogenies of the housekeeping genes atpD and recA confirmed their distinct position, showing low similarity with respect to those of M. loti LMG 6125T (96.5 % and 92.3 % similarity respectively), M. ciceri USDA 3383T (96.8 % and 93.3 % similarity, respectively), M. shangrilense CCBAU 65327T (96.5 % and 92.7 % similarity, respectively) and M. australicum WSM2073T (95.4 % and 90.6 % similarity, respectively). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain SCAU7T and strain SCAU27 were 83.0 %, showing that they belong to the same species. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of SCAU7T with M. loti NZP 2213T, M. ciceri USDA 3383T and M. shangrilense CCBAU 65327T were 41.1 %, 48.8 % and 23.4 %, respectively, clearly indicating that strain SCAU7T represents a novel species. A series of phenotypic and genotypic tests and comparison of cellular fatty acids indicated that the novel group of isolates was distinct from previously described species. Therefore, we propose that strains SCAU7T and SCAU27 represent a novel species of the genus Mesorhizobium, Mesorhizobium sangaii sp. nov., with strain SCAU7T (= HAMBI 3318T = ACCC 13218T) as the type strain. © 2013 IUMS.

Gong W.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Gong W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yan X.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Wang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to evaluate plant-available N pools and the role of N management index (NMI) in the surface (0-20 cm) of a fluvo-aquic soil after 18 years of fertilization treatments under a wheat-maize cropping system in the North China Plain. The experiment included seven treatments: (1) NPK, balanced application of chemical fertilizer NPK; (2) OM, application of organic manure; (3) 1/2OMN, application of half organic manure plus chemical fertilizer NPK; (4) NP, application of chemical fertilizer NP; (5) PK, application of chemical fertilizer PK; (6) NK, application of chemical fertilizer NK; and (7) CK, unfertilized control. Total organic N (TON), microbial biomass N (MBN), labile N (LN), inorganic N (ION, including ammonium (NH4 +)-N and nitrate (NO3 --N) contents, net ammonification rate (NAR), net nitrification rate (NNR), net N mineralization rate (NNMR), and NMI in the fertilized treatments were higher than in the unfertilized treatment. Application of chemical fertilizer N (NPK, NP, and NK) increased ION in soils, compared with application of organic N or control. Nitrate N prevailed over exchangeable NH4 +-N in all treatments. Nitrogen storage of the OM- and 1/2OMN-treated soils increased by 50. 0% and 24. 3%, respectively, over the NPK-treated soil, which had 5. 4-22. 5% more N than NP-, PK-, and NK-treated soils. The MBN, LN, and ION accounted for 1. 7-2. 4%, 25. 7-34. 2%, and 1. 4-2. 9% of TON, respectively, in different fertilization treatments. The surface soils (0-20-cm layer) in all treatments mineralized 43. 6-152. 9 kg N ha-1 year-1 for crop growth. Microbial biomass N was probably the better predictor of N mineralization, as it was correlated significantly (P < 0. 01) with NNMR. The OM and 1/2OMN treatments were not an optimal option for farmers when the crop yield and labor cost were taken into consideration but an optimal option for increasing soil N supply capacity and N sequestration in soil. The NPK treatment showed the highest crop yields and increased soil N fractions through crop residues and exudates input, and thus, it may be considered as a sustainable system in the North China Plain. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Lai Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yamagishi M.,Hokkaido University
Frontiers in Biology | Year: 2013

Flavonoid biosynthetic genes are often coordinately regulated in a temporal manner during flower or fruit development, resulting in specific accumulation profiles of flavonoid compounds. R2R3-MYB-type transcription factors (TFs) "recruit" a set of biosynthetic genes to produce flavonoids, and, therefore, R2R3-MYBs are responsible for the coordinated expression of structural genes. Although a wealth of information regarding the identified and functionally characterized R2R3-MYBs that are involved in flavonoid accumulation is available to date, this is the first review on the global regulation of MYB factors in the flavonoid pathway. The data presented in this review demonstrate that anthocyanin, flavone/flavonol/3-deoxyflavonoid (FFD), proanthocyanidin (PA), and isoflavonoid are independently regulated by different subgroups of R2R3-MYBs. Furthermore, FFD-specific R2R3-MYBs have a preference for early biosynthetic genes (EBGs) as their target genes; anthocyanin-specific R2R3-MYBs from dicot species essentially regulate late biosynthetic genes (LBGs); the remaining R2R3-MYBs have a wider range of target gene specificity. To elucidate the nature of the differential target gene specificity between R2R3-MYBs, we analyzed the DNA binding domain (also termed the MYB-domain) of R2R3-MYBs and the distribution of the recognition cis-elements. We identified four conserved amino acid residues located in or just before helix-3 of dicot anthocyanin R2R3-MYBs that might account for the different recognition DNA sequence and subsequently the different target gene specificity to the remaining R2R3-MYB TFs. © 2013 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Wu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu X.,Nanchong Academy of Agricultural science | Li Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2014

To investigate the genetic structure of Chinese maize germplasm, the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to genotype a collection of 367 inbred lines widely used in maize breeding of China. A total of 41,819 informative SNPs with minor allele number of more than 0.05 were used to estimate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. Totally 1,015 SNPs evenly distributed in the genome were selected randomly to evaluate the population structure of these accessions. Results showed that two main groups could be determined i.e., the introduced germplasm and the local germplasm. Further, five subgroups corresponding to different heterotic groups, that is, Reid Yellow Dent (Reid), Lancaster Sure Crop (Lancaster), P group (P), Tang Sipingtou (TSPT), and Tem-tropic I group (Tem-tropic I), were determined. The genetic diversity of within subgroups was highest in the Tem-Tropic I and lowest in the P. Most lines in this panel showed limited relatedness with each other. Comparisons of gene diversity showed that there existed some conservative genetic regions in specific subgroups across the ten chromosomes, i.e., seven in the Lancaster, seven in the Reid, six in the TSPT, five in the P, and two in the Tem-Tropical I. In addition, the results also revealed that there existed fifteen conservative regions transmitted from Huangzaosi, an important foundation parent, to its descendants. These are important for further studies since the outcomes may provide clues to understand why Huangzaosi could become a foundation parent in Chinese maize breeding. For the panel of 367 elite lines, average LD distance was 391 kb and varied among different chromosomes as well as in different genomic regions of one chromosome. This analysis uncovered a high natural genetic diversity in the elite maize inbred set, suggesting that the panel can be used in association study, esp. for temperate regions. © 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Wu Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Shuliang L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

The collagenase, produced extracellular by Bacillus pumilus Col-J, was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by two gel filtrations, involving Sephadex G-100 column and Sepharose Fast Flow column. Purified collagenase has a 31.53-fold increase in specific activity of 87.33 U/mg and 7.00% recovery. The collagenase has a relative molecular weight of 58.64 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimal temperature for the enzyme reaction was 45°C. More than 50% of the original activity still remained after 5 min of incubation at 70°C or 10 min at 60°C. The maximal enzyme activity of collagenase was obtained at pH 7.5, and it was stable over a pH range of 6.5-8.0. The collagenase activity was strongly inhibited by Mn2+, Pb2+, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, and β-mercaptoethanol. However, Ca2+ and Mg2+ greatly increased its activity. The collagenase from B. pumilus Col-J showed highly specific activity towards the native collagen from calf skin. The K m and V max of the enzyme for collagen were 0.79 mg/mL and 129.5 U, respectively. © 2009 Humana Press.

He H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang D.M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Kang B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ma R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2014

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), an indole hormone, regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction through its specific receptor subtypes (Mel-1a, Mel-1b and Mel-1c). However, the expression profile of melatonin receptor genes (MTNR1A, MTNR1B and MTNR1C) in ovarian hierarchical follicles of geese remains to be clarified. In this study, the expression level of melatonin receptors in small white follicle (SWF), small yellow follicle (SYF), the largest follicle (F1), second largest (F2), third largest (F3), fourth largest (F4), fifth largest (F5), and postovulatory follicle (POF) in the Sichuan white goose were examined using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that the expression levels of MTNR1A, MTNR1B and MTNR1C initially increased and later decreased. The highest levels of gene expression of these receptor subtypes were observed in F5 or F4 in all examined follicles. Furthermore, the expression of MTNR1A and MTNR1B mRNA was significantly greater in SYF compared with SWF (P< 0.05), but MTNR1C was absent in SWF. The expression of MTNR1A, MTNR1B and MTNR1C mRNA was significantly greater in F5 compared with SYF (P< 0.05), and the expression of MTNR1A and MTNR1C mRNA was higher in F1 compared with POF (P< 0.05). In addition, the oestrogen concentration in SWF, SYF, F4, F3, F2, F1 and POF was measured using ELISA. The oestrogen concentration and melatonin receptor expression both were initially observed to increase and subsequently decrease. The oestrogen concentration in F4 and F3 was highest in all examined samples and was 1318.2. pg/g and 1318.1. pg/g, respectively. These results suggest that the melatonin receptor may be involved in the activation of the SWF and SYF to allow the SWF and SYF to develop into the subsequent follicles. Furthermore, follicles and the expression of the melatonin receptors may be regulated by the secretion of the oestrogen. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Ma M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhao X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are generated from biomass pretreatment. Scheffersomyces stipitis is able to reduce furfural and HMF to less toxic furanmethanol and furan-2,5-dimethanol; however, the enzymes involved in the reductive reaction still remain unknown. In this study, transcription responses of two known and five putative alcohol dehydrogenase genes from S. stipitis were analyzed under furfural and HMF stress conditions. All the seven alcohol dehydrogenase genes were also cloned and overexpressed for their activity analyses. Our results indicate that transcriptions of SsADH4 and SsADH6 were highly induced under furfural and HMF stress conditions, and the proteins encoded by them exhibited NADH- and/or NADPH-dependent activities for furfural and HMF reduction, respectively. For furfural reduction, NADH-dependent activity was also observed in SsAdh1p and NAD(P)H-dependent activities were also observed in SsAdh5p and SsAdh7p. For HMF reduction, NADPH-dependent activities were also observed in SsAdh5p and SsAdh7p. SsAdh4p displayed the highest NADPH-dependent specific activity and catalytic efficiency for reduction of both furfural and HMF among the seven alcohol dehydrogenases. Enzyme activities of all SsADH proteins were more stable under acidic condition. For most SsADH proteins, the optimum temperature for enzyme activities was 30 C and more than 50 % enzyme activities remained at 60 C. Reduction activities of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, isovaleraldehyde, benzaldehyde, and phenylacetaldehyde were also observed in some SsADH proteins. Our results indicate that multiple alcohol dehydrogenases in S. stipitis are involved in the detoxification of aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Xu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xu Y.,Shanghai Normal University | Cui B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Cui B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2014

Acrylamide (AA) was firstly detected in food in 2002, and since then, studies on AA analysis, occurrence, formation, toxicity, risk assessment and mitigation have been extensively carried out, which have greatly advanced understanding of this particular biohazard at both academic and industrial levels. There is considerable variation in the levels of AA in different foods and different brands of the same food; therefore, so far, a general upper limit for AA in food is not available. In addition, the link of dietary AA to human cancer is still under debate, although AA has been known as a potential cause of various toxic effects including carcinogenic effects in experimental animals. Furthermore, the oxidized metabolite of AA, glycidamide (GA), is more toxic than AA. Both AA and GA can form adducts with protein, DNA, and hemoglobin, and some of those adducts can serve as biomarkers for AA exposure; their potential roles in the linking of AA to human cancer, reproductive defects or other diseases, however, are unclear. This review addresses the state-of-the-art understanding of AA, focusing on risk assessment, mechanism of formation and strategies of mitigation in foods. The potential application of omics to AA risk assessment is also discussed. © 2014.

Wang J.,Nanjing University | Tan S.,Nanjing University | Zhang L.,Nanjing University | Li P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Tian D.,Nanjing University
Journal of Molecular Evolution | Year: 2011

NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat), LRR-RLK (LRR-receptor-like kinase), and LRR-only are the three major LRR-encoding genes. Owing to the crucial role played by them in plant resistance, development, and growth, extensive studies have been performed on the NBS-LRR and LRR-RLK genes. However, few studies have focused on these genes collectively; they may co-vary as all of them contain LRR motifs. To investigate their common evolutionary patterns, all major classes of LRR-encoding genes were identified in 12 plant species, and particularly compared in two pairs of close relatives, Arabidopsis thaliana-A. lyrata (At-Al) and Zea mays-Sorghum bicolor. Our results showed that these genes co-vary significantly in terms of their numbers between species and that the genes with certain evolutionary parameters are most likely to have similar functions. The development-related genes have clear orthologous relationships between closely related species, as well as lower nucleotide divergence, and Ka/Ks ratio. In contrast, resistance-related genes have exactly opposite characteristics and favor 11-15 LRRs per gene. This association could be very useful in predicting the function of LRR-encoding genes. The presence of co-variation suggests that LRRs, combined with other domains, can work better in some common functions. In order to cooperate efficiently, there should be balanced gene numbers among the different gene classes. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Ji L.,University of California at Riverside | Liu X.,University of California at Riverside | Yan J.,University of Kentucky | Wang W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 11 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2011

Stem cells are crucial in morphogenesis in plants and animals. Much is known about the mechanisms that maintain stem cell fates or trigger their terminal differentiation. However, little is known about how developmental time impacts stem cell fates. Using Arabidopsis floral stem cells as a model, we show that stem cells can undergo precise temporal regulation governed by mechanisms that are distinct from, but integrated with, those that specify cell fates. We show that two microRNAs, miR172 and miR165/166, through targeting APETALA2 and type III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) genes, respectively, regulate the temporal program of floral stem cells. In particular, we reveal a role of the type III HD-Zip genes, previously known to specify lateral organ polarity, in stem cell termination. Both reduction in HD-Zip expression by over-expression of miR165/166 and mis-expression of HD-Zip genes by rendering them resistant to miR165/166 lead to prolonged floral stem cell activity, indicating that the expression of HD-Zip genes needs to be precisely controlled to achieve floral stem cell termination. We also show that both the ubiquitously expressed ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) gene and its homolog AGO10, which exhibits highly restricted spatial expression patterns, are required to maintain the correct temporal program of floral stem cells. We provide evidence that AGO10, like AGO1, associates with miR172 and miR165/166 in vivo and exhibits "slicer" activity in vitro. Despite the common biological functions and similar biochemical activities, AGO1 and AGO10 exert different effects on miR165/166 in vivo. This work establishes a network of microRNAs and transcription factors governing the temporal program of floral stem cells and sheds light on the relationships among different AGO genes, which tend to exist in gene families in multicellular organisms. © 2011 Ji et al.

Huang L.-K.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang L.-K.,Michigan State University | Bughrara S.S.,Michigan State University | Zhang X.-Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2011

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a warm season C4 grass, is a promising crop for bioenergy-dedicated biomass production. Understanding of genetic diversity within Panicum genus will facilitate switchgrass breeding. Genetic relationships of 22 Panicum species from six continents including ninety-one USDA germplasm accessions were investigated by Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) and Expressed Sequence Tags-Simple Sequence Repeat (EST-SSR) markers. Eight hundred and twenty-six markers from 28 pairs of SRAP and 25 pairs of EST-SSR Primers were used to differentiate between accessions of a bulk of 25 genotypes. The results showed that there was high genetic diversity found in Panicum species. Most genetic variation was present among the different species and cluster analysis indicated that all the Panicum accessions could be distinguished by SRAP or EST-SSR. Dendrogram results reflected the phylogenetic relationships between Panicum species and Panicum amarum was found to be the closest species to switchgrass. Comparison between molecular markers revealed that SRAP methods were considered more efficient than EST-SSR for screening Panicum accessions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Li Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Peng Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ma X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2013

The objective of this present investigation was to study the different response on drought tolerance and post-drought recovery for two different genotypes of white clover (a drought-tolerant small-leafed white clover and a drought-sensitive large-leafed white clover) associating with antioxidative enzyme and lignin metabolism. Two materials were exposed to 12 days of drought stress and 6 days of rewatering in a greenhouse. Significantly higher activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and root activity as well as lower electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde levels of the small-leafed in leaves and roots were observed as compared to the large-leafed under drought stress and rewatering. Lignification-related enzymes (polyphenol oxidase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) activities of two materials in leaves gradually increased from 0 to 9 days of drought stress; then declined at 12 days of drought stress and after rewatering. After 12 days of drought stress, lignin content of two materials in roots was significantly higher relative to the well-watered. Lignin content of leaves in the small-leafed also increased significantly after 6 days of rewatering, but not in the large-leafed. The small-leafed exhibited more sensitive lignin metabolism and faster lignification in leaves and roots than the large-leafed regarding the response of drought stress. These results indicated that antioxidant efficiency and lignin metabolism played important roles in response to drought stress and rewatering for different white clovers. Comparatively higher reactive oxygen species scavenging system and more sensitive lignin metabolism could be associated with better drought tolerance and post-drought recovery in white clover. © 2012 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Zhou W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
New Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2014

Novel TiO2/C nanosheets were synthesized based on the sol-gel method, with the assistance of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF4]), polymerization of aniline and carbonization. The physicochemical properties of the TiO2/C were characterized by SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption techniques, and UV-vis absorption spectra. The nanosheets have a unique, multi-layer, cross-linked structure with holes. An enhanced absorption capacity of the TiO2/C in the range of 200-800 nm is shown, and the absorption region is extended to the near infrared region. The TiO2/C nanosheets show an amazing photocatalytic capacity, under both UV and sunlight, due to C-doping, as well as a unique morphology, structure and mixed phases of anatase and rutile, with high crystallization. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

Yang Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Metallurgical and Mining Industry | Year: 2015

Customer loyalty or repeat purchasing is critical for the survival and success of any store. By focusing on online stores, this study investigates the repeat purchase intention of experienced online buyers based on means-end chain theory and prospect theory. Buyer concern about website security is a critical issue when it comes to maximizing the potential for electronic commerce transactions. Because perceptions of inadequacy can be a major obstacle to online shopping, many researchers have studied both the antecedents and outcomes of website security. Yet, the measures of security used in these studies are problematic. Although information systems researchers and business practitioners have conceptualized security as a multidimensional concept, published empirical studies have measured perceived security as a unidimensional construct. Exclusion of the underlying dimensions likely prevents researchers fromfully assessing the impact of important dimensions of customers' perceptions of security. Here, we contribute to the methodological enhancement of this research stream by: (1) theoretically examining the nature and dimensionality of perceived security, and (2) developing and validating a multidimensional measure of this construct. The results from this study provide empirical justification for the conceptualization of perceived security as a formative second-order construct of perceived confidentiality, perceived availability, and perceived nonrepudiation.

Zhou G.B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou G.B.,China Agricultural University | Li N.,China Agricultural University
Animal Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Bovine oocytes are less likely to undergo successful cryopreservation than cleavage-stage embryos. Bovine oocytes characteristically contain high levels of lipids that represent one of the major obstacles limiting efficient cryopreservation. These droplets together with structures such as cumulus cells, zona pellucida, cytoplasm membrane, cortical granules, mitochondria, spindle, and cytoskeleton (microtubles and microfilaments) often incur serious damage during cooling and warming. The cryoinjury could, to some extent, be decreased by selection of proper permeable and non-permeable cryoprotectants, and of vitrification with high cooling and warming rates. Additionally, such measures may also enhance their cryotolerance as partial removal of cumulus cells, modification of oocyte membrane constituents, polarization of the cytoplasmic lipid droplets by centrifugation, and addition of cytoskeleton relaxants or ice blockers into vitrification solutions. The improvement in cryopreservation methodology for bovine oocytes will no doubt augment other technologies such as bovine cloning and the establishment of gene bank for transgenic cattle. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Single- and low-copy genes are less likely to be subject to concerted evolution. Thus, they are appropriate tools to study the origin and evolution of polyploidy plant taxa. The plastid 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene (Pgk-1) sequences from 44 accessions of Triticum and Aegilops, representing diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheats, were used to estimate the origin of Triticum petropavlovskyi. Our phylogenetic analysis was carried out on exon+intron, exon and intron sequences, using maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference and haplotype networking. We found the D genome sequences of Pgk-1 genes from T. petropavlovskyi are similar to the D genome orthologs in T. aestivum, while their relationship with Ae. tauschii is more distant. The A genome sequences of T. petropavlovskyi group with those of T. polonicum, but its Pgk-1 B genome sequences to some extent diverge from those of other species of Triticum. Our data do not support for the origin of T. petropavlovskyi either as an independent allopolyploidization event between Ae. tauschii and T. polonicum, or as a monomendelian mutation in T. aestivum. We suggest that T. petropavlovskyi originated via spontaneous introgression from T. polonicum into T. aestivum. The dating of this introgression indicates an age of 0.78 million years; a further mutation event concerning the B genome occurred 0.69 million years ago.

Fu S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Sun C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Fei Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) can easily induce structural variation of chromosomes and have been used in crop breeding; however, it is unclear whether MAALs will induce drastic genetic and epigenetic alterations. Methodology/Principal Findings: In the present study, wheat-rye 2R and 5R MAALs together with their selfed progeny and parental common wheat were investigated through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analyses. The MAALs in different generations displayed different genetic variations. Some progeny that only contained 42 wheat chromosomes showed great genetic/epigenetic alterations. Cryptic rye chromatin has introgressed into the wheat genome. However, one of the progeny that contained cryptic rye chromatin did not display outstanding genetic/epigenetic variation. 78 and 49 sequences were cloned from changed AFLP and MSAP bands, respectively. Blastn search indicated that almost half of them showed no significant similarity to known sequences. Retrotransposons were mainly involved in genetic and epigenetic variations. Genetic variations basically affected Gypsy-like retrotransposons, whereas epigenetic alterations affected Copia-like and Gypsy-like retrotransposons equally. Genetic and epigenetic variations seldom affected low-copy coding DNA sequences. Conclusions/Significance: The results in the present study provided direct evidence to illustrate that monosomic wheat-rye addition lines could induce different and drastic genetic/epigenetic variations and these variations might not be caused by introgression of rye chromatins into wheat. Therefore, MAALs may be directly used as an effective means to broaden the genetic diversity of common wheat. © 2013 Fu et al.

Li L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li T.-Z.,University Of Science And Technology Liaoning
Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Advanced Information Engineering and Education Science, ICAIEES 2013 | Year: 2013

Aiming at the practical difficulty in the entrepreneurship accelerate services, this paper proposes an idea of 'Simple Accelerator'. It starts with the concept of 'Simple Accelerator' and analyzes its feasibility. Then it follows with the research of 'Simple Accelerator's five serving characteristics: The physical space, infrastructure, integration policies and social resources, providing of flexible services and 'high performance-price ratio'. In the end, this paper concludes that building 'Simple Accelerator' should adopt the following measures: incubator leading, government involving, 'center-periphery' constructing, distributed sites locating and intensive managing and extending the function of incubator. © 2013. The authors - Published by Atlantis Press..

Zou J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zheng P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang K.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ding X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Bai S.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

The study was conducted to compare the effects of XG with AG and BM at different metabolizable energy diets on growth performance, digestive physiology and energy utilization of broilers fed with corn-SBM diet. A 2 × 4 factorial design was used with two basal diets (the positive control group, PC; negative control with ME reduction 100 kcal/kg, NC) and with or without the addition of three exogenous enzymes (0.02% BM; 0.01% AG; 0.05% XG) respectively. 1,200 one-day-old broilers were randomly allocated to 8 treatments with 10 pens of 15 broilers. There was no significant difference on BW, BWG, and FI at 0-21d, 21-42d or 0-42d for diet, enzymes or their interactions, but FI at 22-42d and 0-42d were tend to be decreased with the addition of enzymes. The F/G was significantly improved by the addition of enzymes especially in NC diet. The dietary AME and TME in PC or NC diet were significantly increased by XG or AG in NC diet. The villus length and V/C of ileum were significantly increased by the addition of BM or XG. XG improved the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase, BM improved the activity of trypsin at 21d, and AG improved the activity of chymotrypsin at 21d. Comparing to PC diet, the addition of enzymes in PC or NC diet decreased feed cost per kg body weight gain especially in NC diet (except AG in PC diet) with the highest profits for XG in NC diet. In conclusion, supplementation of 0.02% BM or 0.01% AG or 0.05% XG could improve feed conversion of broilers in corn-soybean meal diet by improving energy utilization and digestive physiology, and also supplementation of 0.05% XG had a preferable efficacy in low energy diet. © 2013 Zou et al.; licensee Bio MedCentral Ltd.

Zhang L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang H.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2013

Schizothorax prenanti is an important existemic commercial fish in River Yangtze. OKGM (Oxidized Konjac glucomannan) is a kind of polysaccharide oxidative degraded from KGM. Added 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000mg/kg OKGM into the diets of S. prenanti. After 60 days feeding trial, WGR (weight gain rate), SGR (specific growth rate), PER (protein efficiency ratio) of groups fed the diet with 8000mg/kg OKGM was all significantly (P<0.05) higher; FCR (feed conversion ratio) was significantly lower than the control group whose diet have no OKGM. Hepatopancreas index, spleen index of group 6 whose feed added 8000mg/kg OKGM were significantly higher and gallbladder index was significantly lower than the control group. Erythrocyte number, leukocyte number of group 5, 6 whose feed added 4000, 8000mg/kg OKGM were excellent significantly (P<0.01) more than the control group. At the same time, Erythrocyte phagocytic rate, erythrocyte phagocytic index, neutrophilic granulocyte phagocytic rate, neutrophilic granulocyte phagocytic index of all the groups whose diet added OKGM were significantly higher than the control group. Content of IgM, C3 of group 4 whose feed added 2000mg/kg OKGM were significantly more than the control group. As for activity of CAT, group 6 was significantly higher than the control group. When compared activity of SOD, group 6 was significantly higher than group 1, 2, 3. Accordingly, activity of GSH-Px of group 3, 4, 5, 6 were significantly higher than the control group. On the contrary, content of MDA, group 3, 4, 5, 6 whose feed added 1000-8000mg/kg OKGM was excellent significantly lower than the control group. After injected Aeromonas hydrophila 21 days, only group 6 whose feed added 8000mg/kg OKGM survived excellent significantly more than the control group. So we can draw a conclusion of that added OKGM in the diets of S. prenanti, not only promoted growth, but also improved immune function, and the best dose was 8000mg/kg in this experiment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Shan Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2012

Urine-derived human genomic DNA (gDNA) has wide application in a variety of disciplines including clinical medicine, sports, and forensic science. We describe a novel method for gDNA extraction from urine samples using carboxylated magnetic nanoparticles (CMNPs) as solid-phase adsorbents. Sedimentation associated with freezing of urine samples significantly reduces cell capture by CMNPs. However, the addition of 10. mM EDTA and subsequent pH modification (pH 6.0-7.1) can re-dissolve urine sediments. Purified gDNA ranged from around 0.1. kb to more than 23. kb. PCR using specific primers targeting K-ras, GAPDH, CYP3A4 and GDF5 amplified 100% of varying sized gene fragments, verifying the high quality of the isolated DNA. Successful PCR amplifications using DNA isolated from urine samples as small as 50 μl were demonstrated. Enrichment of urine cells and subsequent adsorption of DNA can be achieved with the same CMNPs, greatly simplifying extraction procedures. The CMNP gDNA extraction technique proved to be simple, rapid, sensitive and environmentally friendly, with application for routine laboratory use and potentially within automated urine extraction platforms. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Gao F.,University of Sichuan | Gao F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang Z.-K.,University of Sichuan | Chen Q.-H.,University of Sichuan | And 2 more authors.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2012

The synthesis of a novel D-ring modified docetaxel analogue, in which the oxetane ring is replaced with a γ-lactone, was achieved from 10-deacetylbaccatin III. The key steps of the synthesis include the direct acetylation of the secondary hydroxyl group at C-5 and D-ring opening and intramolecular aldol reaction to form the γ-lactone. In MTT assays, this analogue proved to have equipotent cytotoxicity relative to paclitaxel towards HCT8, HePG2 and BGC23 cancer cell lines, and be more potent than paclitaxel against A549 and A375. It represents the first example of D-ring modified taxoids with significant cytotoxicity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Fu S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Fei Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Tan F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported.Methodology/Principal Findings:Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. 'Mianyang11'×rye S. cereale L. 'Kustro' and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in 'Mianyang11'. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line.Conclusions/Significance:These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat. © 2013 Fu et al.

Zhu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhu J.,Peking University | Yang W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | He X.,Yunnan Normal University | He X.,University of Western Australia
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Relationships between abiotic (soil temperature and number of freeze-thaw cycles) or biotic factors (chemical elements, microbial biomass, extracellular enzymes, and decomposer communities in litter) and litter decomposition rates were investigated over two years in subalpine forests close to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Litterbags with senescent birch, fir, and spruce leaves were placed on the forest floor at 2,704 m, 3,023 m, 3,298 m, and 3,582 m elevation. Results showed that the decomposition rate positively correlated with soil mean temperature during the plant growing season, and with the number of soil freeze-thaw cycles during the winter. Concentrations of soluble nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) had positive effects but C:N and lignin:N ratios had negative effects on the decomposition rate (k), especially during the winter. Meanwhile, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), N (MBN), and P (MBP) were positively correlated with k values during the first growing season. These biotic factors accounted for 60.0% and 56.4% of the variation in decomposition rate during the winter and the growing season in the first year, respectively. Specifically, litter chemistry (C, N, P, K, lignin, C:N and lignin:N ratio) independently explained 29.6% and 13.3%, and the microbe-related factors (MBC, MBN, MBP, bacterial and fungal biomass, sucrase and ACP activity) explained 22.9% and 34.9% during the first winter and the first growing season, respectively. We conclude that frequent freeze-thaw cycles and litter chemical properties determine the winter decomposition while microbe-related factors play more important roles in determining decomposition in the subsequent growing season. © 2013 Zhu et al.

Wu H.R.,University of British Columbia | Hou C.P.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

The development of Chinese senior residential communities is just in the fledging period. Hence, the planning, design and other related experience is very limited. Some newly built senior residential communities, were duplications of successful projects in developed countries, with some minor changes. These new endeavours were lacking in enough comprehensive considerations regarding local cultural and social backgrounds during the fast construction requirements. Through the utilization of documentary research and case studies, this paper examined and compared the international and domestic cases, in order to decipher the exiting problems and challenges regarding these newly built senior accommodations. Coming from the perspectives of planning and architectural design, this paper proposes some improvements regarding satisfying the seniors' physical and psychological requirements based on Chinese culture and the social backgrounds and practical requirements of the seniors. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Palta J.A.,CSIRO | Chen X.,CSIRO | Chen X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Milroy S.P.,CSIRO | And 3 more authors.
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2011

There is little consensus on whether having a large root system is the best strategy in adapting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to water-limited environments. We explore the reasons for the lack of consensus and aim to answer the question of whether a large root system is useful in adapting wheat to dry environments. We used unpublished data from glasshouse and field experiments examining the relationship between root system size and their functional implication for water capture. Individual root traits for water uptake do not describe a root system as being large or small. However, the recent invigoration of the root system in wheat by indirect selection for increased leaf vigour has enlarged the root system through increases in root biomass and length and root length density. This large root system contributes to increasing the capture of water and nitrogen early in the season, and facilitates the capture of additional water for grain filling. The usefulness of a vigorous root system in increasing wheat yields under water-limited conditions maybe greater in environments where crops rely largely on seasonal rainfall, such as the Mediterranean-type environments. In environments where crops are reliant on stored soil water, a vigorous root system increases the risk of depleting soil water before completion of grain filling. © CSIRO 2011.

Wu H.R.,University of British Columbia | Hou C.P.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

The revitalization of urban ghettos, the most unique part of the downtown area, has already become the most difficult issue for almost all the international metropolises because it is often occupied by poor, homeless people, where crime and drug use remains at a relatively high level. The common approach in renewal projects focus on increasing the quantity of the open space, instead of ensuring quality aspects, since more open space could attract more visitors, thereby transforming the unsafe atmosphere of the area. Therefore, this research chose the Gastown and Chinatown areas in the downtown east side of Vancouver, Canada, which is a typical urban ghetto with high density and crime rates, in addition to their multiple cultural and ethnic makeup and further examined the relationships between the quality/quantity of the open space and overall living conditions and illustrated that quality plays a rather more significant role than quantity in the urban renewal process. The result would make urban designers, architects rethink the role of open space created buildings in the urban built environment by stating that enhancing the quality of existing open space would be a more practical and economic way than increasing its quantity. © (2013)Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Xu W.-Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang X.-Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang L.-K.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Nie G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang J.-P.,University of Florida
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2013

Miscanthus sinensis, a C4 perennial grass, is widely distributed in most parts of China. M. sinensis has been selected as a candidate for bioenergy resources, owing to its high biomass potential and good adaptability on marginal lands. In this study, we detected the genetic diversity in wild populations of M. sinensis in southwest China. The results showed the percentage of polymorphic bands is 93.2%, the average Nei's gene diversity in population was 0.3870 and mean Shannon index was 0.5589. The mean of total gene diversity (HT) was 0.3831 ± 0.0216, while the allelic diversity within populations (HS) and among populations (DST) was 0.3127 ± 0.0161 and 0.0704, respectively. The genetic differentiation coefficient (GST) was 0.1838, and the gene flow (Nm) was 1.110. The wild populations of M. sinensis have high genetic diversity within each population than among populations. As M. sinensis has a large phenotypic variation in many traits that are important for biomass yield, the best yielding genotypes could be bred into hybrids with low input and high output bioenergy crops. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Qiu M.,Sichuan Animal Science Academy | Yang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhao X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) among chickens has been well established as being associated with disease resistance and pathogens infection, but the genetic differences in MHC between chickens susceptible to certain infections and those chickens that remain uninfected have not been sufficiently determined. In this study, we sought the genetic basis that may underlie differences in susceptibility to infection among chickens by challenging four groups of broilers with Marek's disease virus (MDV). Over the course of the experiment, lesions began to appear between 21 and 35. days post challenge (dpc), and commercial broilers were not necessarily better than indigenous chickens in terms of disease resistance. The four groups showed neutral resistance to MDV infection validated by challenge results and evolutionary analysis of exons 2 and 3 of the MHC class I region. Several variable sites in exon 2 and exon 3 were exclusively appeared in infected chickens. Exon 3 was likely more crucial than exon 2 in disease resistance. Our observations offered a support for a potential association between promiscuous pathogens and conspicuous genetic diversity in the MHC class I region. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Zeng M.-S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhao H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 10 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012

Although supranutrition of selenium (Se) is considered a promising anti-cancer strategy, recent human studies have shown an intriguing association between high body Se status and diabetic risk. This study was done to determine if a prolonged high intake of dietary Se actually induced gestational diabetes in rat dams and insulin resistance in their offspring. Forty-five 67-day-old female Wistar rats (n = 15/diet) were fed a Se-deficient (0.01 mg/kg) corn-soy basal diet (BD) or BD + Se (as Se-yeast) at 0.3 or 3.0 mg/kg from 5 weeks before breeding to day 14 postpartum. Offspring (n = 8/diet) of the 0.3 and 3.0 mg Se/kg dams were fed with the same respective diet until age 112 days. Compared with the 0.3 mg Se/kg diet, the 3.0 mg/kg diet induced hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.01), insulin resistance (P < 0.01), and glucose intolerance (P < 0.01) in the dams at late gestation and/or day 14 postpartum and in the offspring at age 112 days. These impairments concurred with decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA and/or protein levels of six insulin signal proteins in liver and muscle of dams and/or pups. Dietary Se produced dose-dependent increases in Gpx1 mRNA or GPX1 activity in pancreas, liver, and erythrocytes of dams. The 3.0 mg Se/kg diet decreased Selh (P < 0.01), Sepp1 (P = 0.06), and Sepw1 (P < 0.01), but increased Sels (P < 0.05) mRNA levels in the liver of the offspring, compared with the 0.3 mg Se/kg diet. In conclusion, supranutrition of Se as a Se-enriched yeast in rats induced gestational diabetes and insulin resistance. Expression of six selenoprotein genes, in particular Gpx1, was linked to this metabolic disorder. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang J.,University of California at Davis | Luo M.-C.,University of California at Davis | Chen Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genomes AABBDD) originated by hybridization of tetraploid Triticum turgidum (genomes AABB) with Aegilops tauschii (genomes DD). Genetic relationships between A. tauschii and the wheat D genome are of central importance for the understanding of wheat origin and subsequent evolution. Genetic relationships among 477 A. tauschii and wheat accessions were studied with the A. tauschii 10K Infinium single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Aegilops tauschii consists of two lineages (designated 1 and 2) having little genetic contact. Each lineage consists of two closely related sublineages. A population within lineage 2 in the southwestern and southern Caspian appears to be the main source of the wheat D genome. Lineage 1 contributed as little as 0.8% of the wheat D genome. Triticum aestivum is subdivided into the western and Far Eastern populations. The Far Eastern population conserved the genetic make-up of the nascent T. aestivum more than the western population. In wheat, diversity is high in chromosomes 1D and 2D and it correlates in all wheat D-genome and A. tauschii chromosomes with recombination rates. Gene flow from A. tauschii was an important source of wheat genetic diversity and shaped its distribution along the D-genome chromosomes. © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

Xu L.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Xu L.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Chen S.-Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Nie W.-H.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2012

Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is currently placed in Order Scandentia and has a wide distribution in Southeast Asia and Southwest China. Due to its unique characteristics, such as small body size, high brain-to-body mass ratio, short reproductive cycle and life span, and low-cost of maintenance, tree shrew has been proposed to be an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. However, there are some debates regarding the exact phylogenetic affinity of tree shrew to primates. In this study, we determined the mtDNA entire genomes of three Chinese tree shrews (T. belangeri chinensis) and one Malayan flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus). Combined with the published data for species in Euarchonta, we intended to discern the phylogenetic relationship among representative species of Dermoptera, Scandentia and Primates. The mtDNA genomes of Chinese tree shrews and Malayan flying lemur shared similar gene organization and structure with those of other mammals. Phylogenetic analysis based on 12 concatenated mitochondrial protein-encoding genes revealed a closer relationship between species of Scandentia and Glires, whereas species of Dermoptera were clustered with Primates. This pattern was consistent with previously reported phylogeny based on mtDNA data, but differed from the one reconstructed on the basis of nuclear genes. Our result suggested that the matrilineal affinity of tree shrew to primates may not be as close as we had thought. The ongoing project for sequencing the entire genome of Chinese tree shrew will provide more information to clarify this important issue. © 2012.

Yu G.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Yu G.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang J.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2013

Phylogeny of Rhacophoridae is constructed using two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) and two nuclear (tyrosinase and Rag-1) genes in an attempt to test for the taxonomic status of Rhacophorus appendiculatus and Kurixalus species from Tam Dao. All phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that specimens from Tam Dao are nested in Kurixalus bisacculus, indicating that they belong to K. bisacculus. R. appendiculatus is closer to genus Kurixalus than to other genera with strong support values. In combination with morphological evidence, it is suggested that R. appendiculatus should be placed in Kurixalus. Kurixalus verrucosus is not related to Kurixalus appendiculatus and it is the sister taxon to the clade of K. bisacculus and Kurixalus odontotarsus, which rejects that K. verrucosus is a synonym of K. appendiculatus. The genus Kurixalus needs redefinition by clear synapomorphic characters, and generic status of Kurixalus ananjevae deserves further examination. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhou S.L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li M.Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li Q.H.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Guan J.Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li X.W.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2012

Malate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (MDH1 and MDH2), and malic enzyme 1 (ME1) play important roles in the Krebs cycle for energy metabolism. The mRNA abundance changes of MDH1, MDH2 and ME1 genes were measured across six different adipose tissues from the leaner Landrace and fatty Rongchang pig breeds using quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA of MDH1, MDH2 and ME1 was more abundant in fatty Rongchang pigs than in leaner Landrace pigs. In both breeds, females exhibited higher adipocyte volume and mRNA abundance of MDH1, MDH2 and ME1 compared with males. These values were higher in the subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, mRNA abundance changes of MDH1, MDH2 and ME1 have the remarked significant positive correlation with adipocyte volume across the six adipose tissue types. We conclude that there are breed-, gender- and tissue-specific expression patterns of ME1, MDH1 and MDH2, which highlight their potential as candidate genes for selecting for fat volume in pigs. © FUNPEC-RP.

Dong W.Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang R.F.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

The formation of the traditional dwellings' characteristics in western Sichuan was deeply influenced by the local folk art. To probe historical origins between traditional dwellings and folk art, and accelerate the protection of traditional dwellings, we excavate the profound connotation of folk art in three aspects: Sichuan opera, tea culture and wood carving. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Fan C.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2012

To isolate and identify the cellulose-producing bacterium from fresh feces of healthy giant pandas, and characterize its cellulase production. A strain with high activity of cellulase was isolated and purified by carboxymethyl cellulose-Na (CMC-Na) medium. The morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene were analyzed to identify the taxonomic position of the strain. Meanwhile, its cellulase producing conditions and degradation of several cellulose substrates were studied. A cellulose-producing strain P2 was obtained. Strain P2 is a gram-positive and aerobic bacterium. Its growth temperature ranges from 20 to 50 degrees C (optimum at 37 degrees C) and pH 6.0 to 9.0 (optimum at 7.0), and NaCl concentration at 0%-15% (optimum at 2.0%). It took 24 h to reach the peak of cellulase production. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence showed that strain P2 is most closely related to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRC15535 with the similarity of 99. 66% . Strain P2 posses different abilities to degrade four different cellulose substrates including filter paper, absorbent cotton, straw, and bamboo fiber. During the degradation, it shows different enzymatic activity curves with endoglucanases, exoglucanases, beta-glucosidases and cellulase. An aerobic cellulolytic bacterium was isolated from feces of giant pandas for the first time, and was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Due to its ability to degrade the cellulose materials with different structures, strain P2 could be used in the further study on the digestion mechanism of bamboo of giant panda.

Chen T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lin S.-R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jia C.-S.,Southwest Petroleum University
European Physical Journal Plus | Year: 2013

We solve the Klein-Gordon equation with the improved Rosen-Morse empirical potential energy model. The bound-state energy equation has been obtained by using the supersymmetric shape invariance approach. The relativistic vibrational transition frequencies for the 33Σg + state of the Cs2 molecule have been computed by using the improved Rosen-Morse potential model. The relativistic vibrational transition frequencies are in good agreement with the experimental RKR values and DPF values. © 2013 Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Guo X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Guo X.,Chengdu University of Technology | Tang R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Tang R.,Chengdu University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary protein/carbohydrate (CH2O) ratio on fat deposition and expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) genes in muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue in pigs. Twenty pigs (73.9±1.2kg BW) were used in a single factorial experiment, and allocated by BW and ultrasound backfat thickness to the two treatments: low protein/CH2O ratio (LP; 11.2% CP and 68.2% CH2O for phase I, and 10.1% CP and 69.3% CH2O for phase II) diet, or high protein/CH2O ratio (HP; 22.7% CP and 58.3% CH2O) diet. Pigs were housed individually in pens, and had ad libitum access to feed and water. After 80-d feeding, 6 pigs from each treatment were selected and slaughtered. Dietary protein/CH2O ratio had no effect on growth performance; however, the intramuscular fat (IMF) in longissimus muscle (LM) was increased (P<0.01) when the LP diet was fed. Correspondingly, Warner-Bratzler sheer force of LM in the LP pigs was lower (P<0.05) than the HP pigs. The LP increased mRNA levels of PPARγ (P<0.05) and H-FABP (P=0.09) in LM but not in subcutaneous fat, although the difference of H-FABP gene expression in LM was not statistically significant. The mRNA abundance of PPARγ in muscle correlated positively with IMF content (P<0.05). The results indicated that an increase in IMF but not subcutaneous fat in pigs fed the LP diet is related to tissue-specific activation of PPARγ and H-FABP mRNA expression, especially the PPARγ gene. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Jiang Y.Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

We evaluated carcass and meat quality traits of two Chinese native crossbreeds Landrace x Meishan (LM) and Duroc x (Landrace x Meishan) (DLM) and two foreign crossbreeds Duroc x (Landrace x Yorkshire) (DLY) and PIC (an imported five-way crossbreed). One hundred and twenty weaned pigs (half castrated males and half females) were reared and slaughtered at a predestinated slaughter age. The general carcass and meat quality traits were measured and analyzed. The DLY and PIC crosses had significantly heavier live weights (93.39 and 96.33 kg, P < 0.01), significantly higher dressing percentages (80.65 and 79.39%, P < 0.05), significantly bigger loin areas (42.69 and 43.91 cm(2), P < 0.001), and significantly more lean carcasses (65.78 and 66.40%, P < 0.001) than LM and DLM. On the other hand, LM had a significantly lower live weight (70.29 kg, P < 0.01), significantly thicker back fat (3.54 cm, P < 0.001), significantly less lean carcasses (46.82%, P < 0.001), and significantly less ham and breech (26.53%, P < 0.05) than the other crossbreeds. Among meat quality parameters, LM had the highest intramuscular fat content (5.02%, P < 0.001) and the smallest fiber area (3126.45 μm(2), P < 0.01). However, PIC showed the lowest pH(1) (5.82, P < 0.01) and pH(2) (5.63, P < 0.01), the highest drip loss (2.89%, P < 0.01), and the lowest intramuscular fat (1.35%, P < 0.001). We concluded that LM and DLM had good meat quality traits but poorer carcass traits than DLY and PIC; DLY had good carcass and meat quality traits; PIC had good carcass traits, but it had less intramuscular fat, lower pH and higher drip loss.

Li J.Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2012

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play an important role in the susceptibility and/or resistance to many diseases. To gain an insight into the MHC background of the Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), and thereby facilitate their protection and application in biomedical research, the second exon of the Mhc-DPB1 genes from 70 Tibetan macaques in Sichuan Province were characterized by PCR, cloning, sequencing, and statistical analysis. A total of 18 Mhc-DPB1 alleles were identified from Tibetan macaques, of which one (Math-DPB1*01:06N) was a pseudogene. Math-DPB1*06:01:01 (67.14%) was the most frequent allele in all the 18 alleles detected, followed by Math-DPB1* 01:03:01 (37.14%), Math-DPB1*09:02 (25.71%), and Math-DPB1*22:01 (15.71%). The alignment of putative amino acid sequences of the 18 Math-DPB1 alleles showed that 5 variable sites were species-specific to Tibetan macaques. A phylogenetic tree constructed using DPB1 alleles in difference species demonstrated that the alleles for Math-DPB1, Mamu-DPB1, and Mafa-DPB1 tended to mix together, rather than cluster into a separate branch in a species-specific fashion, and the Trans-species polymorphism was also observed in the phylogenetic tree. Selection analysis revealed that balancing selection may play an important role in maintaining the polymorphism of Math-DPB1 genes.

Yuan S.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Infectious Diseases of Poverty | Year: 2015

There is currently no effective treatment for the Ebola virus (EBOV) thus far. Most drugs and vaccines developed to date have not yet been approved for human trials. Two FDA-approved c-AbI1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors Gleevec and Tasigna block the release of viral particles; however, their clinical dosages are much lower than the dosages required for effective EBOV suppression. An α-1,2-glucosidase inhibitor Miglustat has been shown to inhibit EBOV particle assembly and secretion. Additionally, the estrogen receptor modulators Clomiphene and Toremifene prevent membrane fusion of EBOV and 50-90% of treated mice survived after Clomiphene/Toremifene treatments. However, the uptake efficiency of Clomiphene by oral administration is very low. Thus, I propose a hypothetical treatment protocol to treat Ebola virus infection with a cumulative use of both Miglustat and Toremifene to inhibit the virus effectively and synergistically. EBOV infection induces massive apoptosis of peripheral lymphocytes. Also, cytolysis of endothelial cells triggers disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and subsequent multiple organ failures. Therefore, blood transfusions and active treatments with FDA-approved drugs to treat DIC are also recommended. © 2015 Yuan; licensee BioMed Central.

Liao J.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Liao J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Singh S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Hossain M.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 11 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2012

One of the earliest responses of legumes to symbiotic signalling is oscillation of the calcium concentration in the nucleoplasm of root epidermal cells. Integration and decoding of the calcium-spiking signal involve a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) and its phosphorylation substrates, such as CYCLOPS. Here we describe the Lotus japonicus ccamk-14 mutant that originated from a har1-1 suppressor screen. The ccamk-14 mutation causes a serine to asparagine substitution at position 337 located within the calmodulin binding site, which we determined to be an in vitro phosphorylation site in CCaMK. We show that ccamk-14 exerts cell-specific effects on symbiosis. The mutant is characterized by an increased frequency of epidermal infections and significantly compromised cortical infections by Mesorhizobium loti and also the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. The S337 residue is conserved across angiosperm CCaMKs, and testing discrete substitutions at this site showed that it participates in a negative regulation of CCaMK activity, which is required for the cell-type-specific integration of symbiotic signalling. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kulwal P.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Ishikawa G.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Benscher D.,Cornell University | Feng Z.,Cornell University | And 5 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

Association mapping identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the markers linked to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in an elite association mapping panel of white winter wheat comprising 198 genotypes. A total of 1,166 marker loci including DArT and SSR markers representing all 21 chromosomes of wheat were used in the analysis. General and mixed linear models were used to analyze PHS data collected over 4 years. Association analysis identified eight QTLs linked with 13 markers mapped on seven chromosomes. A QTL was detected on each arm of chromosome 2B and one each on chromosome arms 1BS, 2DS, 4AL, 6DL, 7BS and 7DS. All except the QTL on 7BS are located in a location similar to previous reports and, if verified, the QTL on 7BS is likely to be novel. Principal components and the kinship matrix were used to account for the presence of population structure but had only a minor effect on the results. Although, none of the QTLs was highly significant across all environments, a QTL on the long arm of chromosome 4A was detected in three different environments and also using the best linear unbiased predictions over years. Although previous reports have identified this as a major QTL, its effects were minor in our biparental mapping populations. The results of this study highlight the benefits of association mapping and the value of using elite material in association mapping for plant breeding programs. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Zhou J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Fu H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cao H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lu C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Fluid Phase Equilibria | Year: 2013

The solubility of florfenicol in mixed 1,2-propanediol. +. water solvents was measured by a static analytical method at the temperature ranging from 293.15. K to 316.25. K. The experimental solubility data was correlated by the modified Apelblat equation, the General Single model and the Hybrid model. The results show that: the mole solubility of florfenicol in binary 1,2-propanediol. +. water mixtures increased with increasing temperature and the mole fraction of 1,2-propanediol in the binary solvent system; the values of the solubility calculated by the three models show good agreement with the experimental value; the OMPD from the modified Apelblat equation, the General Single model and the Hybrid model are 2.48, 2.07 and 5.12, respectively. However, compared to the modified Apelblat equation and the Hybrid model, the General Single model can give more accuracy and reliability of the solubility data. In addition, the discussion of the enthalpy and the entropy for florfenicol in different cosolvents indicated that the dissolution process of florfenicol was endothermic and entropy-driven. © 2013.

Fan Z.,Sichuan University | Zhao G.,Sichuan University | Li P.,Sichuan University | Osada N.,National Institute of Genetics | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Macaques are the most widely distributed nonhuman primates and used as animal models in biomedical research. The availability of full-genome sequences from them would be essential to both biomedical and primate evolutionary studies. Previous studies have reported whole-genome sequences from rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaque (M. fascicularis, CE), both of which belong to the fascicularis group. Here, we present a 37-fold coverage genome sequence of the Tibetan macaque (M. thibetana; TM). TM is an endemic species to China belonging to the sinica group. On the basis of mapping to the rhesus macaque genome, we identified approximately 11.9 million single-nucleotide variants), of which 3.9 million were TM specific, as assessed by comparison two Chinese rhesus macaques (CR) and two CE genomes. Some genes carried TM-specific homozygous nonsynonymous variants (TSHNVs), which were scored as deleterious in human by both PolyPhen-2 and SIFT (Sorting Tolerant From Intolerant) and were enriched in the eye disease genes. In total, 273 immune response and disease-related genes carried at least one TSHNV. The heterozygosity rates of two CRs (0.002617 and 0.002612) and two CEs (0.003004 and 0.003179) were approximately three times higher than that of TM (0.000898). Polymerase chain reaction resequencing of 18 TM individuals showed that 29 TSHNVs exhibited high allele frequencies, thus confirming their low heterozygosity. Genome-wide genetic divergence analysis demonstrated that TM was more closely related to CR than to CE. We further detected unusual low divergence regions between TM and CR. In addition, after applying statistical criteria to detect putative introgression regions (PIRs) in the TM genome, up to 239,620 kb PIRs (8.84% of the genome) were identified. Given that TM and CR have overlapping geographical distributions, had the same refuge during the Middle Pleistocene, and show similar mating behaviors, it is highly likely that there was an ancient introgression event between them. Moreover, demographic inferences revealed that TM exhibited a similar demographic history as other macaques until 0.5 Ma, but then it maintained a lower effective population size until present time. Our study has provided new insight into the macaque evolutionary history, confirming hybridization events between macaque species groups based on genome-wide data. © 2014 The Author.

Gao C.,China Agricultural University | Han H.-B.,China Agricultural University | Tian X.-Z.,China Agricultural University | Tan D.-X.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2012

Two-cell embryos of mouse were vitrified by the open-pulled straw (OPS) method. The vitrified embryos were warmed and introduced into M16 medium for culture that contains melatonin at different concentrations (10-3, 10-5, 10-7, 10-9, 10-11m). This process caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and jeopardized the development of the embryos. Melatonin, at different concentrations, significantly suppresses ROS production and promotes embryonic development in vitrified embryos compared with untreated ones. The mechanistic studies indicated that the beneficial effects of melatonin on vitrified 2-cell embryos of mouse were melatonin receptor (MT1 and MT2) independent. The direct free radical scavenging activity, the enhancement of endogenous glutathione levels, and the anti-apoptotic capacity of melatonin may account for its protective effects on vitrified embryonic development. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Huang Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yu B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | He J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen D.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in skeletal muscle development as well as in regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the role of miRNAs in myoblast proliferation remains poorly understood. Here we found that the expression of miR-27a was increased during proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts. Moreover, overexpression of miR-27a in C2C12 cells promoted myoblast proliferation by reducing the expression of myostatin, a critical inhibitor of skeletal myogenesis. In addition, the miR-27a was confirmed to target myostatin 3'UTR by a luciferase reporter analysis. Together, these results suggest that miR-27a promotes myoblast proliferation through targeting myostatin. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Sun X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Du J.,Sichuan University
European Physical Journal D | Year: 2014

The hybrid DFT functional has been utilized to investigate CO adsorption on small W n (n = 2-9) clusters. The reactivity-selectivity descriptor Δf(r) is proved to be an appropriate tool for predicting the local adsorption site. Our results indicate that the binding of CO to tungsten cluster prefers terminal adsorption mode except for W3 trimer. The Wiberg bond index can predict the interaction between W atoms and CO molecule to a good accuracy using a linear fit. The dependency on number of adsorbate and charge state of host clusters is also investigated. The high CO coverage seriously weakens the W-CO interaction. The anion cluster reveals the stronger interaction with CO molecule than cation and neutral ones. Moreover, the interesting coverage-dependence is revealed for anion cluster. © 2014 EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Wang L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Wuhan Academy of Agriculture Science
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

Abstract Myotrophin (MTPN) is an effective growth factor in promoting skeletal muscle growth in vitro and vivo and has been purified from porcine skeletal muscle. However, in pigs, the information on MTPN gene is very limited. In this study, we cloned cDNA sequences and analyzed the genomic structure of porcine MTPN gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of porcine MTPN contains two the ankyrin repeat domains. RT-PCR analysis revealed that porcine MTPN gene was widely expressed in many tissues, a high expression level was observed in the spleen, liver and uterus, and transient transfection indicated that porcine MTPN proteins was located in cytoplasms within Pig Kidney Epithelial cells (PK15). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses showed that MTPN expression peaked at embryonic 65 day post conception (dpc). During postnatal muscle development, MTPN expression was down-regulated from the 3 day to the 180 day in Yorkshire pigs. This result suggests that the MTPN gene may be important gene for skeletal muscle growth and provides useful information for further studies on its roles in porcine skeletal muscle.© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

Yuan S.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2013

New treatments and new drugs for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection are developed continually, but there are still high mortality rates. The main reason may be that not all cell death pathways induced by AIV were blocked by the current therapies. In this review, drugs for AIV and associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are summarized. The roles of antioxidant (vitamin C) and multiple immunomodulators (such as Celecoxib, Mesalazine and Eritoran) are discussed. The clinical care of ARDS may result in ischemia reperfusion injury to poorly ventilated alveolar cells. Cyclosporin A should effectively inhibit this kind of damages and, therefore, may be the key drug for the survival of patients with virus-induced ARDS. Treatment with protease inhibitor Ulinastatin could also protect lysosome integrity after the infection. Through these analyses, a large drug combination is proposed, which may hypothetically greatly reduce the mortality rate. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Xie J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Qi J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Hse C.-Y.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Shupe T.F.,Louisiana State University
BioResources | Year: 2014

The epidermis layer waste (ELW) and the inner layer waste (ILW) were removed from Phyllostachys pubescens bamboo, and the anatomical characteristics and chemical components of these wastes were comparatively investigated. Both the ELW and ILW were subjected to a microwave-assisted liquefaction process to evaluate the relationship between bamboo properties and liquefaction behavior. The results indicated that higher vessel and parenchyma percentages and lower cellulose and lignin contents in ILW contributed to lower residue content, while higher fiber percentage and cellulose or lignin contents in ELW resulted in higher residue content. Recondensation took place during the liquefaction of ELW, which was indicated by small granules appearing on the liquefied residue surface according to SEM images. The intense bands corresponding to hemicellulose and lignin in the FT-IR spectrum of the liquefied ELW residue gave further evidence that the liquefaction of ELW is a complex solvolysis process involving simultaneous reactions of chemical degradation and recondensation.

Wang D.H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xu G.Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu D.J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Z.H.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2011

Characteristics and performance of Tianfu goat, a new meat goat population resulting from Chengdu Ma goats crossbred with Saanen, Toggenburg, Nubian and Boer goats, were revealed in the study. The results showed that this population has a physique good for mutton production. The average body weights (BW) at 6 months and adult were 29kg and 77kg for males, 26kg and 54kg respectively for females. Pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG0-60) and post-weaning average daily gain (ADG60-180) were 173g/d and 127g/d for males, 146g/d and 119g/d for females. The growth inflection points of age and BW were 5 months and 24kg for males, 4 months and 19kg for females. The average live weight, dressed weight and dressing percentage of castrated males slaughtered at 6 months and 12 months were 27kg, 14kg, 50% and 41kg, 21kg, 52% respectively. By crossbreeding with Tianfu goats, performance of indigenous goats was improved by 24-51%. Comparative study showed the breed has excellent production performance with magnificent prospect for promotion of the mutton supply in China. © 2010.

Jiang Y.Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

The Yanan (YN) pig is a traditional Chinese indigenous breed that is raised in southwest China in the Sichuan Province, but there is little data on the germplasm characteristics of this breed. To evaluate carcass characteristics and meat quality of the YN pig, we compared carcass and meat quality of YN pigs and Landrace × Yanan (CY) hybrid pigs; 30 YN pigs and 30 CY pigs weighing 20 ± 2 kg were reared and slaughtered at the normal slaughter weight (100-120 kg). The carcasses were chilled and the left carcass side was dissected into bone, lean meat, fat, and skin; meat quality parameters were measured. Carcasses of YN pigs were lighter (88.85 vs 90.05 kg, P < 0.05) and shorter (71.88 vs 77.61 cm, P < 0.001); they contained less lean meat (41.60 vs 49.25%, P < 0.001), less ham and breech (25.93 vs 27.53%, P < 0.001) and less carcass bone (9.83 vs 10.53%, P < 0.01) than did carcasses of CY pigs. On the other hand, YN pigs had more carcass subcutaneous fat and skin (48.58 vs 40.23%, P < 0.001), thicker backfat (3.67 vs 3.43 cm, P < 0.001) and smaller loin muscle area (9.83 vs 26.91 cm(2), P < 0.001) compared with CY pigs. Among meat quality parameters, YN pigs had higher pH(1) (6.41 vs 6.17, P < 0.001), higher color score(u) (3.86 vs 3.36, P < 0.001) and lower Minolta L(u) values (40.89 vs 45.32, P < 0.01) than CY pigs. On the other hand, YN pigs had lower drip loss (1.31 vs 2.26%, P < 0.05) and lesser fiber area (2351.34 vs 3025.43 μm(2), P < 0.01) than CY pigs. Both breeds had high intramuscular fat (4.46% in YN and 4.45% in CY). No significant differences in other carcass traits and meat quality were found in the two populations. We conclude that YN pigs could be used in commercial pig production to provide good tasting and high-quality niche products.

Jian Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Song L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
International Journal of Simulation: Systems, Science and Technology | Year: 2016

There are many defects when current data mining methods are implemented to forecast and analyze a stock index. To adapt the characteristics of financial transaction data, this paper proposes an analysis model for the main indicators of stocks transaction based on an improvement of original mining technologies. It is financial time series analysis model based on Elman wavelet neural network and ARMA. We introduce wavelet analysis and ARMA model to time series modeling and forecasting. Wavelet decomposition is adopted to extract and separate all the hidden periods and nonstationary factors. The feature of wavelet decomposition series and rules of data decomposition are fully applied on Elman dynamic neural network and ARMA model. Then ARMA model and neural network are respectively adopted for scale transformation series and wavelet transformation series. The final forecasting is acquired by the integration of forecasting results of all the scale regions using wavelet reconstruction. The case study shows our model approaches expected standard for high precision, and the forecasting results are prior to artificial neural network. © 2016, UK Simulation Society. All rights reserved.

Xu P.W.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Bing du xue bao = Chinese journal of virology / [bian ji, Bing du xue bao bian ji wei yuan hui] | Year: 2012

The M1 and HA genes of H1N1 influenza virus were amplified and then cloned into the pFastBac dual donor plasmid. The recombinant pFastBac Dual-M1-HA was identified by restriction enzyme digestion. After the pFastBacdual-M1-HA was transformed into the baculovirus shuttle plasmid (bacmid) in DH10Bac competent cells, the colonies were identified by antibiotics and blue-white selection. The rBac-mid-M1-HA was verified by PCR and transfected into S f9 cells to produce recombinant baculovirus (rBac-M1-HA). Gene insertion of rBac-M1-HA was verified and the expression of M1 and HA genes was analyzed by IFA and Western-blot, demonstrating M1 and HA were co-expressed successfully. This study provides the foundation for researching the formation mechanism of influenza VLP and developing new influenza vaccines.

Tu L.-H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Hu T.-X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li R.-H.,Sichuan Forestry Inventory and Plan Institute | And 2 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2011

In order to understand the influence of nitrogen (N) deposition on the key processes relevant to the carbon (C) balance in a bamboo plantation, a two-year field experiment involving the simulated deposition of N in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation was conducted in the rainy region of SW China. Four levels of N treatments: control (no N added), low-N (50 kg N ha-1 year-1), medium-N (150 kg N ha-1 year-1), and high-N (300 kg N ha-1 year-1) were set in the present study. The results showed that soil respiration followed a clear seasonal pattern, with the maximum rates in mid-summer and the minimum in late winter. The annual cumulative soil respiration was 585 ± 43 g CO2-C m-2 year-1 in the control plots. Simulated N deposition significantly increased the mean annual soil respiration rate, fine root biomass, soil microbial biomass C (MBC), and N concentration in fine roots and fresh leaf litter. Soil respirations exhibited a positive exponential relationship with soil temperature, and a linear relationship with MBC. The net primary production (NPP) ranged from 10.95 to 15.01 Mg C ha-1 year-1 and was higher than the annual soil respiration (5.85 to 7.62 Mg C ha-1 year-1) in all treatments. Simulated N deposition increased the net ecosystem production (NEP), and there was a significant difference between the control and high N treatment NEP, whereas, the difference of NEP among control, low-N, and medium-N was not significant. Results suggest that N controlled the primary production in this bamboo plantation ecosystem. Simulated N deposition increased the C sequestration of the P. amarus plantation ecosystem through increasing the plant C pool, though CO2 emission through soil respiration was also enhanced. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Yu G.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Yu G.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang M.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Zhang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Factors that determine the genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, phylogeography and demography of Tylototriton shanjing was investigated from a mitochondrial perspective to address the role of the Quaternary ice ages in shaping phylogeographic history and genetic diversity of Yunnan. A total of 146 individuals from 19 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. We detected four maternal phylogenetic lineages corresponding to four population groups, and found that major glaciation events during the Pleistocene have triggered the intra-specific divergence. Coalescent simulations indicated that the populations retreated to different refugia located in southern Yunnan, northwestern Yunnan, the border region of western Yunnan with Myanmar, and middle-western Yunnan, respectively, during previous glacial periods in the Pleistocene, and these four refugia were not retained during the Last Glacial Maximum. Population expansions occurred during the last inter-glaciation, during which ice core and pollen data indicated that the temperature and precipitation gradually increased, and declines of population sizes started after the beginning of the Last Glacial Maximum when the climate became cooler and dryer. The paleo-drainage system had no contribution to the current genetic structure and the rivers were not dispersal barriers for this salamander. © 2013 Yu et al.

Yu J.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Yu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhao L.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Wang A.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 4 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a recently discovered metabolic regulator. Interestingly, FGF21 is alsoknownto inhibit Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling from the GH receptor in the liver, where FGF21 mRNA is predominantly expressed. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FGF21 gene expression in the liver is controlled by GH through STAT5. We found that GH injection to cattle increased FGF21 mRNA expression in the liver. Mapped by a 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends assay, transcription of the FGF21 gene in the bovine liver was mainly initiated from a nucleotide 24 bp downstream of a TATA box. The bovine FGF21 promoter contains three putative STAT5-binding sites. EMSA confirmed the ability of them to bind to liver STAT5 protein from GH-injected cattle. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated thatGHadministration increased the binding of STAT5 to the FGF21 promoter in the liver. Cotransfection analyses showed that GH induced reporter gene expression from the FGF21 promoter in a STAT5-dependent manner. GH also stimulated FGF21 mRNA expression in cultured mousehepatocytes.These data together indicate that GH directly stimulates FGF21 genetranscription in the liver, at least in part, through STAT5. This finding, together with the fact that FGF21 inhibits GH-induced JAK2-STAT5 signaling in the liver, suggests a novel negative feedback loop that prevents excessive JAK2-STAT5 signaling from the GH receptor in the liver. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.

Zhang Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang Z.,Xichang College | Luo A.,University of Sichuan | Zhong K.,University of Sichuan | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2013

In the present study, the methanol extract from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was investigated on rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This extract enriched in polyphenols, showed a potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with maltose as a substrate in enzyme assay. The extract was then applied to MCI-gel column chromatography with a water-methanol gradient to give three fractions: fraction 1 (F-1, water), fraction 2 (F-2, 80% methanol in water), and fraction 3 (F-3, 100% methanol). F-2 showed the highest maltase inhibitory activity compared with F-1 and F-3, and down-regulated α-glucosidase activity for the maltose hydrolysis in Caco-2 monolayer. In maltose-loaded SD-rats, F-2 significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose level. 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid was found to be the potent maltase inhibitor, whereas chlorogenic acid and rutin showed a weak inhibitory activity against maltase. This is the first report on the mammalian α-glucosdiase inhibition of L. japonica. The result presented here suggests a use of the extract of L. japonica for antidiabetes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Liu J.B.,Purdue University | Liu J.B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen D.W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Adeola O.,Purdue University
Poultry Science | Year: 2013

This study was conducted to evaluate the true digestibility of P in soybean meal (SBM) for broiler chickens fed diets with different dietary calcium-tophosphorus ratios (Ca:P) using the regression method. The experiment used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement with 12 diets formulated to contain combinations of 4 levels of dietary Ca:P: 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, or 2.0 and 3 levels of SBM: 31.0, 44.0, or 57.0%. A total of 576 male Ross 708 broilers were allocated to 12 dietary treatments with 8 cages (6 birds per cage) per treatment from d 15 to 22 posthatching, and the BW between groups were similar. Chromic dioxide was used as an indigestible marker to calculate P digestibility and retention. The results showed that BW gain and feed efficiency were increased (linear, P < 0.01), and prececal DM digestibility and DM retention were decreased (linear, P < 0.01) with graded SBM in diets for each Ca:P. De creasing linear (P < 0.01) relationships were observed for apparent prececal P digestibility and total tract P retention with increased dietary SBM levels. The prececal and excreta P output increased (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic, P < 0.05) as increasing levels of SBM were added to the experimental diets. True prececal P digestibility in SBM was greater (P < 0.05) for birds fed a diet with Ca:P of 0.8 compared with those fed higher Ca:P, but there was no difference among the Ca:P ratios between 1.2 and 2.0. However, the total tract retention of P from SBM was not affected by Ca:P between 0.8 and 2.0. In conclusion, results of the present experiment demonstrated that prececal digestibility of P in SBM was not affected by Ca:P ratio between 1.2 and 2.0; and there was no difference in total tract retention of P from SBM among the Ca:P ratios between 0.8 and 2.0 in broiler chickens. © 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Ma X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Bai S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2012

E. sibiricus L., the type species of the genus Elymus, is a perennial, self-pollinating and allotetraploid grass indigenous to Northern Asia, which in some countries can be cultivated as an important forage grass. In the present study, eighty-six Elymus sibiricus accessions, mostly from different parts of Asia, were assayed by gliadin markers based on Acid Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis to differentiate and explore their genetic relationships. The genetic similarity matrix was calculated by 47 polymorphic bands, which ranged from 0.108 to 0.952 with an average of 0.373. The total Shannon diversity index (Ho) and the Simpson index (He) was 0.460 and 0.302, respectively. Cluster analysis showed a clear demarcation between accessions from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China and the others as separate groups. The clustering pattern was probably dependent on geographic origin and ecological adaptability of the accessions. The population structure analysis based on Shannon indices showed that the proportion of variance within and among the five geographic regions of the Northern Hemisphere was 55.9 and 44.1%, respectively, or 63.4 and 36.6% within and among six Chinese provinces. This distinct geographical divergence was perhaps depended on ecogeographical conditions such as climate difference and mountain distribution. The results of gladin analysis in this study are useful for the collection and preservation of E. sibiricus germplasm resources. © 2012 by the authors.

Tu L.-H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Hu T.-X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li X.-W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Soil respiration is an important carbon (C) flux of global C cycle, and greatly affected by nitrogen (N) addition in the form of deposition or fertilization. However, the effects of N addition on the different components of soil respiration are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate how the components of soil respiration response to N addition and the potential mechanisms in a subtropical bamboo ecosystem. Four N treatment levels (0, 50, 150, 300 kg N ha-1 year-1) were applied monthly in a Pleioblastus amarus bamboo plantation since November 2007. Total soil respiration (RST) and soil respiration derived from litter layer (RSL), root-free soil (RSS), and plant roots (RSR) were measured for one year (February 2010 to January 2011). The results showed that the mean rate of RST was 428 ± 11 g C m-2 year-1, and RSL, RSS, RSR contributed (30.2 ± 0.7)%, (20.7 ± 0.9)%, and (49.1 ± 0.7)%, respectively. The temperature coefficients (Q10) of RST, RSL, RSS, and RSR were 2.87, 2.28, 3.09, and 3.19, respectively, in control plots. Nitrogen additions significantly increased RST and its three components. RSR was stimulated by N additions through increasing fine root biomass and root metabolic rate. The positive effects of N additions on soil fertility, microbial activity, and the quality and amount of aboveground litterfall also stimulated other CO2 production processes. In the background of increased N input, response of RST and components of RST are primarily due to the positive response of plant growth in this bamboo ecosystem. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xiong X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Han Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yuan H.,Tianjin University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2010

The application of titanium dioxide-loaded activated carbon fiber (ACF/TiO2) in a pulsed discharge reactor for degradation of methyl orange (MO) was investigated. Several factors were considered to explore the applicability and the effect of ACF/TiO2 in the combined treatment of pulsed discharge and ACF/TiO2. A synergistic effect appeared in the combined treatment. The increase in COD removal results from the photocatalysis of ACF/TiO2, as well as the adsorption of ACF/TiO2. Further, ACF/TiO2 could be regenerated in situ in the combined treatment. The solution conductivity had a major effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from the MO solution in the combined treatment, while the initial solution pH value had a minor effect on COD removal. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Shen H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Kou C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | He M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu K.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2014

Two novel anionic conjugated copolyelectrolytes PSDPPPV and PSDPPPE were synthesized via Heck/Sonogashira coupling reactions and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-vis, and PL spectroscopy. The two polymers are respectively constituted of 2,5-diethoxy-1,4-phenyleneethynylene (DPV) and 2,5-diethoxy-1,4-phenyleneethynylene (DPE) with 1,4-diketo-2,5-bis(4- sulfonylbutyl)-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (SDPP) which is a novel water soluble diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative. PSDPPPV and PSDPPPE show broad absorption band in visible region and they exhibit strong fluorescence quenching in aqueous solution. The fluorescence of their aqueous solutions can be enhanced in the presence of cationic surfactant or polymer nonionic surfactant. Fluorescence enhancement by introduction of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) shows linear response. This result provides a controllable method to increase fluorescence intensity of dipyrrolopyrrole-based conjugate polyelectrolytes in aqueous phase. The optical properties suggested that PSDPPPV and PSDPPPE which are negatively charged conjugated polymers can assemble with positively charged photovoltaic materials to form ionic photoactive layer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Liu G.J.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

Under sustained loads with a fixed value, the deformation of concrete will continue to increase as time increases; this phenomenon is called creep of concrete. Currently, there are several theories to explain the phenomenon of concrete creep, viscoelasticity theory, seepage theory, viscous flow theory, plastic flow theory, micro-fractures theory and internal forces balance theory. Above models mostly studied linear creep of concrete under low stress status. This paper mainly research on concrete creep mechanism, and pointed out the advantages and limitations of the various theories, which has a guiding significance for theoretical research. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Zou M.F.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2013

The purpose of this work was to elucidate the characteristics and the expression profiles of porcine Opn4 during developmental stages and different times of the day. The coding sequence of Opn4 gene was cloned. The mRNA expression levels of Opn4 gene in the retina of the swines during developmental stages and different times of the day were examined. The results showed that the swine ORF of Opn4 gene was 1 437 bp in length which encodes 478 amino acids residues with the molecular formula of C2398H3705N623O651S23. The expression level of Opn4 in the day was significantly higher than that in the night (P<0.01). During the growing periods, Opn4 started expressing as early as 34 d in the embryonic phase with the lowest level (P<0.01), reached to a peak 1 day after birth (P<0.01), and then stayed at a moderate standard. The difference of Opn4 expressions among the swines at 1th month, 4th month, and 84th month was not significantly different (P>0.05). In total, results showed that the Opn4 gene can regulate the biological rhythm of the swines. Furthermore, it play an important role in mediate the responsibility to the light in the postnatal swines.

Cornstarch-based semi-purified diets impair growth performance of birds when using the regression method to estimate phosphorus (P) digestibility in assay feed ingredient. Therefore, casein is usually supplemented in the basal diet to improve dietary amino acid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary casein supplementation on regression-derived estimates of true phosphorus digestibility and endogenous phosphorus loss (EPL) associated with soybean meal (SBM) in broiler chickens. Four hundred thirty-two male Ross 708 broilers were allocated to nine diets in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of three diet types (with casein at moderate dietary P, without casein at moderate dietary P, or without casein at low dietary P) and three SBM levels (low, medium, or high). There were six birds per cage and eight replicate cages per diet in a randomized complete block design. The birds were fed experimental diets from day 12 to 20 post-hatching. Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker to calculate P digestibility and retention. The results indicated that body weight gain and feed efficiency linearly increased (P<0.01) and dry matter retention was linearly decreased (P<0.01) with the addition of SBM, regardless of diet type. The apparent prececal P digestibility and excreta P retention were increased by casein supplementation (P<0.01). The prececal and excreta P output linearly increased (P<0.01) with graded inclusion of SBM in each diet type. Regression of P output against dietary P intake showed that the type of diets (with casein at moderate dietary P, without casein at moderate dietary P, or without casein at low dietary P) had no effect on true prececal P digestibility and excreta P retention, or EPL associated with SBM for broiler chickens (P>0.05). In conclusion, the results of the current study indicate that adding casein, which is high in P digestibility, to cornstarch-based basal diets does not affect the estimation of EPL or true P digestibility and retention associated with SBM for broiler chickens using the regression method. © 2014, Agricultural Institute of Canada. all rights reserved.

Chen Y.,Iowa State University | Liu H.,Iowa State University | Liu H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ali F.,University of Peshawar | And 4 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

Brown midrib mutants in maize are known to be associated with reduced lignin content and increased cell wall digestibility, which leads to better forage quality and higher efficiency of cellulosic biomass conversion into ethanol. Four well known brown midrib (bm) mutants, named bm1-4, were identified several decades ago. Additional recessive brown midrib mutants have been identified by allelism tests and designated as bm5 and bm6. In this study, we determined that bm6 increases cell wall digestibility and decreases plant height. bm6 was confirmed onto the short arm of chromosome 2 by a small mapping set with 181 plants from a F2 segregating population, derived from crossing B73 and a bm6 mutant line. Subsequently, 960 brown midrib individuals were selected from the same but larger F2 population for genetic and physical mapping. With newly developed markers in the target region, the bm6 gene was assigned to a 180 kb interval flanked by markers SSR_308337 and SSR_488638. In this region, ten gene models are predicted in the maize B73 sequence. Analysis of these ten genes as well as genes in the syntenic rice region revealed that four of them are promising candidate genes for bm6. Our study will facilitate isolation of the underlying gene of bm6 and advance our understanding of brown midrib gene functions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Fan J.,Chongqing University of Science and Technology | Fan J.,University of Florida | Fan J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen C.,University of Florida | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2012

Although there are no known sources of genetic resistance, some Citrus spp. are reportedly tolerant to huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Time-course transcriptional analysis of tolerant rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) and susceptible sweet orange (C. sinensis) in response to 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection showed more genes differentially expressed in HLB-affected rough lemon than sweet orange at early stages but substantially fewer at late time points, possibly a critical factor underlying differences in sensitivity to 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Pathway analysis revealed that stress responses were distinctively modulated in rough lemon and sweet orange. Although microscopic changes (e.g., callose deposition in sieve elements and phloem cell collapse) were found in both infected species, remarkably, phloem transport activity in midribs of source leaves in rough lemon was much less affected by HLB than in sweet orange. The difference in phloem cell transport activities is also implicated in the differential sensitivity to HLB between the two species. The results potentially lead to identification of key genes and the genetic mechanism in rough lemon to restrain disease development and maintain (or recover) phloem transport activity. These potential candidate genes may be used for improving citrus tolerance (or even resistance) to HLB by genetic engineering. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society.

Liu Y.,CSIRO | Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zheng Y.-L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wei Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

With 2 figures and 3 tables Crown rot (CR), caused predominantly by Fusarium pseudograminearum, is a serious cereal disease for semi-arid regions worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars has long been recognized as an essential component in effectively managing this disease, and successful breeding requires quality sources of resistance. This paper reports the first germplasm screening to identify CR resistance sources in barley. A total of 1047 genotypes, selected to represent different geographical origins and plant types, were assessed. Several genotypes with high levels of resistance were identified. As expected, those with the best resistance were predominantly landraces or wild barley accessions. Surprisingly, genotypes with the best CR resistance with known origins were mainly derived from East Asia where CR is not a major cereal disease. Further, the majority of the genotypes with the best CR resistance are slow growing, although such genotypes accounted for only a small proportion of all those assessed in this study. Possible explanations for these intriguing phenomena are discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Hu Y.-F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li Y.-P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

Starch synthase I (SSI) contributes the majority of the starch synthase activity in developing maize endosperm. In this work, the effects of various plant hormones and sugars on the expression of the starch synthase I gene (ZmSSI) in developing maize endosperms were examined. The accumulation of ZmSSI mRNA was induced using abscisic acid (ABA) but not with glucose, sucrose, or gibberellin treatment. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying this effect, the ZmSSI promoter region (-1537 to 51) was isolated and analysed. A transient expression assay in maize endosperm tissue showed that the full-length ZmSSI promoter is activated by ABA. The results of deletion and mutation assays demonstrated that a CACCG motif in the ZmSSI promoter is responsible for the ABA inducibility. The results of binding shift assays indicated that this CACCG motif interacts with the maize ABI4 protein in vitro. The overexpression of ABI4 in endosperm tissue enhanced the activity of a promoter containing the CACCG motif in the absence of ABA treatment. Expression pattern analysis indicated that the transcription pattern of ABI4 in the developing maize endosperm was induced by ABA treatment but was only slightly affected by glucose or sucrose treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that ABI4 binds to the CACCG motif in the ZmSSI promoter and mediates its ABA inducibility. © 2012 The Author.Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology]. All rights reserved.

Cheng D.-Q.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Cheng D.-Q.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Li Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang J.-F.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The primate α-/θ-defensin multigene family encodes versatile endogenous cationic and amphipathic peptides that have broad-spectrum antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity. Although previous studies have reported that α-/θ-defensin (DEFA/DEFT) genes are under birth-and-death evolution with frequent duplication and rapid evolution, the phylogenetic relationships of the primate DEFA/DEFT genes; the genetic bases for the existence of similar antimicrobial spectra among closely related species; and the evolutionary processes involved in the emergence of cyclic θ-defensins in Old World monkeys and their subsequent loss of function in humans, chimpanzees and gorillas require further investigation. In this study, the DEFA/DEFT gene repertoires from primate and treeshrew were collected, followed by detailed phylogenetic, sequence and structure, selection pressure and comparative genomics analyses. All treeshrew, prosimian and simian DEFA/DEFT genes are grouped into two major clades, which are tissue-specific for enteric and myeloid defensins in simians. The simian enteric and myeloid α-defensins are classified into six functional gene clusters with diverged sequences, variable structures, altered functional constraints and different selection pressures, which likely reflect the antimicrobial spectra among closely related species. Species-specific duplication or pseudogenization within each simian cluster implies that the antimicrobial spectrum is ever-shifting, most likely challenged by the ever-changing pathogen environment. The DEFT evolved from the myeloid DEFA8. The prosegment of θ-defensin is detected with adaptive changes coevolving with the new protein fold of mature peptide, coincident with the importance of the prosegment for the correct folding of the mature peptide. Lastly, a less-is-hitchhiking hypothesis was proposed as a possible explanation for the expansion of pseudogene DEFTP and the loss of functional DEFT, where the gain or loss of the hitchhiker is determined by its adjacent driver gene during the birth-and-death evolutionary process. © 2014 Cheng et al.

Zhang Y.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology | Duan B.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology | Xian J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Korpelainen H.,University of Helsinki | Li C.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2011

In all, 48 sites of subalpine coniferous forest that had undergone natural regeneration for 5-310 years were selected as study locations in the Southwest China. We compared species richness (S), plant diversity (Shannon-Wiener index, H'; Margalef index, R), and above- and below-ground ecosystem carbon (C) pools of six plant communities along a chronosequence of vegetation restoration, and we also examined evidence for a functional relationship between plant diversity and C storage. Our results showed that above-ground C increased significantly (over 52-fold), mainly due to the increase of C in aboveground living plants and surface litter. Soil organic carbon (SOC) content increased from the herb community type (dominated by Deyeuxia scabrescens, P1) to mixed forest type (dominated by Betula spp. and Abies faxoniana, P4), which constituted the main C pool of the system (63-89%), but decreased thereafter (communities P5-P6). The mean C stock in the whole ecosystem - trees, litter layer and mineral soil - ranged from 105 to 730MgCha-1 and was especially high in the spruce forest community type (dominated by Picea purpurea, P6). On the other hand, the relationships between C stocks (soil, aboveground) and mean annual temperature or altitude were generally weak (P>0.05). Moreover, we did not detect a relationship between S and aboveground C storage, while we found a significant negative relationship between H', R and aboveground C storage. In addition, our experiment demonstrated that total root biomass and litter C/N ratio were significant functional traits influencing SOC, while S, R, and H' had little effect. Path analysis also revealed that litter C/N ratio predominantly regulated SOC through changes in the quantity of microorganisms and soil invertase enzyme activity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Fan X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Sha L.-N.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zeng J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Kang H.-Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The level and pattern of nucleotide variation in duplicate gene provide important information on the evolutionary history of polyploids and divergent process between homoeologous loci within lineages. Kengyilia is a group of allohexaploid species with the StYP genomic constitutions in the wheat tribe. To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the Pgk1 gene in Kengyilia and its diploid relatives, three copies of Pgk1 homoeologues were isolated from all sampled hexaploid Kengyilia species and analyzed with the Pgk1 sequences from 47 diploid taxa representing 18 basic genomes in Triticeae. Sequence diversity patterns and genealogical analysis suggested that (1) Kengyilia species from the Central Asia and the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau have independent origins with geographically differentiated P genome donors and diverged levels of nucleotide diversity at Pgk1 locus; (2) a relatively long-time sweep event has allowed the Pgk1 gene within Agropyron to adapt to cold climate triggered by the recent uplifts of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; (3) sweep event and population expansion might result in the difference in the d N/d S value of the Pgk1 gene in allopatric Agropyron populations, and this difference may be genetically transmitted to Kengyilia lineages via independent polyploidization events; (4) an 83 bp MITE element insertion has shaped the Pgk1 loci in the P genome lineage with different geographical regions; (5) the St and P genomes in Kengyilia were donated by Pseudoroegneria and Agropyron, respectively, and the Y genome is closely related to the Xp genome of Peridictyon sanctum. The interplay of evolutionary forces involving diverged natural selection, population expansion, and transposable events in geographically differentiated P genome donors could attribute to geographical differentiation of Kengyilia species via independent origins. © 2012 Fan et al.

Wang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li S.G.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

In order to understand the transmission mechanism at human tissue of near-infrared square-wave pulse (NIRSP), an experimental study of the duty ratio threshold for regular transmission at the fingertip and palm of human hand by NIRSP was carried out by using a couple of simple transmitting and receiving device with tunable duty ratios, and also the light emitting diodes (LED) both at the wavelengths of 850 nm and 940 nm. The thresholds were determined by measuring the waveforms of the changed voltages of NIRSP receiving system as a measurement of the transmission at human tissue. When the receiving waveforms were taken on the certain behavior as the emitting waveforms, the duty ratio threshold for regular transmission at human tissue of NIRSP was observed. The experimental results show that the duty ratio is an important index for the transmission at human tissue of NIRSP. And the duty ratio thresholds for regular transmission both at the fingertip and palm of NIRSP at the wavelength of 850 nm and 940 nm have been given. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Wang Y.,China Agricultural University | He T.,China Agricultural University | Han J.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Wang J.,China Institute of Veterinary Drugs Control | And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2012

The aim of this study is to characterize the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in Escherichia coli from captive non-human primates. A total of 206 E. coli isolates were collected from primates in six zoos in China in 2009 and their susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials were tested by broth microdilution. The susceptibility patterns of E. coli strains varied greatly among different zoos reflecting different backgrounds of antimicrobial usage. Both the ESBL-encoding genes and the PMQR genes were detected by PCR. Of the 206 strains, 65 (32%) were confirmed as phenotypic ESBL producers with bla CTX-M (27%, bla CTX-M-15, n=31, bla CTX-M-3, n=23 and bla CTX-M-14, n=2) mainly mediating the ESBL phenotype. qnrS1 (18%, n=36) and oqxAB (15%, n=31) were the predominant PMQR genes and the prevalence of PMQR genes was much higher among phenotypic ESBL producers than that among phenotypic non-ESBL producers from any zoo. Notably, the PMQR genes qnrS1 and oqxAB and β-lactamase genes bla TEM-1 and bla CTX-M-3 were found together in 23 E. coli isolates in two zoos in Shanghai. PFGE analysis of these 23 isolates demonstrated nearly identical PFGE profiles (similarity matrix >97%) indicating this specific E. coli genotype was prevalent in these two zoos. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of these four genes coexisting in an E. coli genotype and the first report of antimicrobial resistance profiles in E. coli isolated from primates in China. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and nuclear export signals (NESs) are important intramolecular regulatory elements for protein nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. This regulation confers spatial specificity to signal initiation and transduction in eukaryotic cells and thus is fundamental to the viability of all eukaryotic organisms. Here, we developed a simple and rapid method in which activity of putative NLSs or NESs was reported by subcellular localization of two tandem fluorescent proteins in fusion with the respective NLSs or NESs after agroinfiltration-mediated transient expression in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana (Nb). We further demonstrated that the predicted NES from amino acid residue (aa) 9 to 22 and the NLS from aa91 to 101 in the broad-spectrum disease resistance protein RPW8.2 possess nuclear export and import activity, respectively. Additionally, by testing overlapping fragments covering the full length of RPW8.2, we identified another NLS from aa65 to 74 with strong nuclear import activity and two tandem non-canonical NESs in the C-terminus with strong nuclear export activity. Taken together, our results demonstrated the utility of a simple method to evaluate potential NLSs and NESs in plant cells and suggested that RPW8.2 may be subject to opposing nucleocytoplasmic trafficking forces for its subcellular localization and functional execution.

Deng F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen S.-Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Journal of Computational Biology | Year: 2016

In RNA-Seq studies, there are still many challenges for reliably assembling transcripts. Both genome-guided and de novo methods always produce too many false transcripts because of known and unknown factors. Therefore, the postassembly quality filtering is necessary before performing downstream analyses. Here, we present an automatic and efficient tool of dbHT-Trans for filtering the protein-encoding transcripts assembled by RNA-Seq. For each candidate transcript, we first deduced all potential open reading frames and translated them into amino acid sequences. By searching against the reference protein database, a transcript would be predicted a false one when it has no homologous sequence. Using this method, it is expected to filter out the falsely assembled transcripts of protein-encoding genes. Application of dbHT-Trans to the annotated transcriptome of mouse revealed that the sensitivity was almost 90% for recalling protein-encoding transcripts. After this quality filtering, the numbers of assembled genes became more consistent between Cufflinks and Trinity tools. To significantly decrease the data storage, we transformed all intermediate data into descriptive metadata and stored by the MySQL database, which will be utilized by downstream analyses in a real-time style. The source codes, example data, and manual of dbHT-Trans are freely available on the GitHub repository. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016.

Du J.,Sichuan University | Sun X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen J.,State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Chemistry | Zhang L.,University of Sichuan | Jiang G.,University of Sichuan
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2014

A high-stability icosahedral cluster (Ta12 2+) with spherical aromaticity was found within a DFT framework. The spherical aromaticity of the icosahedral Ta12 2+ cluster was confirmed by a high symmetry, a short bond length, a high vibrational frequency, a large HOMO-LUMO gap and negative NICS(0) values. The icosahedral Ta 12 2+ cluster is the first example of a bare metal cluster with a total of 58 valence electrons. The electron density topological analyses (QTAIM and ELF) indicate that three-center shared interactions exist in the icosahedral structure. The IR and absorption spectra were theoretically simulated as a convenient way to confirm the existence of the icosahedral structure in further experiments. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Wang A.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu F.-Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang W.-Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu Z.-C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2012

Real-time qPCR and clone library sequencing targeting amoA genes were used to investigate the seasonal dynamics of an ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) community in an alpine fir forest in western China. AOA were detected at all sampling dates, and there were significant variations in archaeal amoA gene copy numbers (7.63 × 105 to 8.35 × 108 per gram of dry soil) throughout the nongrowing season. Compared with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), the AOA displayed a higher abundance on the majority of sampling dates during the freeze-thaw period. All of the AOA sequences fell within soil and sediment lineages and were affiliated with 7 clusters. Compared with the other clusters, cluster 1 was more sensitive to low temperature and was the dominant group in August. In contrast, cluster 3 dominated the AOA community in winter and probably represents a group of cold-adapted archaea. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the seasonality of the AOA community was mainly attributed to changes in soil temperature and nutrient availability (e.g., dissolved organic nitrogen and carbon). Our results indicate that AOA exist in frozen soils in the alpine coniferous forest ecosystem of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Moreover, soil temperature may directly and (or) indirectly affect AOA abundance and composition and may further influence the soil N cycle during the winter.

Huang Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yu B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen D.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2012

Stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING), also known as MPYS/MITA/ERIS/TMEM173, is a recently discovered adaptor protein that functions downstream of RIG-I and upstream of TBK1 and plays an important role in type I interferon (IFN) production. Mammalian STINGs have been isolated from human, mouse, pig, cattle and chimpanzee. In this study, the rat STING cDNA was cloned by degenerate PCR and rapid amplification of 3'-cDNA ends (3'-RACE) strategies. The full-length cDNA of rat STING consists of 1615. bp with a 1140-bp open reading frame (ORF). The predicted protein is composed of 379 amino acids and contains 2 putative transmembrane domains. The amino acid similarities between the STING from rat and other mammals range from 68% to 82%. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that rat STING mRNA was most abundant in the spleen, pancreas and lymph node. Overexpression of rat STING led to upregulation of IFN-β mRNA expression in IEC-6 cells. Rat STING mRNA was up-regulated when IEC-6 cells were transfected with poly (I:C). In addition, a miR-24 binding site in the 3'UTR of rat STING was identified. We also found that endogenous STING could be regulated post-transcriptionally by miR-24 in IEC-6 cells. These results are of importance to reveal the biological function of STING in rat animal model. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhao H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Tang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

We previously determined the effects of dietary selenium (Se) deficiency or excess on mRNA abundance of 12 selenoprotein genes in pig tissues. In this study, we determined the effect of dietary Se on mRNA levels of the remaining porcine selenoprotein genes along with protein production of 4 selenoproteins (Gpx1, Sepp1, Selh, and Sels) and body glucose homeostasis. Weanling male pigs (n = 24) were fed a Se-deficient (<0.02 mg Se/kg), basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.3, or 3.0 mg Se/kg as Se-enriched yeast (Angel Yeast) for 16 wk. Although mRNA abundance of the 13 selenoproteins in 10 tissues responded to dietary Se in 3 patterns, there was no common regulation for any given gene across all tissues or for any given tissue across all genes. Dietary Se affected (P < 0.05) 2, 3, 3, 5, 6, 7, 7, and 8 selenoprotein genes in muscle, hypothalamus, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, thyroid, and pituitary, respectively. Protein abundance of Gpx1, Sepp1, Selh, and Sels in 6 tissues was regulated (P < 0.05) by dietary Se concentrations in 3 ways. Compared with those fed 0.3 mg Se/kg, pigs fed 3.0 mg Se/kg became hyperinsulinemic (P < 0.05) and had lower (P < 0.05) tissue levels of serine/threonine protein kinase. In conclusion, dietary Se exerted no global regulation of gene transcripts or protein levels of individual selenoproteins across porcine tissues. Pigs may be a good model for studying mechanisms related to the potential prodiabetic risk of high-Se intake in humans. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.

Li Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

In this paper, using the variational principle of multiple two functions establishes the extremal function model of new media Internet network nodes, and the integration of Internet resources is realized by INON network node overlapping technology and P2P technology. Through the integration of Internet moral education resources in colleges, this paper carries out statistics the failure rate of computer resources, when the statistical number is 1000, the failure rate will reach the lowest, and its value is 0.2; when the statistical number is 6000, the failure rate will reach the highest, its value is 1.6. The simulation experiment has been the time curve of Internet moral education resources integration, when a number is 3000 and 4000, the required time is relatively large, and the other number required time is relatively small, which is consistent with the theory, so as to verify the reliability of multiple two variational algorithm and model. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Hu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

With the economic and social development, the classified cultivation of graduate students is the inevitable requirement of high-level personnel supply, and at the same time, it is the opportunity for the self-improvement and self-renewal of higher education. In this paper, the present situation and the problems of the classification training of graduate student are analyzed.Taking the graduate training practice of Sichuan agricultural university as an example. The paper discusses about how to improve the quality of graduate student education more effectively and the comprehensive ability of applied graduate students. Finally this paper comes up with the classified collaborative training mode. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Li R.,China Agricultural University | Lai J.,China Agricultural University | Wang Y.,China Agricultural University | Liu S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of Salmonella isolated from different parts of the food production chain, and to characterize these isolates. A total of 165 Salmonella enterica isolates were identified from 1382 samples taken from conventional farms, abattoirs and retail markets from 2010 to 2011 in Sichuan, China. The Salmonella isolates were assayed for serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility, prevalence of class 1 integrons and β-lactamase genes, and subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Among these isolates, S. enterica serotypes Derby (76 isolates, 46%) and Typhimurium (16 isolates, 10%) were the most prevalent, and high antimicrobial resistance rates were observed for tetracycline (77%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (43%), nalidixic acid (41%) and spectinomycin (41%). Class 1 integrons were detected in 21% of these isolates, and contained gene cassettes dfrA12-aadA2, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA1, blaPSE-1 and dfrA1/aadA2. blaOXA-1 was the most commonly identified β-lactamase gene (n=14), followed by blaTEM-1 (n=6), blaPSE-1 (n=4) and blaCMY-2 (n=1). A S. enterica serotype Indiana isolate derived from chicken from a market was positive for both blaOXA-1 and blaCMY-2, and resistant to nine tested antibiotics. The PFGE patterns were diverse. Our findings indicated that most isolates from different sampling sites were phenotypically and genetically diverse, and Salmonella was widespread and may transmit along the food production chain from farm to market. Isolates with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, which are used to fight foodborne Salmonella, pose a serious threat to public health. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Xu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Lu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xie C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Gao S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

Molecular breeding for complex traits in crop plants requires understanding and manipulation of many factors influencing plant growth, development and responses to an array of biotic and abiotic stresses. Molecular marker-assisted breeding procedures can be facilitated and revolutionized through whole-genome strategies, which utilize full genome sequencing and genome-wide molecular markers to effectively address various genomic and environmental factors through a representative or complete set of genetic resources and breeding materials. These strategies are now increasingly based on understanding of specific genomic regions, genes/alleles, haplotypes, linkage disequilibrium (LD) block(s), gene networks and their contribution to specific phenotypes. Large-scale and high-density genotyping and genome-wide selection are two important components of these strategies. As components of whole-genome strategies, molecular breeding platforms and methodologies should be backed up by high throughput and precision phenotyping and e-typing (environmental assay) with strong support systems such as breeding informatics and decision support tools. Some basic strategies are discussed in this article, including (1) seed DNA-based genotyping for simplifying marker-assisted selection (MAS), reducing breeding cost and increasing scale and efficiency, (2) selective genotyping and phenotyping, combined with pooled DNA analysis, for capturing the most important contributing factors, (3) flexible genotyping systems, such as genotyping by sequencing and arraying, refined for different selection methods including MAS, marker-assisted recurrent selection and genomic selection (GS), (4) marker-trait association analysis using joint linkage and LD mapping, and (5) sequence-based strategies for marker development, allele mining, gene discovery and molecular breeding. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Yuan B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cheng A.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Future Microbiology | Year: 2013

Polysaccharide export outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria are involved in the export of polysaccharides across the outer membrane. The mechanisms of polysaccharide export across the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria are not yet completely clear. However, the mechanisms of polysaccharide assembly in Escherichia coli have been intensively investigated. Here, we mainly review the current understanding of the assembly mechanisms of group 1 capsular polysaccharide, group 2 capsular polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide of E. coli, and the current structures and interactions of some polysaccharide export outer membrane proteins with other proteins involved in polysaccharide export in Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, LptD may be targeted by peptidomimetic antibiotics in Gram-negative bacteria. We also give insights into the directions of future research regarding the mechanisms of polysaccharide export. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

Yang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

Performance of college badminton team is affected by the quality of mental adaptability and great influence, sports team strong physique alone, sufficient physical fitness and high technology has not won, the key to success often depends on the psychological spot performance. In this study, fully aware of the need for mental skills training at the same time, will increase the university badminton players training in psychological skills and teaching methods into three dimensions, capacity under pressure, concentration, and imagery training to be able to Training and education, and we hope it would play a role. A well-matched and fierce competition has the constantly changing conditions, which takes many to and fro and shifts between active advantage and passive one. The final winner can not be determined unless the real ending of the competition. The sports game consists of competitors, referees, audiences, venues and equipments, facilities, meteorological condition and other factors. Each of these factors can influence the performance of competition. It is believed that the competitors have the exciting, nervous, uncomfortable experience as long as they compete in the sports games. Therefore, usually we can find that one competitor with powerful technique and sufficient affirmation in winning yet has repeatedly bad performances because his or her lower degree of stability and poor resistance to pressure on-the-spot. In fact, for university student badminton team members, their psychological element is the key for bearing sports pressure with high strength and high load. In recent years, the professional coaches know enough the great influence of psychological skills training on sports competitors so that they bring into it in their training plans. So, the psychological skill training becomes one of the most elements in training. Generally speaking, for the primary team member, physical agility and skill training take 70% and psychological skill training 30%; for the training of high level sports team member, this ratio is just the reverse: physical agility and skill training 30% and psychological skill training 70%. The university student team members who can take part in match as representatives are usually in compulsory education period or practice the badminton for a long time even accept the professional training belong to the high level team members. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Hu G.,Chongqing University | Fan J.,Chongqing University | Fan J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xian Z.,Chongqing University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2014

Versatile roles of REVOLUTA (REV), a Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP III) transcription factor, have been depicted mainly in Arabidopsis and Populus. In this study, we investigated the functions of its tomato homolog, namely SlREV. Overexpression of a microRNA166-resistant version of SlREV (35S::REVRis) not only resulted in vegetative abnormalities such as curly leaves and fasciated stems, but also caused dramatic reproductive alterations including continuous production of flowers at the pedicel abscission zone (AZ) and ectopic fruit formation on receptacles. Microscopic analysis showed that meristem-like structures continuously emerged from the exodermises of the pedicel AZs and that ectopic carpels formed between the first and second whorl of floral buds in 35S::REVRis plants. Transcriptional data suggest that SlREV may regulate genes related to meristem maintenance and cell differentiation in the development of the flower pedicel abscission zone, and modulate genes in homeodomain and MADS-box families and hormone pathways during fruit formation. Altogether, these results reveal novel roles of SlREV in tomato flower development and fruit formation. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Zhao X.-Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu X.-H.,Nankai University | Zhao B.,Nankai University
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2013

A series of lanthanide-based organic frameworks with formulas of {[PrL(H2O)2]·2H2O}n (1) and {[Ln3L3(H2O)2]·2H 2O}n (Ln = Eu (2), Gd (3), Tb (4), Dy (5), Ho (6), Er (7); H3L = 4-(carboxymethoxy)isophthalic acid), were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. It is the first time that 4-(carboxymethoxy)isophthalic acid is employed in producing lanthanide compounds. The seven compounds exhibit two types of structures with the decreasing radius of the lanthanide ions, representing the lanthanide contraction effect. Compound 1 with the large Pr3+ ion displays a 2D layered structure with a binodal (4,4)-connected topology with the Schläfli symbol of (3363)2, whereas compounds 2-7 with small Ln3+ ions feature a 3D framework constructed from carboxyl groups with a (5,6,8)-connected topology with the Schläfli symbol of (324454)·(344 45463)·(34485 6698). The luminescence and magnetic properties were investigated, and the results indicate that the H3L ligand can sensitize the lanthanide luminescence in compounds 2, 4 and 5 and makes a contribution to the antiferromagnetic interactions in compound 3 or the uncertain magnetic interactions in compounds 4-7. Additionally, the thermal analyses suggest the high thermal stability of compounds 1-7. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Yang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang X.,Duke University | Yang X.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Lin S.,Duke University | Wiesner M.R.,Duke University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2014

Interactions between organic matter (OM) and engineered polymer coatings as they affect the retention of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were studied. Two distinct types of OM-cysteine representing low molecular weight multivalent functional groups, and Suwannee River Humic Acid (HA) representing high molecular weight polymers, were investigated with respect to their effects on particle stability in aggregation and deposition. Aggregation of the PVP coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) was enhanced by cysteine addition at high ionic strengths, which was attributed to cysteine binding to the AgNPs and replacing the otherwise steric stabilizing agent PVP. In contrast the addition of HA did not increase aggregation rates and decreased PVP-AgNP deposition to the silica porous medium, consistent with enhanced electrosteric stabilization by the HA. Although cysteine also reduced deposition in the porous medium, the mechanisms of reduced deposition appear to be enhanced electric double layer (EDL) interaction at low ionic strengths. At higher ionic strengths, aggregation was favored leading to lower deposition due to smaller diffusion coefficients and single collector efficiencies despite the reduced EDL interactions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Shen F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xiao W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lin L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

In order to recycle the cotton-based waste textiles, a novel process was designed for pretreating waste textiles with phosphoric acid to recover polyester and fermentable sugar. The effects of pretreatment conditions including, phosphoric acid concentration, pretreatment temperature, time, and ratio of textiles and phosphoric acid were thoroughly investigated. Results indicated the mentioned four factors had significant influences on sugar and polyester recovery. Almost complete polyester recovery was achieved by enhancing phosphoric acid concentration, temperature and pretreatment time or reducing the ratio of textiles and phosphoric acid. However, these behaviors decreased the sugar recovery seriously. 100% polyester recovery with a maximum sugar recovery of 79.2% was achieved at the optimized conditions (85% phosphoric acid, 50 °C, 7. h, and the ratio of 1:15). According to the technical and cost-benefit analysis, it was technically feasible and potentially profitable to recover polyester and sugar from waste textiles by phosphoric acid pretreatment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Zheng Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li T.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2011

Soil anti-erodibility is one of the important parameters for evaluating the ability of soil resistance to soil erosion. Based on the comprehensive investigation on soil physical and chemical, and incorporated into bioindicator, the soil anti-erodibility was investigated with five de-farming patterns including conversion of farmland to Chinese fir plantation, conversion of farmland to eucalyptus plantation, conversion of farmland to loquat orchard, conversion of farmland to tea plantation and conversion of farmland to abandoned land by the method of field investigation and laboratory analysis on the hilly region of Western Sichuan in China. The results showed that all the 19 anti-erodibility indices could be optimized to 6 indices which were water-stable aggregates at size >0.25 mm, average weighted diameter, destructive rate of aggregates at size >0.25 mm, destructive rate of aggregates at size >0.5 mm, soil organic matter and acid phosphatase. The order of principal component analysis(PCA) comprehensive exponent of soil anti-erodibility followed that conversion of farmland to Chinese fir plantation > conversion of farmland to eucalyptus plantation > conversion of farmland to loquat orchard > conversion of farmland to tea plantation > conversion of farmland to abandoned land. Based on the 6 optimal indices of soil anti-erodibility, discriminant functions were established with different de-farming patterns. Discriminant functions included three levels of good, medium and poor soil anti-erodibility and total discriminant probability was 96.7%. So, three models could be used to evaluate soil anti-erodibility exactly in this area. The results can provide theory basis for improving index system of soil anti-erodibility and evaluating soil anti-erodibility of de-farming regions.

Xuan Y.,University of Sichuan | Yunchen W.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Proceedings of International Conference on Service Science, ICSS | Year: 2016

Under the 'new normal' of the development in financial services, high-quality of customer service experience is the core product of commercial banks, but also the determinant of new driver for competitive position in commercial bank industry. Based on the perspective of internal marketing, this study has taken 206 front-line employees in commercial banks as research samples and analyzed the impact of commercial banks' internal service quality on service performance. The study suggests that internal service quality has a positive effect on the service performance of front-line employees. Job satisfaction has a mediating effect between internal service quality and service performance, and trust has a moderating effect between internal service quality and service performance. This study has opened a black box (internal service quality → service performance), which would provide some theoretical support for the commercial banks to upraise the front-line employees' satisfaction and improve their service performance. © 2015 IEEE.

Chen L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2011

Effects of constant temperature heating with microwave on the quality of peanuts were studied. In order to probe the advantage and applications of microwave heating with constant temperature control, peanuts was taken as testing material to compare the difference of drying quality with conventional gradient microwave heating and microwave heating with constant temperature. Results showed that the drying quality of peanuts by microwave heating with constant temperature was much better than that of drying by conventional gradient microwave, the later would easily cause burned products and skin leveling off. The results proved that the microwave heating with constant temperature could ensure the maximum quality of dried peanuts when the microwave power was 1.20 W/g and the temperature was between 45-50°C.

Xin X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

In this paper, using UML modeling tool (Rational Rose) conducted a needs analysis and modeling system, and on this basis, we design the interface module functions, system architecture and database. The paper finally designed and realized the system based on the.NET platform and Ajax technology. The system uses SQL Server as the background data management system, and in the end using ADO.NET technology to realize data access. According to the actual scientific research management, system design includes integrated office, scientific research institutions, scientific research personnel, research projects and other subsystems. the majority of teachers and the laboratory research team can within the prescribed time limit, in any location by logging into the science and Technology Department of scientific research project management webpage query declaration, provides great convenience for research teachers. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Xin X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

With the rapid development and wide application of network technology, information security issues are increasingly highlighted, received more and more attention. This article introduces the present situation of network information security, discusses the connotation of network information security, and analyzes the main threat to the security of the network information. And we separately detailed description of the data monitoring platform architecture from the data layer, network layer and presentation layer three levels, focuses on the functional structure of intelligent database platform, and puts forward to measures that ensure the safety of the platform and the internal data security. Through the design of the platform to improve the information security system has certain significance. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Du B.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

This paper analyzed to build the system used in ASP technology, network database technology, Web technology, database connectivity, VBScript and JavaScript, IIS technology. According to the system function modules to achieve an overall system design, detail the system architecture and functional modules for each function to be concrete implementation. As well as the detailed design of the system introduced various types of function modules of the implementation process. Finally from the data transmission encryption, improved MD5 password encryption, server configuration and other aspects of introducing the safety measures taken by the system, and system testing and operation have been summarized and analyzed in order to better refine and improve the future system. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Shen F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhong Y.,University of Sichuan | Saddler J.N.,University of British Columbia | Liu R.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) was steam pretreated in the conditions of 190 °C for 5 min to assess its amenability to the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Results showed that pretreatment conditions were robust enough to pretreat SSB with maximum of 87% glucan and 72% xylan recovery. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis showed that the pretreated SSB at 2% substrate consistency resulted in maximum of 70% glucan-glucose conversion. Increasing substrate consistency from 2% to 16% led to a significant reduction in glucan conversion. However, the decrease ratio of glucan-glucose conversion was the minimum when the consistency increased from 2% to 12%. When the pretreated SSB consistency of 12% was applied for hydrolysis, increase in cellulase loading from 7.5 up to 20 filter paper units (FPU)/g glucan resulted only in 14% increase in glucan-glucose conversion compared to 20% increase with cellulase loading varying from 2.5 to 7.5 FPU/g glucan. More than 10 cellobiase units (CBU)/g glucan β-glucosidase supplementation had no noticeable improvement on glucan-glucose conversion. Additionally, supplementation of xylanase was found to significantly increase glucan-glucose conversion from 50% to 80% with the substrate consistency of 12%, when the cellulase and β-glucosidase loadings were at relatively low enzyme loadings (7.5 FPU/g and 10 CBU/g glucan). It appeared that residual xylan played a critical role in hindering the ease of hydrolysis of SSB. A proper xylanase addition was suggested to achieve a high hydrolysis yield at relatively high substrate consistency with relatively low enzyme loadings. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Shen F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Kumar L.,University of British Columbia | Hu J.,University of British Columbia | Saddler J.N.,University of British Columbia
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Steam-pretreated sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) and Douglas-fir (DF) were employed for SHF and SSF to evaluate the effects of xylanase supplementation and delignification on ethanol production. Results indicated final ethanol concentration in SHF could reach 28.4. g/L (SSB) and 20.4. g/L (DF) by xylanase supplementation with the increase of 46% and 61% in comparison with controls. The delignification could significantly enhance final ethanol concentration to 31.2. g/L (SSB) and 30.2. g/L (DF) with the increase of 61% and 138%. In SSF, final ethanol concentration in the delignified SSB and DF arrived at 27.6. g/L and 34.3. g/L with the increase of 26% and 157% compared with controls. However, only 2.2. g/L (SSB) and 6.9. g/L (DF) ethanol were obtained with xylanase supplementation. According to these results, it could be concluded that delignification was beneficial to improve ethanol production of SHF and SSF. The xylanase supplementation (0.12. g protein/g glucan) was only positive to SHF while retarded SSF seriously. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Chen D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Gan L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

Based on multi-spectrum satellite remote sensing (RS) images and GIS, the evolution characteristics of Irtysh River in Xinjiang were analyzed. The results show that the Irtysh River is a composite meander integrated by valley meander and free meander according to the geomorphic features formed by meandering. Judging from the characteristics of this river, the average slope of riverbeds is 0.5188 %; the average curvature is 1.72. By observing dry oxbow lake sites, right bank swung more violently than left bank in historical period. Since 1972, 23 reaches were cutoff; 15 reaches' concave banks expanded; 55 tributaries broke away from the main riverway because of flow cutoff; 94 reaches moved to downstream. These changes increased sharply since 1997 after the construction of key water control project in the upstream of the Irtysh River. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Chen D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

The Vegetation Characteristics Model is based on the principle of DTM. The property values is the data of forest coverage of every small spot of forestry, By spatial interpolation, we can access continuous, accurate characteristic values of the data model which covers the entire forest farm forestry. This article describes three interpolation methods in detail. They are used to build Vegetation Characteristics Model, are compared each other. we can get the final conclusion: Inverse distance weighting method produces samples of the surface does not exceed the maximum and minimum data; if less sample points, using the Kriging interpolation method, we need to add some sample points in those changing areas; Spline, the main problem is when the area is lack of data, then there will be "steep slopes", it is often referred to as "overshoot" ,this model does not work effectively. The Vegetation Characteristics Model can simulate the surface of the real situation in the forest region. This model can support spatial data for Forestry production, management and spatial analysis. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Hu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cheng A.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

This report showed some physicochemical properties and structural features about DPV-UL13 protein predicted by some software and online tools. The online analysis of the physicochemical properties demonstrates that the protein has thirty-four potential phosphorylation sites when the threshold of prediction score is above 0.5 and both the signal peptide and the transmembrance region are not found. In addition, the protein has hydrophilic amine acid districts more than hydrophobic districts and subcellular localization largely locates at mitochondrial with 43.5%. The secondary structure results revealed that random coils dominated among secondary structure elements followed by alpha helix and extended strand. The phylogenetic tree shows that DPV-UL13 protein has close evolutionary relationship with the genus Mardivirus. And the multiple sequences alignment of UL13 protein in 156-436 sequence among DPV, HSV-1 and Mardivirus genus suggests highly conserved characteristic. These analysis surpports the guess that DPV-UL13 product may be a Ser/Thr protein kinase. All the data will be a basis for the further functional study of the DPV-UL13 protein.

Hu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cheng A.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

A comprehensive analysis of codon usage bias of DPV UL13 gene (GenBank Accession No. EU195098) was performed to provide a basis for understanding the relevant mechanism for its biased usage of synonymous codons and for selecting suitable expression systems to improve the expression of UL13 genes. Our study showed that codon usage bias of DPV UL13 gene strongly prefered to the synonymous with A and T at the third codon position. And ENC value and GC3s contents of the codon usage bias of UL13 gene in DPV were significantly different compared with those in other 21 reference herpesviruses. The phylogentic analysis about the putative protein of DPV UL13 and the 21 reference herpesviruses revealed that DPV was evolutionarily closer to the AnHV-1. In addition, the codon usage bias of DPV UL13 gene was compared with those of E. coli, yeast and human. There are 23 codons showing distinct usage differences between DPV and E. coli, 12 codons between DPV and yeast, 21 codons between DPV and human. Therefore, the yeast expression system is more appropriate for heterologous expression of the DPV UL13 gene.

Gao J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cheng A.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

Currently, the serious Duck virus enteritis(DVE)causes heavy loss on waterfowl Agriculture all over the world. This badly contagion is caused by one of the herpesviruses-duck enteritis virus(DEV). Our laboratory had identified and sequenced the DEV-US2 gene, one of the conservative genes of this viral genome. It is generally recognised that bioinformatics analysis plays a important role in the study of genes and proteins. Here in this article we intend to report some bioinformation about the nucleotide sequence of this gene for further research. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Gao J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cheng A.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

Us2 protein encoded by the DEV-US2 gene is one of the DEV tegument proteins. Like most members of the alphaherpesvirinae, the genes in the US region of its genome are well conserved, which means that both the major DEV protein Us2 and alphaherpesvirinae protein Us2 possess the similar functions. Us2 protein sequence analysis indicates that the protein possesses typical characteristics of tegument protein. The precursor Us2 consists of 239 amino acids and exhibits a molecular mass of 34 kDa. In conclusion, all the datas and consequences will provide a basis for further functional study of the DEV-Us2 protein and provide necessary datas for the new type clinical diagnosis of DEV and the development of new DEV vaccine. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Jiang W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang W.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Chen X.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Industrial Management and Data Systems | Year: 2016

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the manufacturer's production, pricing and green technology investment decision problem when strategic customer behavior and carbon emissionssensitive random demand is taken into consideration and discuss the impact of carbon emissions-sensitive demand on the manufacturer's operation strategies, total carbon emissions and maximum expected profit. Design/methodology/approach - The authors formulate a model to introduce carbon emissionssensitive demand into the newsvendor framework with strategic customer behavior. The authors characterize the rational expectations equilibrium to derive the optimal solutions to the manufacturer. The authors analyze the effects of carbon emissions-sensitive demand on the manufacturer's optimal strategies, total carbon emissions and maximum expected profit by comparative analysis. Findings - The authors obtain the manufacturer's optimal production, pricing and green technology investment strategies under rational expectations equilibrium in scenario of price-sensitive demand and that of carbon emissions-sensitive demand, respectively. The authors find that as customer demand changes from price-sensitive demand to carbon emissions-sensitive demand, the manufacturer's optimal prices are the same but optimal production quantity, optimal unit carbon emissions and maximum expected profit go down. Though the total emissions decrease, the carbon emissions reduction would not increase as the demand is more carbon emissions-sensitive. Whether it increases or decreases depends on the model parameters. Originality/value - Carbon emissions-sensitive demand and strategic customer behavior are considered simultaneously in an integrated model. The result can guide the manufacturer decision-making. The proposed model are hoped to shed light to the future works in the field of sustainable supply chain management. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Ma J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering | Year: 2012

During the last decade, DNA mutations in the porcine ryanodine receptor 1 gene (RYR1, C1843T) and the estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1, T1665G), have been widely used in marker-Assisted selection (MAS) for the pig industry. These 2 well-characterized SNPs in RYR1 and ESR1 are responsible for porcine stress syndrome (PSS) and litter size, respectively. Here, we describe a reliable, high-efficiency method for the genotyping of these 2 genes using the high-resolution melting (HRM) method. The HRM approach exhibited high-Accuracy and repeatability, comparable with the classic PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) approach, and is potentially suitable for large-scale genotyping in commercial pig farms. © The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering and Springer 2012.

Burgess D.G.,University of California at Berkeley | Xu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Freeling M.,University of California at Berkeley
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2015

The plant gene model remains largely an extrapolation from animals, with the cis functional unit, the gene, cast as a dynamic looping structure. Molecular genetics with model plants continues to make advances; highlighted here are quantitative-occupancy results from the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH transcription Factors (PIF) quartet. Compared to this complex snapshot, results from chromatin occupancy and other Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE)-like approaches increase our transcription factor-motif cognate library, but regulation cannot by itself be inferred from binding. Complementary published Arabidopsis conserved noncoding sequence lists are compared, evaluated, merged, and released. Comparative genomic approaches have identified a cis modifier of a gene's expression. -. hypothetically, a transposon-based 'rheostat'. -. that works in all cells, times and places. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhou M.-L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou M.-L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhou M.-L.,Leiden University | Zhu X.-M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

In the past three decades, hairy roots research for the production of valuable biological active substances has received a lot of attention. The addition of knowledge to enhance the yields of desired substances and the development of novel tools for biomass engineering offer new possibilities for large-scale cultivation of the plant hairy root. Hairy roots can also produce recombinant proteins through the transfer of Agrobacterium T-DNA into the plant genome, and thereby hold immense potential for the pharmaceutical industry. This review highlights some of the significant progress made in the past few years and outlines future prospects for exploiting the potential utility of hairy root cultures as "chemical factories" for producing bioactive substances. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Zhou G.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Proceeding of 2012 International Conference on Information Management, Innovation Management and Industrial Engineering, ICIII 2012 | Year: 2012

The development of rural tourism market is an effective way to realize the inclusive growth. It is indicated from the domestic tourism development situation that the rural tourism market has not realized an essential development. Based on an analysis for the reasons restraining the rural tourism development, the ways to realize the inclusive growth in rural tourism are obtained: insist on the scientific outlook on development, and set up a social security mechanism which is beneficial for rural tourism market development; change the consumption concept, actively create wealth, and create the realization conditions of peasantry tourism; and set up the inclusive outlook on tourism development, and develop the products systems which are suitable to rural tourism. © 2012 IEEE.

Tang Q.Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Feng L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang W.D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2013

To investigate the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on fish growth, digestive and absorptive enzyme activities, and antioxidant status in the hepatopancreas and intestine, young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (282±2.8 g) were fed six diets containing 0.74 (basal diet), 2.26, 3.75, 5.25, 6.70, and 8.33 mg Cu /kg diet for 8 weeks. Results showed that percentage weight gain (PWG) and feed intake were increased with dietary Cu levels up to 3.75 mg/kg diet. In addition, the positive effects of dietary Cu at a level 3.75 or 5.25 mg/kg diet on trypsin, chymotrypsin, and lipase activities in the hepatopancreas and of Na+, K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in three intestine segments produced significantly (P<0.05) better feed efficiency (FE). However, amylase activity in the hepatopancreas was decreased by dietary Cu levels up to 3.75 mg/kg diet (P<0.05). In addition, dietary Cu at 3.75 or 5.25 mg/kg diet decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl content partly by significantly (P<0.05) increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S- transferase, and glutathione content in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Collectively, dietary Cu improved growth and digestive and absorptive capacity and decreased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation partly by enhancing antioxidant defense in the hepatopancreas and intestine. The dietary Cu requirement for PWG, plasma ceruloplasmin activity, and FE of young grass carp (282-688 g) were 4.78, 4.95, and 4.70 mg/kg diet, respectively. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Zheng Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li W.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Paiguan Jixie Gongcheng Xuebao/Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engineering | Year: 2013

In order to clarify the change of soil water diffusivity and achieve better management of greenhouse soil and fertilizer as well as combat the secondary salinization of the soil, the variation characteristics of soil water diffusivity in 0

Wei R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Regulatory Peptides | Year: 2013

Ghrelin is an important gastrointestinal hormone involved in the regulation of feeding in both mammals and fish. In this study, the preproghrelin cDNA sequence was cloning in the gut of Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti). The preproghrelin gene, encoding 103-amino acids, was strongly expressed in the gut and brain using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR). The S. prenanti preproghrelin was detected in embryonic developmental stages. Further, it was detectable in unfertilized eggs, suggesting that ghrelin could be classified as maternal mRNA. An experiment was conducted to determine the expression profile of ghrelin during post-feeding and fasting status of the brain and gut. The results revealed a significant postprandial decrease in ghrelin mRNA expression in the gut 6. h post-feeding (hpf) and brain (1.5 and 9. hpf) compared to an unfed control group, indicating that food intake and processing affect the regulation of expression of ghrelin in S. prenanti. The constructed recombinant plasmid pMD-19. T-ghrelin was transformed to Escherichia coli BL21 and induced with IPTG, and the expressed product was identified by SDS-PAGE. The prokaryotic expression vector for ghrelin was constructed successfully, and fusion protein was expressed in E. coli BL21, which laid the foundation for the further study on the function of this protein and its mechanism. Overall, our results provide evidence for a highly conserved structure and biological actions of ghrelin in S. prenanti. Further studies are required to identify the tissue specific functions of ghrelin in S. prenanti. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Chen D.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Proceedings - 2010 International Conference on Optoelectronics and Image Processing, ICOIP 2010 | Year: 2010

This paper use the intuitionistic fuzzy value and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, based on the method of TOPSIS to select and determine the similarity function for intuitionistic fuzzy sets, and use the information entropy to calculate the weight, then use the distances from intuitionistic fuzzy sets to intuitionistic fuzzy positive ideal point (PIS) and negative ideal point (NIS), weighted and composted, finally, got the relative closeness for that need to evaluation program with the ideal point. The relative closeness is the coordination degree of enterprise node of supply chain. © 2010 IEEE.

Liang Y.,University of Cambridge | Liang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ward S.,University of Cambridge | Li P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2016

Strigolactones (SLs) are hormonal signals that regulate multiple aspects of shoot architecture, including shoot branching. Like many plant hormonal signaling systems, SLs act by promoting ubiquitination of target proteins and their subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Recently, SMXL6, SMXL7, and SMXL8, members of the SMAX1-LIKE (SMXL) family of chaperonin-like proteins, have been identified as proteolytic targets of SL signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the mechanisms by which these proteins regulate downstream events remain largely unclear. Here, we show that SMXL7 functions in the nucleus, as does the SL receptor, DWARF14 (D14). We show that nucleus-localized D14 can physically interact with both SMXL7 and the MAX2 F-box protein in a SL-dependent manner and that disruption of specific conserved domains in SMXL7 affects its localization, SL-induced degradation, and activity. By expressing and overexpressing these SMXL7 protein variants, we show that shoot tissues are broadly sensitive to SMXL7 activity, but degradation normally buffers the effect of increasing SMXL7 expression. SMXL7 contains a well-conserved EAR (ETHYLENE-RESPONSE FACTOR Amphiphilic Repression) motif, which contributes to, but is not essential for, SMXL7 functionality. Intriguingly, different developmental processes show differential sensitivity to the loss of the EAR motif, raising the possibility that there may be several distinct mechanisms at play downstream of SMXL7. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Mao L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Peng Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou A.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2013

Zinc has been shown to be an inhibitor of apoptosis for many years. The present study was designed to investigate effects of three zinc chemical forms on H2O2-induced cell apoptosis in IEC-6 cells via analysis of cell vitality, LDH activity, apoptosis percentage, caspase-3 activity, and Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3, -8, and -9 gene expression. Cells were divided into H2O2 and zinc sources+H2O2 groups, and there are three different zinc sources [zinc oxide nanoparticle (nano-ZnO), zinc oxide (ZnO), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4)] and three concentrations (normal = 25 μM, medium = 50 μM, and high = 100 μM) used in this article. In the present study, we found the striking cytotoxicity of H 2O2 higher than 200 μM on cell vitality, LDH activity, and apoptosis percentage in the cells using five different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 μM) of H2O2 for 4 h. Moreover, we observed that cell vitality was increased, LDH activity and apoptotic percentage were decreased, and gene expression level of Bax and caspase-3 and -9 was markedly reduced, while gene expression level of Bcl-2 and ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were increased in normal concentration groups of nano-ZnO and ZnSO4 compared with H2O2 group, but no significant difference was observed in caspase-8 gene expression. Furthermore, medium or, more intensely, high concentrations of nano-ZnO and ZnSO4 enhanced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis. Compared with nano-ZnO and ZnSO4, ZnO showed weakest protective effect on H 2O2-induced apoptosis at normal concentration and was less toxic to cells at high level. Taken together, we proposed that preventive and protective effects of zinc on H2O2-induced cell apoptosis varied in IEC-6 cells with its chemical forms and concentrations, and maybe for the first time, we suggested that nano-ZnO have a protective effect on H 2O2-induced cell apoptosis in IEC-6 cells. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Liao W.B.,China West Normal University | Zeng Y.,China West Normal University | Zeng Y.,Chongqing Three Gorges University | Yang J.D.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Frontiers in Zoology | Year: 2013

Background: Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is widespread and variable among animals. Sexual selection, fecundity selection and ecological divergence between males and females are the major evolutionary forces of SSD. However, the influences of mating system and habitat types on SSD have received little attention. Here, using phylogenetic comparative methods, we at first examine the hypotheses to that mating system (intensity of sexual selection) and habitat types affect significantly variation in SSD in anurans (39 species and 18 genera). Results: Our data set encompass 39 species with female-biased SSD. We provide evidence that the effects of mating system and habitat types on SSD were non-significant across species, also when the analyses were phylogenetically corrected. Conclusions: Contrast to the hypotheses, our findings suggest that mating system and habitat types do not play an important role in shaping macro-evolutionary patterns of SSD in anurans. Mating system and habitat types cannot explain the variation in SSD when correcting for phylogenetic effects. © 2013 Liao et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Luo J.-Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen D.-W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yu B.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Nutrition | Year: 2013

Objective: Essential amino acids, especially l-leucine, initiate the signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Current information on the relation between amino acid transporter mechanisms and mTORC1 signaling is sparse. The objectives of this study were to determine whether an increase in leucine availability upregulates the gene transcription and translation of amino acid transporters and other amino acid members in an mTORC1-dependent pathway that control amino acid use (general control non-repressed-2 and activating transcription factor-4) and to measure the factors related to protein synthesis and proteolysis. Methods: L6 skeletal muscle cells that had been treated with l-leucine (0.105 g/L) were incubated for 30 min to stimulate the transcription of L-type amino acid transporter-1, CD98, and sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter-2 and increase activating transcription factor-4 protein, which is dependent on the mTORC1 signaling pathway. Results: A rapid, high level of p70 S6 kinase-1 phosphorylation was detected but was suppressed by rapamycin (P < 0.05). The addition of leucine decreased the atrogin-1 transcription abundance in an insulin-involved manner (P < 0.05), which could not be completely blocked by rapamycin (P = 0.055). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the mTOR is a component of the nutrient signaling pathway, which regulates system A and L amino acid transporters, the initiation factors involved in mRNA translation, and is downstream of forkhead box-O in L6 myotubes. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Luo M.,CSIRO | Taylor J.M.,CSIRO | Spriggs A.,CSIRO | Zhang H.,CSIRO | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2011

Genomic imprinting causes the expression of an allele depending on its parental origin. In plants, most imprinted genes have been identified in Arabidopsis endosperm, a transient structure consumed by the embryo during seed formation. We identified imprinted genes in rice seed where both the endosperm and embryo are present at seed maturity. RNA was extracted from embryos and endosperm of seeds obtained from reciprocal crosses between two subspecies Nipponbare (Japonica rice) and 93-11 (Indica rice). Sequenced reads from cDNA libraries were aligned to their respective parental genomes using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Reads across SNPs enabled derivation of parental expression bias ratios. A continuum of parental expression bias states was observed. Statistical analyses indicated 262 candidate imprinted loci in the endosperm and three in the embryo (168 genic and 97 non-genic). Fifty-six of the 67 loci investigated were confirmed to be imprinted in the seed. Imprinted loci are not clustered in the rice genome as found in mammals. All of these imprinted loci were expressed in the endosperm, and one of these was also imprinted in the embryo, confirming that in both rice and Arabidopsis imprinted expression is primarily confined to the endosperm. Some rice imprinted genes were also expressed in vegetative tissues, indicating that they have additional roles in plant growth. Comparison of candidate imprinted genes found in rice with imprinted candidate loci obtained from genome-wide surveys of imprinted genes in Arabidopsis to date shows a low degree of conservation, suggesting that imprinting has evolved independently in eudicots and monocots. © 2011 Luo et al.

Shui W.,Fuzhou University | Xu G.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Geocarto International | Year: 2016

This study employs geographic information system software to explore the influences of elevation, slope, the river system, traffic arteries and the central development zone on the land-use changes in Shihai between 1995 and 2010. Data were drawn from statistics from the first two remote sensing investigations of land use in the town of Shihai in China’s Xingwen Global Geopark and its digital elevation model data. An analysis of the relationships between changes in land use was performed using relevant models, including a comprehensive land-use dynamic degree model, a single land-use dynamic degree model and a comprehensive index model for the extent of land use. The results suggest that a combination of natural and human factors influenced the changes in Shihai’s land use during the time from 1995 to 2010. First, elevation and slope exerted environmental resistance. Specifically, as elevation or slope increased, the extent of change in land use decreased, despite local policies that have reduced the extent of this resistance. Second, the river system influenced land use such that, as distance from the river increased, changes in land use decreased and then increased, suggesting that the river has a resistant as well as propulsive influence. Third, traffic arteries and the central development zone created an environmental motivation to the changes in Shihai’s land use; specifically, the evolving tourism industry results in increasing numbers of tourist trails and roads and continually expanding Geopark services’ infrastructure. Thus, relatively more dramatic changes are experienced in the Geopark’s proximate land use than in its surroundings. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Zheng Z.-C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zheng Z.-C.,Beijing Normal University | Zheng Z.-C.,Northwest University, China | He S.-Q.,University of Sichuan | Wu F.-Q.,Northwest University, China
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to determine the changing characteristics of soil surface roughness under different rainfall intensities and examine the interaction between soil surface roughness and different water erosion processes. Four artificial management practices (raking cropland, artificial hoeing, artificial digging, and contour tillage) were used according to the local agriculture customs of the Loess Plateau of China to simulate different types of soil surface roughness, using an additional smooth slope for comparison purposes. A total of 20 rainfall simulation experiments were conducted in five 1m by 2m boxes under two rainfall intensities (0.68 and 1.50mmmin-1) on a 15° slope. During splash erosion, soil surface roughness decreased in all treatments except raking cropland and smooth baseline under rainfall intensity of 0.68mmmin-1, while increasing for all treatments except smooth baseline under rainfall intensity of 1.50mmmin-1. During sheet erosion, soil surface roughness decreased for all treatments except hoeing cropland under rainfall intensity of 0.68mmmin-1. However, soil surface roughness increased for the artificial hoeing and raking cropland under rainfall intensity of 1.50mmmin-1. Soil surface roughness has a control effect on sheet erosion for different treatments under two rainfall intensities. For rill erosion, soil surface roughness increased for raking cropland and artificial hoeing treatments, and soil surface roughness decreased for artificial digging and the contour tillage treatments under two rainfall intensities. Under rainfall intensity of 0.68mmmin-1, the critical soil surface roughness was 0.706cm for the resistance control of runoff and sediment yield. Under rainfall intensity of 1.50mmmin-1, the critical soil surface roughness was 1.633cm for the resistance control of runoff, while the critical soil surface roughness was 0.706cm for the resistance control of sediment yield. These findings have important implications for clarifying the erosive nature of soil surface roughness and harnessing sloped farmland. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Yuan G.,University of Sichuan | Dai S.,University of Sichuan | Dai S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yin Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2014

The exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and receives concern for their introduction by inhalation and ingestion. However, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to understand the health effects of chemical mixtures compared with single chemicals. In this study, the acute and 90day sub-chronic toxicity tests of combined Pb and Cd were conducted. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 value of Pb(NO3)2 and CdCl2 mixture by the oral route was 2696.54mg/kg by Bliss method. The sub-chronic treatment revealed that the low-dose combination of Pb and Cd exposures can significantly change the physiological and biochemical parameters of the blood of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with dose-response relationship and causes microcytic hypochromic anemia and the damages of liver and kidney of the SD rats to various degrees. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of Pb and Cd were testicle, liver, and kidneys. These observations suggest that Pb and Cd are practically additive-toxic for the SD rats in oral acute toxicity studies. The lowest observed adverse-effect level in rats may be lower than a dose of 29.96mg/(kgbwday) when administered orally for 90 consecutive days. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Ma J.,South China Agricultural University | Ma J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | He Y.,South China Agricultural University | Wu C.,South China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2012

A somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK) gene, designated as AcSERK1, was isolated from pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Shenwan). AcSERK1 shared all the characteristic domains of the SERK family, including five leucine-rich repeats, one proline-rich region motif, transmembrane domain, and kinase domains. Somatic embryogenic cultures of pineapple were established following transfer of callus cultures to Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The role of AcSERK1 during establishment of somatic embryogenesis in culture was investigated. The AcSERK1 was highly expressed during embryogenic competence acquisition and global embryo formation in culture. These findings were obtained along with morphological changes in callus cultures exhibiting embryogenic potential. Overall, levels of expression of AcSERK1 were lower in nonembryogenic tissues and organs than in embryogenic callus. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that AcSERK1 expression was detected in embryogenic tissues, including single competent cells, meristematic centers wherein embryogenic structures are formed, and global embryos. These results suggested that AcSERK1 expression was associated with induction of somatic embryogenesis and that it could be used as a potential marker gene to monitor the transition of pineapple callus tissues into competent and embryogenic cells and tissues. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Ren T.-H.,Sichuan University | Chen F.,Sichuan University | Yan B.-J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang H.-Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ren Z.-L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Euphytica | Year: 2012

Many studies have been conducted to determine the relative effects of the 1BL. 1RS translocation on various traits in wheat. The effects of different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genetic backgrounds and rye (Secale cereale L.) sources have been addressed as major factors for inconsistent agronomic performance and end-use-quality traits of 1BL. 1RS translocation wheats. However, all these studies were accomplished by using 1BL. 1RS translocations with impure wheat genetic bases and narrow rye origins. The objective of this study was to test the genetic effects of centric fusion translocations by using primary 1BL. 1RS lines derived from various pure wheat lines and rye sources. Twenty-one primary 1BL. 1RS translocation lines were created from crosses between two pure wheat lines and three Chinese local rye varieties. These translocation lines and their wheat parents were then evaluated in southwestern China. The results provide direct evidence of the diverse effects of the different wheat parents and rye sources, taking part in 1BL. 1RS translocations, on resistance to diseases, agronomic performance, and end-use quality traits. The highest amount of genetic diversity was observed in 1BL. 1RS translocations derived from the same wheat lines and diverse rye varieties. The results suggest that the genetic diversity of 1BL. 1RS translocation lines may originate from the different wheat genetic backgrounds, from different rye sources, from their interaction, and from the translocation itself. Creation of diverse 1BL. 1RS translocations offers ample possibilities to introduce more variation into wheat for improved performance. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Xiang K.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Reid L.M.,Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Center | Zhang Z.-M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhu X.-Y.,Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Center | Pan G.-T.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Euphytica | Year: 2012

Ear rot (ER) in maize is a prevalent disease worldwide which reduces yield and grain quality. Grain moisture content (GM) is an important factor which impacts the fungal development of ER species. Our purpose was to identify the genomic regions of maize in the control of GM and ER resistance, and the correlations between two traits. A meta-analysis was carried out using 241 quantitative trait loci (QTL) from 29 studies to propose meta-QTL (MQTL) on a high-density genetic linkage map (IBM 2 neighbors 2008). For GM content, 44 MQTL were identified on all chromosomes except for chromosome 9, while 29 MQTL were found for ER resistance, mainly located on chromosomes 3, 6 and 7. Moreover, 14 overlapping domains for GM MQTL and ER MQTL were observed on chromosomes 2, 3, 6 and 7, mainly focused on five active regions (bins 2.08-2.09, 3.04, 3.06, 6.04-6.06 and 7.03-7.03). There were 13 genes in the overlapping domain which could be divided into five classes: stress-related gene, photosystem-related gene, architecture-related gene, dynamic-related gene and seminal-related gene. It was possibly that the five-class genes were simultaneously related with GM and ER. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Baum B.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Yang J.-L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yen C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Agafonov A.V.,Central Siberian Botanical Garden
Journal of Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2011

We have classified 11 species recently recognized as belonging to the genus Elymus into a resurrected and legitimate genus Campeiostachys Drobov according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Our action is based on the rationale of monophyly, discrimination, and practicality discussed in detail. Currently Elymus contains a vast number of species with different genomes which often, but not always, can be differentiated by cytological and molecular features, but are difficult to separate by traditional morphology, although an effort to do so is detailed and discussed. This difficulty can be attributed to the dominance effect of a particular genome on the other genome(s) present. Campeiostachys, with genome constitution StStHHYY, is a recent addition to a number of genera recently segregated out of Elymus, i.e. Douglasdeweya (StStPP), Kengyilia (StStPPYY), and Roegneria (StStYY, StStStStYY). A key to Campeiostachys taxa is provided, along with taxa descriptions, distribution, nomenclature, and cytology. Nineteen nomenclatural novelties, or combinations, resulted from this work, 10 species names, and nine varietal names. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Liu H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lin Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen G.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Shen Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

As introns are vulnerable to changes such as insertions and deletions when exposed to various evolutionary forces, they constitute a repository for developing genetic markers based on intron length polymorphisms (ILP). This study developed a set of genetic markers that use the potential intron length polymorphism in resistance gene analogs (RGAs) in Zea mays. By searching the genome of Zea mays B73 for the homologs of 73 R genes which have already been identified in plants, we found 861 RGAs, 632 of which have at least one intron that can serve as putative markers targeting the intron length polymorphism in RGAs (RGA-ILP). We developed 1972 candidate markers via electronic PCR (e-PCR) with primer pairs designed in each pair of exonic regions that flank an intron. Furthermore, the performance of RGA-ILP among four maize inbred lines (Huangzao4, B73, Mo17, and Dan340) was evaluated with 69 pairs of randomly selected primers. Of them, 46.4% showed bands that had discriminating length polymorphism, and between any two of the inbred lines the proportion of polymorphism ranged from 23.2 to 31.9%. To make it convenient to use these markers for those interested in molecular breeding of disease-resistant maize, we provide all related information in a web-based database named MaizeRGA, which is available at http://www. sicau. edu. cn/web/yms/rga/maizeRGA. html. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Guan L.-L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang Y.-B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Shen H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Hou K.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2012

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated oleate desaturase (FAD2) is the key enzyme responsible for the production of linoleic acid in plants. In safflower, a seed-type FAD2 gene (CtFAD2-1) has been isolated previously. In this study, two different cDNA sequences, designated CtFAD2-2 and CtFAD2-3, encoding two microsomal oleate desaturases have been isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Both deduced amino acid sequences showed the three histidine boxes characteristic of all membrane-bound desaturases, and possess a C-terminal ER retention signal. Phylogentic analysis shows that CtFAD2-2 is grouped with other house-keeping type FAD2 sequences from oil crops, while CtFAD2-3 does not belong to seed type or house-keeping type FAD2. Real-time PCR analysis showed that CtFAD2-2 gene is constitutively expressed in both vegetative tissues and developing seeds, with higher transcript levels in roots, stems and petioles. Transcript of CtFAD2-3 was strongly detected in developing seeds, showing low levels in vegetative tissues. In response to low-temperature stress, CtFAD2-2 and CtFAD2-3 in different tissues showed a different behavior (up- or down-regulated). The transcript of CtFAD2-2 was dramatically decreased in roots, stems and petioles under low temperature, while CtFAD2-3 showed a significant increase in these tissues. On the contrary, in leaves, the strongly enhanced expression of CtFAD2-2 was observed under low temperature, while the transcript of CtFAD2-3 showed a little decrease. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Zhang C.,Hexi University | Huang Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Drought stress causes various physiologic and biochemical effects in plants. The phytohormones in plant systems are closely involved in responses against drought stress. However, information on the regulatory effect of abscisic acid (ABA), and free polyamine (PA) metabolism on the accumulation of JA is limited. Elucidating the endogenous mechanisms that confer stress resistance is essential to providing insights into the potential of plants to adapt to environmental change. This study aims to determine the relationship between the concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and the accumulation of free PAs (putrescine, spermine, and spermidine), as well as with polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity, in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum M.) seedlings grown hydroponically under polyethylene glycol - induced drought stress. The results indicate that the concentrations of endogenous ABA, JA, and free polyamines, and the PAO activity in the roots and leaves of tomato seedlings were generally higher in the treatment groups than in the untreated controls. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the concentrations of endogenous polyamines and PAO activity (R=0.708**) in roots and leaves of tomato seedlings. The time course in the present experiment demonstrated that the ABA concentrations increase in the roots prior to that in the leaves. Therefore, under drought stress, the higher concentrations of endogenous spermine and spermidine in the roots and leaves stimulate the simultaneous accumulation of endogenous ABA and JA with increasing PAO activity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Liu H.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2016

Maize (Zea mays L.) and Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.), two most important cereals for human nutrition, have undergone strong artificial selection during a long period of time. Currently, a number of genes with stronger signals of selection have been identified through combining genomic and population genetic approach, but research on artificial selection of maize and Asian rice is scarcely done from the perspective of phenotypic difference of a number of agronomic traits. In this study, such an investigation was carried out on the basis of 179 published studies about phenotypic quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of Zea and Oryza species via QTL sign test. At the overall level, the proportions of antagonistic QTLs of Zea and Oryza species were 0.2446 and 0.2382 respectively, deviating significantly from neutrality. It indicated that these two genera have undergone similar selection strength during their evolutionary process. A previous study showed that 4 traits undergoing the directional selection during domestication were identified in Asian rice via QTL sign test, and 16 individual traits in Asian rice and 38 ones in maize that newly detected in this study deviated significantly from neutrality as well, demonstrating the dominant influence of artificial selection on them. Moreover, analysis of different categories of cross type including O. sativa × Oryza rufipogon (perennial and annual forms) crosses, maize × teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis) crosses, O. sativa × O. sativa crosses, and maize × maize crosses showed that their proportions of antagonistic QTLs were 0.1869, 0.1467, 0.2649, and 0.2618 respectively. These results revealed that selection strength of domestication is significantly stronger than that of modern genetic improvement. However, interestingly, the proportion of antagonistic QTLs (0.1591) in maize × maize with long-term selection was very similar to that (0.1467) in the maize × teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis) crosses. It suggested that some favorable traits could be cultivated within a few decades if we carry out strong selection. In addition, the proportions of antagonistic QTLs of the widely cultivated hybrids of rice (Minghui 63 × Zhenshan 97) and maize (Zheng 58 × Chang 7-2) in China were 0.309 and 0.3472 respectively. It suggested that selection during modern genetic improvement has significantly acted on them. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Jiang W.-D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Kuang S.-Y.,Sichuan Academy of Animal Science | Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2013

This study investigated the effects of myo-inositol (MI) on the growth and antioxidant capacity of carp enterocytes. The enterocytes were incubated in media containing 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 mg MI L-1 for 96 h. The results indicated that MI could increase cell viability. In addition, the activities of cellular alkaline phosphatase (AKP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), Na+, K+-adenosine trisphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase) and creatinkinase (CK) increased with MI supplementation at levels ranging from 15 to 60 mg MI L-1 medium, indicating an improvement in cell differentiation and function. Further, enzymatic antioxidant ability, as measured by total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, improved with MI supplementation. Finally, cell damage, as indicated by lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the medium and cellular protein carbonyls (PC), was all depressed by MI. Correlation analyses showed that cell viability (MTT) was positively related to the antioxidant enzyme activities, but negatively related to cell damage (LDH, MDA and PC). In summary, the data showed that MI could improve the growth of fish enterocytes. This result may be partly due to the enhanced antioxidant status and depressed oxidative damage. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Zhang J.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Liu Y.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Li Q.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Zhang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013

Fusarium graminearum is the pathogen for Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat, which could significantly reduce grain quality/yield and produce a variety of mycotoxins posing a potential safety concern to human foods. As an environmentally friendly alternative to the commonly used chemical fugicides, a highly effective photocatalytic disinfection of F. graminearum macroconidia under visible light illumination was demonstrated on a visible-light-activated palladium-modified nitrogen-doped titanium oxide (TiON/PdO) nanoparticle photocatalyst. Because of the opposite surface charges of the TiON/PdO nanoparticles and the F. graminearum macroconidium, the nanoparticles were strongly adsorbed onto the macroconidium surface, which is beneficial to the photocatalytic disinfection of these macroconidia. The photocatalytic disinfection mechanism of TiON/PdO nanoparticles on these macroconidia could be attributed to their cell wall/membrane damage caused by the attack from reactive oxygen species (ROSs) as demonstrated by the fluorescence/phase contrast microscopy observations, while a breakage of their cell structure was not necessary for their loss of viability. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Liu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
2011 2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Management Science and Electronic Commerce, AIMSEC 2011 - Proceedings | Year: 2011

Based on the method of fuzzy mathematical comprehensive evaluation, this paper assesses the quality of atmosphere in Dazhou with selecting SO 2, NO2 and PM10 as evaluation factors, consulting the standards relevant to atmosphere environment and building the attaching function and the weight muster. Then compares the results between the methods of fuzzy mathematical comprehensive evaluation and Air Pollution Index. © 2011 IEEE.

Zhang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Sun B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Deng S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2010

The effects of activated carbon fibers (ACF0, ACFH, and ACFN) on the degradation of methyl orange were investigated in a pulsed discharge reactor. ACF0 fibers were modified with nitric acid (to yield ACFH fibers) or ammonia (to yield ACFN fibers) to create fibers with different porous structures and chemical properties. The adsorption properties of ACF0, ACFH, and ACFN depended on their pore diameter, but the catalytic properties were independent of their chemical properties. Acidic and basic surfaces both accelerated ozone decomposition, resulting in formation of hydroxyl radicals. Boehm titration and Fourier-transform infrared spectral studies indicated that the numbers of acidic and basic groups on ACF0, ACFH, and ACFN surfaces could be increased by this process, as could the surface areas and pores volumes. ACF0, ACFH, and ACFN could also be regenerated in situ after repeated use. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tian Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ji C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhao M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xu M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2010

The magnetic baker's yeast biomass (MB) was prepared by combining baker's yeast and nano-Fe3O4 using glutaraldehyde as a cross link agent. The MB was successfully used for the biosorption of methyl violet (MV) and was easily recycled by using an applied magnetic field. The mechanism of MV biosorption by MB was investigated by SEM, XRD, FTIR, zeta potential and potentiometric titration. The results revealed that nano-Fe3O4, with spherical and granular morphology, were distributed on the surface of baker's yeast biomass. The functional groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups found on the surface of MB may be responsible for MV biosorption. The optimal biosorption conditions were determined as pH 6.0, MV concentration 300mg/L and contact time 30min. The biosorption capacity in the optimal conditions was 60.84mg/g. The biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm equation. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° showed that the biosorption was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. The desorption and regeneration experiments were investigated and the biosorption/desorption cycles of MV were repeated three times. The MB regeneration efficiency and the MV recovery efficiency were 82.64% and 84.54% respectively in the third cycle by using HAc as an eluent solution. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang Z.-Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xiang J.-J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou L.-M.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Recent studies have shown that wheat leaves are sources of natural antioxidant substances. In this study, the content of three antioxidants (ascorbic acid, total flavonoids and ferulic acid) and antioxidant activities of wheat leaf extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assays. The interaction activities among different antioxidants were analyzed by factorial and path analyses. Wheat leaves were extracted with solvents of different polarities. The ABTS test showed that the ethanol extract had the highest antioxidant activity. There were highly significant linear correlations between antioxidant capacities of the investigated wheat leaves and their ascorbic acid, ferulic acid and flavonoid contents. Total flavonoids and ascorbic acid were major contributors to total antioxidant capacity in wheat leaves. © 2015 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India)

Zhou X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Microorganism plays an irreplaceable role in litter decomposition, and the dynamics of microbial activity in litters is of ecological significance in understanding the mechanism of litter decomposition. Microbial biomass serves their important statuses as a sensitive bio indicator of microbial activity in respond to environmental change. Seasonal freezing and thawing is one of the most significant environmental changes in many high latitude/altitude areas such as in alpine regions. The significant temperature fluctuations with related freezing, thawing and freeze thaw cycles could exhibit a strong effect on microbial biomass during litter decomposition in the cold season. As yet, more attentions have been given to the growing season, only a few studies have focused on litter decomposition and the related microbial activities in winter. Moreover, far less information has been available on the dynamics of microbial biomass in litter decomposition at different critical ecological stages as the growing period, the freezing period, completely frozen period as well as the thawing period. Therefore, litters of fir (Abies faxoniana), birch (Betula albosinensis) and spruce (Picea asperata), which are three dominant tree species in the alpine and subalpine forest of Western China, were put into the nylon bag and placed on the forest floor of a primary fir alpine forest in November, 2008. Litterbags were sampled in March (completely frozen period), April and May (thawing period), June, August, September and October (growing period), and November (freezing period, one-year decomposition), 2009, according to the monitored soil temperatures. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP) in litters were measured to characterize the dynamics of microbial biomass during litter decomposition in an alpine forest, and explore the microbial processes during litter decomposition in winter time. Similar to the general view, the highest MBC and MBN during litter decomposition were detected in growing period (June and August). Meanwhile, relative higher MBC and MBN during litter decomposition were also observed in the freeze-thaw season (March, April, May and November) compared with that in September. Just after the thawing period, significantly sharp increase of MBC and MBN were found in June during the decomposition of all three sampled litter. However, in disagreement with the dynamics of MBC and MBN, MBP showed the lower values in the mid- growing period (August), completely frozen period (March) and early freezing period (November) compared with the other periods. The higher MBP was detected in the thawing period (April and May) and later growing period (September) compared with other periods. In addition, MBC, MBN and MBP during birch litter decomposition were higher than those during fir and spruce litter decomposition in the whole first year decomposition process, except for the abnormal increase of MBP during spruce litter decomposition in April. The results provided efficient data to understand the process and mechanism of litter decomposition in the high-frigid forest ecosystem, and further understand the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, the results suggested more attention should be paid to the ecological processes in winter time, especially for alpine and subalpine forest.

Li Y.C.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Li Y.C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yu J.Z.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2010

This study reports a comprehensive dataset of oxygenated compounds, inorganic ions and other major aerosol constituents in fine particulate matter (2.5m) in the urban atmosphere of Hong Kong in periods of different synoptic weather conditions during 2003-05. The oxygenated compounds quantified include C2-C10 dicarboxylic acids, C3-C9 ketoacids and C2-C3 dicarbonyls, their combined concentrations accounting for 3.218.2% of water-soluble organic carbon on a carbon mass basis. Six C2 and C3 oxygenated compounds, namely oxalic acid, malonic acid, glyoxylic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal, and methyl glyoxal, dominate this suite of oxygenated compounds, accounting for 75% of the total quantified oxygenated species. Good correlations were observed among most of the quantified oxygenated compounds, suggesting that a relatively stable abundance distribution exists under varying synoptic conditions. These composition profiles provide a comprehensive dataset for use in modelling and theoretical studies of aerosol-water interactions, secondary aerosol formation pathways, and speciated organic mass distributions. © CSIRO 2010.

Jiang Y.Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2013

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an essential enzyme in the lipid metabolism, and proper regulation of LPL is important for controlling the delivery of lipid nutrients to tissues. Recent studies have identified glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein-binding protein 1(GPIHBP1) as the important regulation factor of LPL that serves as a binding platform for lipolysis on the vascular lumen and an endothelial cell transporter transporting LPL from the interstitial spaces to the capillary lumen. In addition, several other regulation factors of LPL have also been identified including microRNAs, SorLA (Sortilin-related receptor with A-type repeats), and apolipoproteins that are potentially important for regulating LPL activity. These discoveries provide new directions for understanding basic mechanisms of lipolysis and hyperlipidemia. In this update, we focused on summarizing recent progresses on GPIHBP1, the endothelial cell LPL transporter. We also highlighted the recent progresses on several other regulation factors of LPL that are relevant to the regulation of LPLactivity.

Cao J.X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2013

DNA methylation is catalyzed by a family of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) that transfer a methyl group from S-adenyl methionine (SAM) to the fifth carbon of a cytosine residue to form 5mC. DNA methylation affects the interaction between the histone and DNA, which changes the chromosome structure and has reverse relationship with gene expression in general. Up to now, more and more studies have confirmed that environmental factors can alter epigenetic modifications, which do not involve in changing DNA sequence. So it can explain the phenotype of creature in a certain degree. This article focused on the influence of environmental factors, such as temperature, nutrient supply, heavy metal, early stress and radiation, on DNA methylation change. As a matter of fact, it does not only change the DNA methylation in parents and offspring but also their behavior and phenotype. Overall, this review will help us get better understanding of the relationship between environmental factors and gene expression regulation.

Zhong Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhong Z.,Beijing Institute of Disease Control and Prevention | Yu S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang X.,Anhui Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Brucellosis is a worldwide re-emerging zoonotic disease. It remains a serious public health problem in many developing countries including China. This review summarizes the epidemiological characteristics, morbidity, and endemic distributions of human brucellosis in the People's Republic of China for the period 2005-2010. From 2005 to 2010, the incidence of human brucellosis rose substantially in China, especially in the provinces of Inner Mongolia, Shanxi3, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Jilin, and Shanxi1. Meanwhile human brucellosis increased gradually in some southern provinces, such as Henan, Guangdong, and Fujian. Due to the rapid expansion of human brucellosis in China, surveillance and prevention of this disease has been greatly challenged. © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases.

Li Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Canadian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2015

Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the pathogen that causes a highly infectious disease of pigs and has led to disastrous losses to pig farms and related industries. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) NS5B is a central component of the replicase complex (RC) in some single-stranded RNA viruses, including CSFV. On the basis of genetic variation, the CSFV RdRps could be clearly divided into 2 major groups and a minor group, which is consistent with the phylogenetic relationships and virulence diversification of the CSFV isolates. However, the adaptive signature underlying such an evolutionary profile of the polymerase and the virus is still an interesting open question. We analyzed the evolutionary trajectory of the CSFV RdRps over different timescales to evaluate the potential adaptation. We found that adaptive selection has driven the diversification of the RdRps between, but not within, CSFV major groups. Further, the major adaptive divergence-related sites are located in the surfaces relevant to the interaction with other component(s) of RC and the entrance and exit of the template-binding channel. These results might shed some light on the nature of the RdRp in virulence diversification of CSFV groups. © 2015, Canadian Journal of Microbiology. All rights reserved.

Shen Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Shen Y.,Iowa State University | Pan G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lubberstedt T.,Iowa State University
Trends in Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Increasing knowledge of plant genome sequences requires the development of more reliable and efficient genetic approaches for genotype-phenotype validation. Functional identification of plant genes is generally achieved by a combination of creating genetic modifications and observing the according phenotype, which begins with forward-genetic methods represented by random physical and chemical mutagenesis and move towards reverse-genetic tools as targeted genome editing. A major bottleneck is time need to produce modified homozygous genotypes that can actually be used for phenotypic validation. Herein, we comprehensively address and compare available experimental approaches for functional validation of plant genes, and propose haploid strategies to reduce the time needed and cost consumed for establishing gene function. Recent advances in plant genomics and sequencing technology revealed numerous associations between phenotypes and plant genes. However, definitive functional annotations after in vivo validation have been thoroughly established for few of these genes. Genetic methods for establishing gene functions are achieved by creating genetic modifications that cause phenotypes of interest. Diploid plants are usually heterozygous for the modified region in the first generation. More additional generations are required to obtain homozygous genotypes that can actually be used for validation of their phenotypic effect. Efforts to obtain haploid plants have been undertaken in many plant species of almost all families in the plant kingdom. We proposed the strategies based on haploid mutagenesis and haploid transformation, respectively, which contribute to accelerating functional validation of plant genes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Li A.-L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Geng S.-F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang L.-Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu D.-C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Mao L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Molecular Plant | Year: 2015

Bread wheat (or common wheat, Triticum aestivum) is an allohexaploid (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 42) that arose by hybridization between a cultivated tetraploid wheat T. turgidum (AABB, 2n = 4x = 28) and the wild goatgrass Aegilops tauschii (DD, 2n = 2x = 14). Polyploidization provided niches for rigorous genome modification at cytogenetic, genetic, and epigenetic levels, rendering a broader spread than its progenitors. This review summarizes the latest advances in understanding gene regulation mechanisms in newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat and possible correlation with polyploid growth vigor and adaptation. Cytogenetic studies reveal persistent association of whole-chromosome aneuploidy with nascent allopolyploids, in contrast to the genetic stability in common wheat. Transcriptome analysis of the euploid wheat shows that small RNAs are driving forces for homoeo-allele expression regulation via genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The ensuing non-additively expressed genes and those with expression level dominance to the respective progenitor may play distinct functions in growth vigor and adaptation in nascent allohexaploid wheat. Further genetic diploidization of allohexaploid wheat is not random. Regional asymmetrical gene distribution, rather than subgenome dominance, is observed in both synthetic and natural allohexaploid wheats. The combinatorial effects of diverged genomes, subsequent selection of specific gene categories, and subgenome-specific traits are essential for the successful establishment of common wheat. © 2015 The Author.

Huang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Feng S.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2015

With the comprehensive development of the quality education, more and more colleges begin to pay attention to the physical education for the college students. Evaluating the teaching quality for the physical education can enhance the physical teaching management of the colleges. In this paper, we combine the AHP method with the TOPSIS method and propose the RAHPTOPSIS method In order to evaluate accurately the teaching quality for the college physical education. Then, we use the method to evaluate the teaching quality evaluation of the college physical education. The evaluation results show that the method is validity and accuracy. Copyright © 2015, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.

Yang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Feng S.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2015

By the combination of the computer technology and the physical training, we can better predict the training achievement. Then we can make the targeted training for the college students. Therefore, the combination of the physical training for the college students and the computer technology has become a trend. Middledistance running is one of the most important standards for the physical training of the college students. Improving the middle-distance running performance not only improves the physical quality of the college students, but also improves the perseverance of the college students. In this paper, we combine the LSSVM method with the GAS method and propose the improved LSSVMGAS method. In the experimental part, we use the LSSVMGAS method to predict achievement of the middle-distance running for the college students and achieve the better results. Copyright © 2015, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.

Liu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ye M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Pu B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Tang Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

As one of the most important regions selected for jatropha biodiesel industry in Southwest China, Panzhihua has received very high and optimistic expectations. However, current situation suggests that jatropha in Panzhihua has not changed local energy scenario and the industry has been threatened by many risks. Moreover, the study of risk management on jatropha biodiesel industry is largely absent. Therefore, this study applies the idea of risk management to jatropha biodiesel industry in Panzhihua, covering complete procedures with respect to risk identification, risk assessment, risk response and risk monitoring. By risk identification, this study reveals 14 key risks which have critical influences upon this industry. The risk assessment determines the risks which are ranked as the first status to take risk response: risks of low seed yield, insect pests and diseases, poor implementation for the plans set for establishing jatropha biodiesel refining capacity, low profitability for jatropha biodiesel production, no local gas station selling jatropha biodiesel, low comparative price of biodiesel versus diesel, insufficient subsidy for farmers to conduct cultivation, insufficient subsidy for conducting biodiesel production. Accordingly, the measures for risk reduction have been given. It is a very long way to cover before the jatropha biodiesel to be realized in Panzhihua. The urgent tasks for the local governments in Panzhihua are just to maintain but adjust their ambitious plans, enhance the demonstration effects of industrial projects at an appropriate and economic scale. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chen L.,University of Sichuan | Cui H.,University of Sichuan | Cui H.,Sichuan Agricultural University
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2015

Glutamine metabolism has been proved to be dysregulated in many cancer cells, and is essential for proliferation of most cancer cells, which makes glutamine an appealing target for cancer therapy. In order to be well used by cells, glutamine must be transported to cells by specific transporters and converted to glutamate by glutaminase. There are currently several drugs that target glutaminase under development or clinical trials. Also, glutamine metabolism restriction has been proved to be effective in inhibiting tumor growth both in vivo and vitro through inducing apoptosis, growth arrest and/or autophagy. Here, we review recent researches about glutamine metabolism in cancer, and cell death induced by targeting glutamine, and their potential roles in cancer therapy. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Zhang Z.-L.,China Agricultural University | Zhang Z.-L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang Z.-L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhou M.-L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Buckwheat is an ancient dicotyledonous crop belonging to Polygonaceae family. It is cultivated and adapted to marginal lands with harsh environments. Buckwheat has been praised as one of the most faddish green functional foods. Many functional foods including tea made from buckwheat have been put into production around the globe. The buckwheat proteins are particularly rich in lysine and contain less glumatic acid and proline, and more arginine and aspartic acid than cereal proteins. Buckwheat proteins also show a strong supplemental effect with other proteins to improve the dietary amino acid balance with special biological activities of cholesterol-lowering effects, antihypertensition effects, and improving the constipation and obesity conditions by acting in a similar way as dietary fiber and interrupting the in vivo metabolisms. Besides its high-quality proteins, buckwheat is also rich in many rare components that have healing effects on some chronic diseases. Among these components, the most attractive ones are flavones, flavonoids, phytosterols, d-chiro-Inositol, and myo-inositol. In this review we focus on buckwheat's general physical and chemical properties, rare components, functional effects, metabolic engineering of bioactive compounds and trends in the development of functional tea from buckwheat in the latest three years. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhang S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lin H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Deng L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Gong G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2013

Identification of new higher yield cadmium (Cd)-hyperaccumulating cultivars from native species is key to the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soils. A pot experiment with different soil Cd concentrations and a plot experiment at 28.44mgCdkg-1 were conducted to investigate Cd tolerance and accumulation by Siegesbeckia orientalis following a field survey. In the pot experiment, at Cd concentration of 150mgkg-1, S. orientalis grew normally and shoot biomass was not reduced significantly compared with the no Cd control. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in roots and leaves, and peroxidase in leaves significantly increased with increasing soil Cd (P<0.05). The highest shoot Cd concentrations were 117.48, 192.92 and 77.10mgkg-1, in the field survey, pot and plot experiments, respectively and their corresponding accumulations were 6.762mgplant-1, 4.134mgpot-1 and 18.45mgm-2. All Cd bioconcentration factors and translocation factors were more than 1.0. Therefore, S. orientalis is a Cd-accumulator with hyperaccumulating ability. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Lu X.R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lu X.L.,Chuzhou University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Brake problem for a small multi-function chassis of southwest hilly region, design a set brake device, especially suitable for walking speed slow small crawler chassis. The braking device has the advantages of simple and compact structure, light weight, convenient, simple and flexible operate, reasonable use spaces etc. Through the braking test, proved that the brake braking performance is good, fully meet the requirements of the agricultural machinery braking performance. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Xu H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhao P.T.,Shaoxing Municipal Bureau of Water Resources
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Shaoxing has used three water supply models, i.e. urban water supply network extension, township water factory centralized water supply, and mountain area scattered independent water supply, to improve the drinking water conditions for its 2.075 million rural dwellers. Nevertheless, there still exist problems in its water supply systems, such as difficulties in protecting water sources, small and scattered operating entities, and uneven water supply facilities and water qualities. This dissertation therefore brings forward countermeasures such as optimizing project planning and layout, implementing standardized renovation and improvement, practicing the most stringent water resources protection system, and establishing and improving the management system and testing network. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Huang B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang B.,Iowa State University | Hennen-Bierwagen T.A.,Iowa State University | Myers A.M.,Iowa State University
Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) provides the nucleotide sugar ADP-glucose and thus constitutes the first step in starch biosynthesis. The majority of cereal endosperm AGPase is located in the cytosol with a minor portion in amyloplasts, in contrast to its strictly plastidial location in other species and tissues. To investigate the potential functions of plastidial AGPase in maize (Zea mays) endosperm, six genes encoding AGPase large or small subunits were characterized for gene expression as well as subcellular location and biochemical activity of the encoded proteins. Seven transcripts from these genes accumulate in endosperm, including those from shrunken2 and brittle2 that encode cytosolic AGPase and five candidates that could encode subunits of the plastidial enzyme. The amino termini of these five polypeptides directed the transport of a reporter protein into chloroplasts of leaf protoplasts. All seven proteins exhibited AGPase activity when coexpressed in Escherichia coli with partner subunits. Null mutations were identified in the genes agpsemzm and agpllzm and shown to cause reduced AGPase activity in specific tissues. The functioning of these two genes was necessary for the accumulation of normal starch levels in embryo and leaf, respectively. Remnant starch was observed in both instances, indicating that additional genes encode AGPase large and small subunits in embryo and leaf. Endosperm starch was decreased by approximately 7% in agpsemzm- or agpllzm- mutants, demonstrating that plastidial AGPase activity contributes to starch production in this tissue even when the major cytosolic activity is present. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Bing J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Mu D.Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Currently, the technology of Case-Based Reasoning is used in the medical field, Such as the medical expert system that is developed for some large and medium-sized hospital, The patient 's medical programs are given by patient illness, The mainly property is descripted with nonnumeric attributes about illness symptoms. It is the obstacles that the system can not become popularized for adaptive capacity. However, its adaptive capacity is not strong and non-intelligent, At current, the research about statistics of community health and disease prevention information is still limited, An adaptive system model of CBR-based health management is presented, Case retrieval is important very mach. The system of community health management is developed to validate the model, The health examination data of five community are inputed in experimental platform in the past three years, The result indicating that the application of case-based reasoning makes the overall health of community residents to get continuous improvement. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Chen X.-Y.,Southwest Petroleum University | Chen T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jia C.-S.,Southwest Petroleum University
European Physical Journal Plus | Year: 2014

We solve the Klein-Gordon equation with the improved Manning-Rosen potential energy model in D spatial dimensions. The relativistic bound state energy equation and the unnormalized radial wave functions have been obtained. For fixed vibrational quantum number and various rotational quantum numbers, the relativistic energies for the a3Σu + states of the 7Li2 molecule increase as D increases. We observe that the change behavior of the relativistic vibrational energies in higher dimensions remains similar to that of the three-dimensional system. © 2014, Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Su H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu G.,Sichuan Academy of Grassland Science | Tan F.,Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2016

Background: Currently, efficient screening methods for selection of desired bacterial phenotypes from large populations are not easy feasible or readily available due to the complicated physiological and metabolic networks of solventogenic clostridia. In this study, to contribute to the improvement of methods for predicting the butanol-producing ability of Clostridium beijerinckii based on starch substrate, we further investigate a simple, visualization screening method for selecting target strains from mutant library of Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 by using trypan blue dye as an indicator in solid starch via statistical survey and validation of fermentation experiment with controlling pH. Results: To verify an effective, efficient phenotypic screening method for isolating high butanol-producing mutants, the revalidation process was conducted based on Trypan Blue was used for visualization, and starch was used as the bacterial metabolic substrate. The availability of the screening system was further evaluated based on the relationship between characteristics of mutant strains and their α-amylase activities. Mutant clones were analyzed in detail based on their distinctive growth patterns and rate of fermentation of soluble starch to form butanol and were compared by statistical method. Significant correlations were identified between colony morphology and changes in butanol concentrations. The screening method was validated via statistical analysis for characterizing phenotypic parameters. The fermentation experiment of mutant strains with controlling pH value also demonstrated a positive correlation between increased α-amylase activity and increased solvent production by Clostridium beijerinckii was observed, and therefore indicated that the trypan blue dyeing method can be used as a fast method to screen target mutant strain for better solvent producers from, for instance, a mutant library. Conclusions: The suitability of the novel screening procedure was validated, opening up a new indicator of approach to select mutant solventogenic clostridia with improved fermentation of starch to increase butanol concentrations. The applicability can easily be broadened to a wide range of interesting microbes such as cellulolytic or acetogenic microorganisms, which produce biofuels from feedstock rich in starch. © 2016 The Author(s).

Jiang Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Jiang Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lee W.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011

Background: Kraits (genus Bungarus) and cobras (genus Naja) are two representative toxic genera of elapids in the old world. Although they are closely related genera and both of their venoms are very toxic, the compositions of their venoms are very different. To unveil their detailed venoms and their evolutionary patterns, we constructed venom gland cDNA libraries and genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries for Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra, respectively. We sequenced about 1500 cDNA clones for each of the venom cDNA libraries and screened BAC libraries of the two snakes by blot analysis using four kinds of toxin probes; i.e., three-finger toxin (3FTx), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), kunitz-type protease inhibitor (Kunitz), and natriuretic peptide (NP).Results: In total, 1092 valid expressed sequences tags (ESTs) for B. multicinctus and 1166 ESTs for N. atra were generated. About 70% of these ESTs can be annotated as snake toxin transcripts. 3FTx (64.5%) and β bungarotoxin (25.1%) comprise the main toxin classes in B. multicinctus, while 3FTx (95.8%) is the dominant toxin in N. atra. We also observed several less abundant venom families in B. multicinctus and N. atra, such as PLA2, C-type lectins, and Kunitz. Peculiarly a cluster of NP precursors with tandem NPs was detected in B. multicinctus. A total of 71 positive toxin BAC clones in B. multicinctus and N. atra were identified using four kinds of toxin probes (3FTx, PLA2, Kunitz, and NP), among which 39 3FTx-postive BACs were sequenced to reveal gene structures of 3FTx toxin genes.Conclusions: Based on the toxin ESTs and 3FTx gene sequences, the major components of B. multicinctus venom transcriptome are neurotoxins, including long chain alpha neurotoxins (α-ntx) and the recently originated β bungarotoxin, whereas the N. atra venom transcriptome mainly contains 3FTxs with cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity (short chain α-ntx). The data also revealed that tandem duplications contributed the most to the expansion of toxin multigene families. Analysis of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate ratios (dN/dS) indicates that not only multigene toxin families but also other less abundant toxins might have been under rapid diversifying evolution. © 2011 Jiang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lin T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wan X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang F.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2016

Earlier it was noticed that the supplementary nitrogen to nutritive solution of the cadmium stressed (Cd-stressed) plants can alleviate the toxic effects of this metal on the plants and improve plant growth performance. But the underlying mechanisms of such detoxification effect of nitrogen were not studied. In this study, a ten-day responses of related nitrogen-synthesized genes including γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCs), glutathione synthetase (ECGs) and phytochelatin synthase (PCs) involved in glutathione (ECG) and phytochelation (PC) synthetic pathways were examined. The plant growth performance and leaf chlorophyll content were examined at the final harvest. It was shown that the supplement of additional nitrogen to poplar plants under cadmium stress could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of γ-GCs, ECGs and PCs genes in plant leaves during the first 12 hours. Furthermore, cadmium stressed plants with additional nitrogen supplement showed significant enhancement in growth performance and increase in leaf chlorophyll content compared to sole cadmium stressed plants. Our results suggest that additional nitrogen could stimulate a short-term defense system in poplar plants through ECG and PC synthetic pathways. It is contribute to the alleviation of the toxic symptoms in polar plants caused by cadmium stress. This study provides a potential method to render harmless cadmium toxicity in stressed plants with nitrogen fertilization. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Xia X.H.,Hunan Communication Polytechnic | He Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

A large number of design, construction and maintenance measures may be selected by bridge engineers to help ensure safe and durable service. In the present paper an improved model is developed for time-dependent reliability estimation of RC bridge decks subject to general and localized corrosion. The preliminary model developed is improved by considering weakening of the bond interface between concrete and reinforcement as a result of reinforcement corrosion and serviceability limit states in the time-dependent reliability analysis. A probabilistic model is developed that relates loss of reinforcement area to a non-linear bond stress-strain relationship. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Zhang M.,Hiroshima University | Zhang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Nii T.,Hiroshima University | Isobe N.,Hiroshima University | Yoshimura Y.,Hiroshima University
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to determine the expression profiles of Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the testis and epididymis of rooster and whether the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, CXCLi2, and TLR-4 was affected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a TLR-4 ligand. Roosters were intravenously injected with LPS or phosphate- buffered saline. Testes and epididymis were collected before and after 3 or 6 h postinjection. Total RNA was isolated from those tissues and expression of TLR and proinflammatory cytokines was analyzed by reverse-transcription PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. Reverse-transcription PCR analysis revealed that 7 of the known 10 chicken TLR in the testis and 9 of 10 in the epididymis were expressed. Expression of TLR- 4 was found in both tissues. Expression of TLR-4 was significantly upregulated by LPS in the testis but not in the epididymis. Injection with LPS upregulated the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCLi2 in the testis and epididymis by 3 to 6 h postinjection. However, injection with phosphate-buffered saline (control) did not affect their expression. These results suggest that proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine expression was upregulated by LPS probably through TLR-4 activation, and thus the reproductive tissues are comprehensively equipped to deal with a pathogenic insult. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Cheng H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Feng S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jia X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

The polysaccharides were extracted from Epimedium acuminatum by hot water extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, enzyme extraction, and microwave-assisted extraction. The physicochemical properties of Epimedium polysaccharides were then determined by chemical composition analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Further, the antioxidant activities were studied via different methods, including DPPH assay, ABTS assay, FRAP assay and AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis assay. Results showed that the physicochemical properties of different polysaccharides were similar. Antioxidant assay indicated that four polysaccharides exhibited significant antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides which obtained by hot water extraction were higher than those of other polysaccharides. Overall, E. acuminatum polysaccharides might be used as potential natural antioxidant. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Liu J.-B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen D.-W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yu B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Mao X.-B.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2011

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) induces alterations to hepatic gene expressions which might program poor postnatal growth and health status. Maternal folic acid supplementation was administered in gilt diets to test whether hepatic mRNA expressions of some important genes induced by IUGR could be rescued by folic acid supplementation. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts were allotted to two treatment groups of control (C folic acid 1.3 mg/kg) or folic acid supplementation (FS folic acid 30 mg/kg) after mating, to study the effects of maternal folic acid supplementation on the mRNA expression of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1), peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), obesity receptor (ob-R) and Acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) in the liver of IUGR and NBW piglets. Blood and liver samples were collected for determinations of serum folic acid and gene expressions. The total number of born piglets, number of piglets born alive, average birth weight and 21 days average weight were not affected by dietary treatment (P>0.05), and serum folic acid concentration of piglets was greater in FS than C groups (P<0.05). Real-time PCR indicated that gene expression of MAT1A, MAT2A and DNMT1 were lower in IUGR piglets but could be elevated by maternal folic acid supplementation. Transcript expression levels of PPARγ, GR and AOX were higher in IUGR piglets, but were decreased to the level of normal piglets by maternal folic acid supplementation. Our results suggested that maternal folic acid supplementation be an effective way to rescue the gene expressions negatively induced by IUGR. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

Lin Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zeng W.X.,Northwest University, China | Fang Z.F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Che L.Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Animal | Year: 2012

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary threonine (Thr) supplement on reproductive performance and immune function of the male mice challenged with pseudorabies virus (PRV). Kun-Ming male mice were assigned randomly to four groups with different Thr levels (0.70%, 0.88%, 1.10% and 1.30%). Half of the mice in each group were injected with PRV or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) after 5 weeks' adaptation to diets. The second experiment examined the effects of dietary Thr level on copulation rate, pregnancy rate and average number per litter of PRV- or PBS-challenged male mice that copulated with adult female mice on the 9th day post PRV challenge. Sperm quality and testosterone of mice were decreased after PRV infection, but this effect was attenuated by increasing Thr levels. Copulation and conception rates were increased with increasing Thr levels (P = 0.14), but litter size was not affected (P > 0.05). In the PBS and PRV groups, mice fed higher levels of Thr had increased immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA and IgM concentrations. The PRV-specific antibody level, interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- concentration in PRV groups enhanced with increasing Thr levels; however, there was no difference in PBS groups. Furthermore, higher toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR9 expressions in testis were observed by PRV challenge compared with PBS groups, and higher Thr supplement attenuated PRV-challenged induced the upregulation effect of TLR2 and TLR9 mRNA expression in testis (P < 0.05). These data suggest that higher Thr consumption was recommended in order to counteract the deleterious effects of virus invasion, possibly through the downregulated expression of TLRs, and thus to improve immunity and reproduction performance of male mice challenged with PRV. © The Animal Consortium 2012.

Ma J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xu G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wan L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang N.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Gene | Year: 2015

The Akirin2 gene is a nuclear factor and is considered as a potential functional candidate gene for meat quality. To better understand the structures and functions of Akirin2 gene, the cDNA of the Tianfu goat Akirin2 gene was cloned. Sequence analysis showed that the Tianfu goat Akirin2 cDNA full coding sequence (CDS) contains 579. bp nucleotides that encode 192 amino acids. A phylogenic tree of the Akirin2 protein sequence from the Tianfu goat and other species revealed that the Tianfu goat Akirin2 was closely related with cattle and sheep Akirin2. RT-qPCR analysis showed that Akirin2 was expressed in the myocardium, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, leg muscle, abdominal muscle and the longissimus dorsi muscle. Especially, high expression levels of Akirin2 were detected in the spleen, lung, and kidney whereas lower expression levels were seen in the liver, myocardium, leg muscle, abdominal muscle and longissimus dorsi muscle. Temporal mRNA expression showed that Akirin2 expression levels in the longissimus dorsi muscle, first increased then decreased from day 1 to month 12. Western blotting results showed that the Akirin2 protein was only detected in the lung and three skeletal muscle tissues. © 2014.

Pu H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xu L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
International Review on Computers and Software | Year: 2012

The wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are formed by a large number of sensor nodes working together to provide a specific duty. However, the low energy capacity assigned to each node prompts users to look at an important design challenge such as lifetime maximization. In order to decrease energy consumption and so, increase network's lifetime, volume of transmitted data should be decreased. A solution, which is suggested, is data aggregation. In aggregation mechanisms, the nodes aggregate received data and send aggregated data instead of raw data to sink, so, the volume of the transmitted data is decreased. As the data aggregation technology is effective to reduce the energy consumed by a WSN and extend its survival cycle, this article is aimed at an improved hierarchical data aggregation mechanism that improves in respect of optimal number of cluster heads and cluster head selection threshold etc., as well as adopts different aggregation strategies on different levels on the precondition of clustering. It is revealed by the Matlab simulation experiment that such mechanism eclipses the LEACH protocol in terms of performance since it is able to cut down network energy consumption and prolong network survival cycle in an effective approach. © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

Luo S.,Chongqing University of Technology | Luo S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | He M.,Chongqing University of Technology | Cao Y.,Chongqing University of Technology | Xia Y.,Chongqing University of Technology
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

Summary: In most eukaryotes, tetraspanins regulate cellular activities by associating with other membrane components. In phytopathogenic fungi, the tetraspanin Pls1 controls appressorium-mediated penetration. However, regulation of Pls1 and its associated signalling pathways are not clear. In this study, the MaPls1 gene from the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum was functionally characterized. MaPls1 was highly expressed in mycelium and appressorium, and accumulated on the plasma membrane or in the cytoplasm. Compared with a wild-type strain, the deletion mutant ΔMaPls1 had delayed germination and appressorium formation and impaired turgor pressure on locust wings, but normal germination on medium and non-host insect matrices. Bioassays showed that ΔMaPls1 had decreased virulence and hyphal body formation in haemolymph when topically inoculated, but was not different from wild type when the insect cuticle was bypassed. Moreover, the ability to grow out of the cuticle was impaired in ΔMaPls1. Digital gene expression profiling revealed that genes involved in hydrolysing host cuticle and cell wall synthesis and remodelling were downregulated in ΔMaPls1. MaPls1 participated in crosstalk with signalling pathways such as the cyclic adenosinemonophosphate-dependent protein kinase A and calmodulin-dependent pathways. Taken together, these results demonstrated the important roles of MaPls1 at the early stage of infection-associated development in M.acridum. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Zeng Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yu B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Mao X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen D.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Meat Science | Year: 2012

This study investigated the effects of dietary digestible energy (DE) concentration (3.20, 3.40, 3.60 & 3.80. Mcal/kg) on growth, meat quality, and PPARγ gene expression in muscle and adipose tissues of Rongchang piglets. There was a quadratic increase in average daily gain and a linear decrease in the ratio of feed intake and gain as dietary DE increased (P< 0.05). Increasing dietary DE resulted in a linear increase of back fat thickness and intramuscular fat content (P< 0.05). A significant linear or quadratic effect (P< 0.01) was detected for shearing force. Increasing dietary DE linearly enhanced the expression of PPARγ in adipose tissues (P< 0.01). These data suggest that dietary DE had an impact on carcass and meat quality of Rongchang piglets. This could be partly due to the increased gene expression of PPARγ in adipose tissues, which may regulate the fat deposition of whole body. © 2011.

Shen Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

According to the triple shear unified yield criterion, the mechanical behavior of the pressure tunnel was put forward. The calculation formulas of the radius of plastic zone were deduced with considerations of the effects of the intermediate principal stress. The results show that the intermediate principal stress effect parameter b has influences on the radius of plastic zone. With the increase of the intermediate principal stress effect parameter b, the radius of plastic zone decreases. The radius of plastic zone is increased, because of the increase of the porous hydraulic pressure. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Zhang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Pan H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cao J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li J.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

This research explored the relationships between the energy use and economic output and pollution emissions in China's crop production system during 1995-2011. A set of indicator system based on energy and money and quality were proposed to describe these complex interactions between them. The results show that (1) Productivity of crop production system in China has been obviously enhanced through limited manpower inputs. However, this case leads to increasing share of fossil energy related agricultural supplies in the total agricultural investment. Moreover, fossil energy has an increasing contribution to the total energy use, which makes pollution emissions derived from fossil energy production and use become the largest contributor to the total emissions, especially thermal power production. Meanwhile, direct emissions from fuel energy use should be also emphasized. In terms of emission amount, thermal power and fertilizers production has the largest impact on atmospheric environment; thermal power production also contributes the largest to solid wastes; fuel oil production has the largest effect on the water environment; (2) the emission intensity of energy consumption in China's crop production system has risen; (3) the structure coordination degree of crop production system in China has been greatly enhanced; however, its scale harmony degree has no obvious changes. Therefore, the sustainability of China's crop production system is being challenged by unreasonable energy mix, high emission intensity of energy consumption and bad scale harmony degree. Finally, the related issues are discussed and some beneficial suggestions are put forward. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jia X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Dong L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yuan S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

Three polysaccharides were extracted from different leaf age Hawk teas (Litsea coreana var. lanuginosa) by hot water method. Preliminary structural characterization was conducted by physicochemical property, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Antioxidant activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing activity power (FRAP), hydroxyl radical and erythrocyte hemolysis were also evaluated. The physicochemical property analysis indicated significant differences in the three polysaccharides. The FTIR spectra revealed the general characteristic absorption peaks of the three polysaccharides. The SEM images demonstrated significant differences in the surface features of the different polysaccharides. The antioxidant activity assays revealed the obvious antioxidant activities of three polysaccharides, and the polysaccharides of Hawk primary leaf tea exhibited higher antioxidant activities than the other two polysaccharides. With current findings, the polysaccharides from Hawk primary leaf tea may have potential applications in food industries.

Wang Z.-Y.,Tsinghua University | Qi L.-J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang X.-Z.,Beijing Institute of Geology for Mineral Resources
Shuili Xuebao/Journal of Hydraulic Engineering | Year: 2012

Experiments were conducted with an artificial step-pool system on the new Wenjiagou Gully to mitigate large volume debris flows in 2009. The step-pool system dissipated flow energy in steps and hydraulic jumps. Analysis proved that the step-pool system dissipated 2/3 of the kinetic energy of flow, thus the critical discharge for triggering debris flow increased threefold. Due to the step-pool system maximized the flow resistance and protected the bed sediment and banks from erosion, the rainstorm floods in 2009 did not trigger debris flows. In 2010 the step-pool system was replaced with 20 check dams. Huge boulders were broken into small pieces of diameter less than 0.5 m and were used as building materials for the 20 dams. Without the protection of the step-pool system, a rainstorm flood scoured the base of the dams and caused the failure of check dams in Aug. 2010. The flow incised the gully bed by 50 m. The loose bank materials slid into the flow mixed with water and formed a large volume debris flow with a volume of 4.5 million m. Many houses were buried by the debris flow and 12 people were killed. Comparison of the two strategies proved that energy dissipation structures are necessary for controlling large volume debris flows. Check dams, if they are stable, may reduce the potential of bank failures and control debris flows. The step-pool system dissipates flow energy and control gully bed incision and bank failure. A combination of check dams and step-pool systems may be the most effective for mitigating debris flows.

Sun C.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Sun C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Sun C.,Beijing Normal University | Fang J.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | And 12 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2012

Chromatin modifications affect flowering time in the long-day plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but the role of histone methylation in flowering time regulation of rice (Oryza sativa), a short-day plant, remains to be elucidated. We identified a late-flowering long vegetative phase1 (lvp1) mutant in rice and used map-based cloning to reveal that lvp1 affects the SET domain group protein 724 (SDG724). SDG724 functions as a histone methyltransferase in vitro and contributes to a major fraction of global histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) methylation in vivo. Expression analyses of flowering time genes in wild-type and lvp1 mutants revealed that Early heading date1, but not Heading date1, are misregulated in lvp1 mutants. In addition, the double mutant of lvp1 with photoperiod sensitivity5 (se5) flowered later than the se5 single mutant, indicating that lvp1 delays flowering time irrespective of photoperiod. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that lvp1 had reduced levels of H3K36me2/3 at MADS50 and RFT1. This suggests that the divergent functions of paralogs RFT1 and Hd3a, and of MADS50 and MADS51, are in part due to differential H3K36me2/3 deposition, which also correlates with higher expression levels of MADS50 and RFT1 in flowering promotion in rice. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Du J.,Sichuan University | Sun X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang G.,University of Sichuan
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2016

The interaction natures between Pu and different ligands in several plutonyl (VI) complexes are investigated by performing topological analyses of electron density. The geometrical structures in both gaseous and aqueous phases are obtained with B3LYP functional, and are generally in agreement with available theoretical and experimental results when combined with all-electron segmented all-electron relativistic contracted (SARC) basis set. The Pu–Oyl bond orders show significant linear dependence on bond length and the charge of oxygen atoms in plutonyl moiety. The closed-shell interactions were identified for Pu-Ligand bonds in most complexes with quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analyses. Meanwhile, we found that some Pu–Ligand bonds, like Pu–OH-, show weak covalent. The interactive nature of Pu–ligand bonds were revealed based on the interaction quantum atom (IQA) energy decomposition approach, and our results indicate that all Pu–Ligand interactions is dominated by the electrostatic attraction interaction as expected. Meanwhile it is also important to note that the quantum mechanical exchange-correlation contributions can not be ignored. By means of the non-covalent interaction (NCI) approach it has been found that some weak and repulsion interactions existed in plutonyl(VI) complexes, which can not be distinguished by QTAIM, can be successfully identified. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Yang X.,Queen's University of Belfast | Yang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Flynn R.,Queen's University of Belfast | Von Der Kammer F.,University of Vienna | Hofmann T.,University of Vienna
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2011

This study, for the first time, investigates and quantifies the influence of slight changes in solution pH and ionic strength (IS) on colloidal microsphere deposition site coverage by Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) in a column matrix packed with saturated iron-oxide coated sand. Triple pulse experimental (TPE) results show adsorbed SRHA enhances microsphere mobility more at higher pH and lower IS and covers more sites than at higher IS and lower pH. Random sequential adsorption (RSA) modelling of experimental data suggests 1 μg of adsorbed SRHA occupied 9.28 ± 0.03 × 109 sites at pH7.6 and IS of 1.6 mMol but covered 2.75 ± 0.2 × 109 sites at pH6.3 and IS of 20 mMol. Experimental responses are suspected to arise from molecular conformation changes whereby SRHA extends more at higher pH and lower ionic strength but is more compact at lower pH and higher IS. Results suggest effects of pH and IS on regulating SRHA conformation were additive. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

He J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xie H.,Shandong Vocational Animal Science and Veterinary College | Wu S.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2016

Background: Activation of the nuclear factor-kappa β (NF-κB) signaling results in releasing of a variety of inflammatory cytokines that can induce skeletal muscle wasting (MW) in mammals. Curcumin is a natural product from spice turmeric that can block biological events in which NF-κB plays a critical role. Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of curcumin on the NF-κB-dependent MW in rats. Methods: The MW rats were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection and rats were fed 15 g curcumin per kg diet for 16 d. Results: LPS not only decreased the growth performance of rat, but significantly elevated its serum IL-1 concentration and muscle proteolysis rate. Interestingly, curcumin significantly prevented the muscle proteolysis rate and down-regulated expression levels of two critical muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases (Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1). When muscles from MW rats were incubated with curcumin in vitro, the calpain-, cathepsin L-, and proteasome-dependent muscle proteolysis were significantly decreased. Moreover, the nuclear NF-κB/p65 protein abundance were also decreased by curcumin. Conclusion: The results not only suggest a molecular mechanism by which curcumin modulates the inflammatory responses, but also offer a feasible avenue to ameliorate the NF-κB-dependent muscle proteolysis. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.

Zhang L.G.,Sichuan Agricultural University