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Sichuan Agricultural University is a university located in Ya'an city, Sichuan province, China and part of the “Project 211”,“PLANT 111”,“plant 2011”, specialized in biotechnology and agricultural science, and as well as offering degrees in physical science, engineering, economics, management, veterinary medicine, liberal arts, pedagogy and law. Wikipedia.


Palta J.A.,CSIRO | Chen X.,CSIRO | Chen X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Milroy S.P.,CSIRO | And 3 more authors.
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2011

There is little consensus on whether having a large root system is the best strategy in adapting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to water-limited environments. We explore the reasons for the lack of consensus and aim to answer the question of whether a large root system is useful in adapting wheat to dry environments. We used unpublished data from glasshouse and field experiments examining the relationship between root system size and their functional implication for water capture. Individual root traits for water uptake do not describe a root system as being large or small. However, the recent invigoration of the root system in wheat by indirect selection for increased leaf vigour has enlarged the root system through increases in root biomass and length and root length density. This large root system contributes to increasing the capture of water and nitrogen early in the season, and facilitates the capture of additional water for grain filling. The usefulness of a vigorous root system in increasing wheat yields under water-limited conditions maybe greater in environments where crops rely largely on seasonal rainfall, such as the Mediterranean-type environments. In environments where crops are reliant on stored soil water, a vigorous root system increases the risk of depleting soil water before completion of grain filling. © CSIRO 2011.


Jiang Y.Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

The Yanan (YN) pig is a traditional Chinese indigenous breed that is raised in southwest China in the Sichuan Province, but there is little data on the germplasm characteristics of this breed. To evaluate carcass characteristics and meat quality of the YN pig, we compared carcass and meat quality of YN pigs and Landrace × Yanan (CY) hybrid pigs; 30 YN pigs and 30 CY pigs weighing 20 ± 2 kg were reared and slaughtered at the normal slaughter weight (100-120 kg). The carcasses were chilled and the left carcass side was dissected into bone, lean meat, fat, and skin; meat quality parameters were measured. Carcasses of YN pigs were lighter (88.85 vs 90.05 kg, P < 0.05) and shorter (71.88 vs 77.61 cm, P < 0.001); they contained less lean meat (41.60 vs 49.25%, P < 0.001), less ham and breech (25.93 vs 27.53%, P < 0.001) and less carcass bone (9.83 vs 10.53%, P < 0.01) than did carcasses of CY pigs. On the other hand, YN pigs had more carcass subcutaneous fat and skin (48.58 vs 40.23%, P < 0.001), thicker backfat (3.67 vs 3.43 cm, P < 0.001) and smaller loin muscle area (9.83 vs 26.91 cm(2), P < 0.001) compared with CY pigs. Among meat quality parameters, YN pigs had higher pH(1) (6.41 vs 6.17, P < 0.001), higher color score(u) (3.86 vs 3.36, P < 0.001) and lower Minolta L(u) values (40.89 vs 45.32, P < 0.01) than CY pigs. On the other hand, YN pigs had lower drip loss (1.31 vs 2.26%, P < 0.05) and lesser fiber area (2351.34 vs 3025.43 μm(2), P < 0.01) than CY pigs. Both breeds had high intramuscular fat (4.46% in YN and 4.45% in CY). No significant differences in other carcass traits and meat quality were found in the two populations. We conclude that YN pigs could be used in commercial pig production to provide good tasting and high-quality niche products.


Luo P.G.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2010

With the quick increase of new knowledge in genetics, undergraduate teaching of genetics is becoming a challenge for many teachers. In this paper, the author suggested that it would be important to construct the knowledge network of genetics and to develop the self-learning ability of students. This could help students to read textbooks "from the thicker to the thinner in classroom" and "from the thinner to the thicker outside classroom", so that students would turn to be the talents with new ideas and have more competent ability in biology-related fields.


Jin S.Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Bing du xue bao = Chinese journal of virology / [bian ji, Bing du xue bao bian ji wei yuan hui] | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study is trying to analysis the homology between four lentogenic Class I genotype 3 Newcastle disease virus isolates from different hosts with NDV strain NDV 08-004, which was the first obtained complete genome sequence virus of class I genotype 3. The full-length genome of NDV isolates, JS/3/09/Ch, ZJ/3/10/Ch, AH/2/10/Du and JS/9/08/Go,were determined by RT-PCR and then an alyzed. All the genomes are 15 198 nucleotides (nt) in length. Compared with the full genome sequences of Class II NDV stains (genotype IV-IX),four isolates has a 6-nt deletion in the non-coding region of nuclear phosphoprotein gene between nucleotides 1 640-1 641 and 12-nt insertion in the coding region of phospho protein gene between nucleotides 2 381-2 382. All the isolates have the motifs 112EQ/RQE/GRL117 at the cleavage site of the fusion protein, which is typical of lenogenic NDV strains, and it is in agreement with the result of pathogenic tests. The full-length genome of 4 genotype 3 NDV isolates shared 93% nucleotide identity with NDV08-004. The results of alignment of 6 viral genes showed that NP gene shared the highest identity (98.3%-96.4%) and P gene shared the lowest identity (96.1%-91.9%). The results show the following two points. First, it is concluded that the isolates from different hosts share the same genotype has the insignificant divergence in the genetic information. Second, it is proposed that the mutation rates of NP/F/L genes are lower than P/M/HN genes.


D'Inca R.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | D'Inca R.,Agrocampus Ouest | Che L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Thymann T.,Copenhagen University | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

We investigated some consequences of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on weight and structural and functional parameters of the intestine at birth and after 2. days of colostrum feeding. IUGR altered intestinal morphology, leading to a longer and thinner small intestine in piglets born both preterm and at full term, together with reduced villous size in term IUGR piglets. Preterm IUGR piglets displayed an improved ability to adapt to colostrum intake by rapid intestinal catch-up growth, relative to other groups of pigs. In contrast, intestinal nutrient absorption surface was impaired by IUGR during the first days of life in term piglets. The postnatal effects of IUGR may have long term consequences for developing piglets, and these effects may depend on gestational age at birth, preterm or term. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Ji L.,University of California at Riverside | Liu X.,University of California at Riverside | Yan J.,University of Kentucky | Wang W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 11 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2011

Stem cells are crucial in morphogenesis in plants and animals. Much is known about the mechanisms that maintain stem cell fates or trigger their terminal differentiation. However, little is known about how developmental time impacts stem cell fates. Using Arabidopsis floral stem cells as a model, we show that stem cells can undergo precise temporal regulation governed by mechanisms that are distinct from, but integrated with, those that specify cell fates. We show that two microRNAs, miR172 and miR165/166, through targeting APETALA2 and type III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) genes, respectively, regulate the temporal program of floral stem cells. In particular, we reveal a role of the type III HD-Zip genes, previously known to specify lateral organ polarity, in stem cell termination. Both reduction in HD-Zip expression by over-expression of miR165/166 and mis-expression of HD-Zip genes by rendering them resistant to miR165/166 lead to prolonged floral stem cell activity, indicating that the expression of HD-Zip genes needs to be precisely controlled to achieve floral stem cell termination. We also show that both the ubiquitously expressed ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) gene and its homolog AGO10, which exhibits highly restricted spatial expression patterns, are required to maintain the correct temporal program of floral stem cells. We provide evidence that AGO10, like AGO1, associates with miR172 and miR165/166 in vivo and exhibits "slicer" activity in vitro. Despite the common biological functions and similar biochemical activities, AGO1 and AGO10 exert different effects on miR165/166 in vivo. This work establishes a network of microRNAs and transcription factors governing the temporal program of floral stem cells and sheds light on the relationships among different AGO genes, which tend to exist in gene families in multicellular organisms. © 2011 Ji et al.


Du B.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

This paper analyzed to build the system used in ASP technology, network database technology, Web technology, database connectivity, VBScript and JavaScript, IIS technology. According to the system function modules to achieve an overall system design, detail the system architecture and functional modules for each function to be concrete implementation. As well as the detailed design of the system introduced various types of function modules of the implementation process. Finally from the data transmission encryption, improved MD5 password encryption, server configuration and other aspects of introducing the safety measures taken by the system, and system testing and operation have been summarized and analyzed in order to better refine and improve the future system. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Shen F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhong Y.,University of Sichuan | Saddler J.N.,University of British Columbia | Liu R.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) was steam pretreated in the conditions of 190 °C for 5 min to assess its amenability to the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Results showed that pretreatment conditions were robust enough to pretreat SSB with maximum of 87% glucan and 72% xylan recovery. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis showed that the pretreated SSB at 2% substrate consistency resulted in maximum of 70% glucan-glucose conversion. Increasing substrate consistency from 2% to 16% led to a significant reduction in glucan conversion. However, the decrease ratio of glucan-glucose conversion was the minimum when the consistency increased from 2% to 12%. When the pretreated SSB consistency of 12% was applied for hydrolysis, increase in cellulase loading from 7.5 up to 20 filter paper units (FPU)/g glucan resulted only in 14% increase in glucan-glucose conversion compared to 20% increase with cellulase loading varying from 2.5 to 7.5 FPU/g glucan. More than 10 cellobiase units (CBU)/g glucan β-glucosidase supplementation had no noticeable improvement on glucan-glucose conversion. Additionally, supplementation of xylanase was found to significantly increase glucan-glucose conversion from 50% to 80% with the substrate consistency of 12%, when the cellulase and β-glucosidase loadings were at relatively low enzyme loadings (7.5 FPU/g and 10 CBU/g glucan). It appeared that residual xylan played a critical role in hindering the ease of hydrolysis of SSB. A proper xylanase addition was suggested to achieve a high hydrolysis yield at relatively high substrate consistency with relatively low enzyme loadings. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Shen F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Kumar L.,University of British Columbia | Hu J.,University of British Columbia | Saddler J.N.,University of British Columbia
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Steam-pretreated sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) and Douglas-fir (DF) were employed for SHF and SSF to evaluate the effects of xylanase supplementation and delignification on ethanol production. Results indicated final ethanol concentration in SHF could reach 28.4. g/L (SSB) and 20.4. g/L (DF) by xylanase supplementation with the increase of 46% and 61% in comparison with controls. The delignification could significantly enhance final ethanol concentration to 31.2. g/L (SSB) and 30.2. g/L (DF) with the increase of 61% and 138%. In SSF, final ethanol concentration in the delignified SSB and DF arrived at 27.6. g/L and 34.3. g/L with the increase of 26% and 157% compared with controls. However, only 2.2. g/L (SSB) and 6.9. g/L (DF) ethanol were obtained with xylanase supplementation. According to these results, it could be concluded that delignification was beneficial to improve ethanol production of SHF and SSF. The xylanase supplementation (0.12. g protein/g glucan) was only positive to SHF while retarded SSF seriously. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Burgess D.G.,University of California at Berkeley | Xu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Freeling M.,University of California at Berkeley
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2015

The plant gene model remains largely an extrapolation from animals, with the cis functional unit, the gene, cast as a dynamic looping structure. Molecular genetics with model plants continues to make advances; highlighted here are quantitative-occupancy results from the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH transcription Factors (PIF) quartet. Compared to this complex snapshot, results from chromatin occupancy and other Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE)-like approaches increase our transcription factor-motif cognate library, but regulation cannot by itself be inferred from binding. Complementary published Arabidopsis conserved noncoding sequence lists are compared, evaluated, merged, and released. Comparative genomic approaches have identified a cis modifier of a gene's expression. -. hypothetically, a transposon-based 'rheostat'. -. that works in all cells, times and places. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhao X.-Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu X.-H.,Nankai University | Zhao B.,Nankai University
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2013

A series of lanthanide-based organic frameworks with formulas of {[PrL(H2O)2]·2H2O}n (1) and {[Ln3L3(H2O)2]·2H 2O}n (Ln = Eu (2), Gd (3), Tb (4), Dy (5), Ho (6), Er (7); H3L = 4-(carboxymethoxy)isophthalic acid), were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. It is the first time that 4-(carboxymethoxy)isophthalic acid is employed in producing lanthanide compounds. The seven compounds exhibit two types of structures with the decreasing radius of the lanthanide ions, representing the lanthanide contraction effect. Compound 1 with the large Pr3+ ion displays a 2D layered structure with a binodal (4,4)-connected topology with the Schläfli symbol of (3363)2, whereas compounds 2-7 with small Ln3+ ions feature a 3D framework constructed from carboxyl groups with a (5,6,8)-connected topology with the Schläfli symbol of (324454)·(344 45463)·(34485 6698). The luminescence and magnetic properties were investigated, and the results indicate that the H3L ligand can sensitize the lanthanide luminescence in compounds 2, 4 and 5 and makes a contribution to the antiferromagnetic interactions in compound 3 or the uncertain magnetic interactions in compounds 4-7. Additionally, the thermal analyses suggest the high thermal stability of compounds 1-7. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Yang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang X.,Duke University | Yang X.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Lin S.,Duke University | Wiesner M.R.,Duke University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2014

Interactions between organic matter (OM) and engineered polymer coatings as they affect the retention of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were studied. Two distinct types of OM-cysteine representing low molecular weight multivalent functional groups, and Suwannee River Humic Acid (HA) representing high molecular weight polymers, were investigated with respect to their effects on particle stability in aggregation and deposition. Aggregation of the PVP coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) was enhanced by cysteine addition at high ionic strengths, which was attributed to cysteine binding to the AgNPs and replacing the otherwise steric stabilizing agent PVP. In contrast the addition of HA did not increase aggregation rates and decreased PVP-AgNP deposition to the silica porous medium, consistent with enhanced electrosteric stabilization by the HA. Although cysteine also reduced deposition in the porous medium, the mechanisms of reduced deposition appear to be enhanced electric double layer (EDL) interaction at low ionic strengths. At higher ionic strengths, aggregation was favored leading to lower deposition due to smaller diffusion coefficients and single collector efficiencies despite the reduced EDL interactions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Chen L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2011

Effects of constant temperature heating with microwave on the quality of peanuts were studied. In order to probe the advantage and applications of microwave heating with constant temperature control, peanuts was taken as testing material to compare the difference of drying quality with conventional gradient microwave heating and microwave heating with constant temperature. Results showed that the drying quality of peanuts by microwave heating with constant temperature was much better than that of drying by conventional gradient microwave, the later would easily cause burned products and skin leveling off. The results proved that the microwave heating with constant temperature could ensure the maximum quality of dried peanuts when the microwave power was 1.20 W/g and the temperature was between 45-50°C.


Xin X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

In this paper, using UML modeling tool (Rational Rose) conducted a needs analysis and modeling system, and on this basis, we design the interface module functions, system architecture and database. The paper finally designed and realized the system based on the.NET platform and Ajax technology. The system uses SQL Server as the background data management system, and in the end using ADO.NET technology to realize data access. According to the actual scientific research management, system design includes integrated office, scientific research institutions, scientific research personnel, research projects and other subsystems. the majority of teachers and the laboratory research team can within the prescribed time limit, in any location by logging into the science and Technology Department of scientific research project management webpage query declaration, provides great convenience for research teachers. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Wang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yu X.,University of Sichuan
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2015

Based on the “Application Guidance for Enterprise Internal Control: Engineering Project”, this paper takes the listed companies in construction industry as research samples. It has unscrambled the development rules of internal control quality in construction enterprises from two aspects: self-evaluation & verification, and goal achievement, and has further analyzed the impact of the internal control quality on the corporate value. The study finds that: (1) The internal control quality of the companies concerned has been improving from 2008 to 2012, especially after 2010; (2) the internal control quality of engineering projects has a significant positive correlation with companies’ sustainability and their current market value. This study would provide support to and serve as references for future efforts to strengthen the establishment of internal control quality and to upgrade the corporate value. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.


Loraine A.E.,North Carolina A&T State University | McCormick S.,University of California at Berkeley | Estrada A.,North Carolina A&T State University | Patel K.,North Carolina A&T State University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Pollen grains of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contain two haploid sperm cells enclosed in a haploid vegetative cell. Upon germination, the vegetative cell extrudes a pollen tube that carries the sperm to an ovule for fertilization. Knowing the identity, relative abundance, and splicing patterns of pollen transcripts will improve our understanding of pollen and allow investigation of tissue-specific splicing in plants. Most Arabidopsis pollen transcriptome studies have used the ATH1 microarray, which does not assay splice variants and lacks specific probe sets for many genes. To investigate the pollen transcriptome, we performed high-throughput sequencing (RNA-Seq) of Arabidopsis pollen and seedlings for comparison. Gene expression was more diverse in seedling, and genes involved in cell wall biogenesis were highly expressed in pollen. RNA-Seq detected at least 4,172 protein-coding genes expressed in pollen, including 289 assayed only by nonspecific probe sets. Additional exons and previously unannotated 59 and 39 untranslated regions for pollen-expressed genes were revealed. We detected regions in the genome not previously annotated as expressed; 14 were tested and 12 were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Gapped read alignments revealed 1,908 high-confidence new splicing events supported by 10 or more spliced read alignments. Alternative splicing patterns in pollen and seedling were highly correlated. For most alternatively spliced genes, the ratio of variants in pollen and seedling was similar, except for some encoding proteins involved in RNA splicing. This study highlights the robustness of splicing patterns in plants and the importance of ongoing annotation and visualization of RNA-Seq data using interactive tools such as Integrated Genome Browser. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.


Yuan S.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Infectious Diseases of Poverty | Year: 2015

There is currently no effective treatment for the Ebola virus (EBOV) thus far. Most drugs and vaccines developed to date have not yet been approved for human trials. Two FDA-approved c-AbI1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors Gleevec and Tasigna block the release of viral particles; however, their clinical dosages are much lower than the dosages required for effective EBOV suppression. An α-1,2-glucosidase inhibitor Miglustat has been shown to inhibit EBOV particle assembly and secretion. Additionally, the estrogen receptor modulators Clomiphene and Toremifene prevent membrane fusion of EBOV and 50-90% of treated mice survived after Clomiphene/Toremifene treatments. However, the uptake efficiency of Clomiphene by oral administration is very low. Thus, I propose a hypothetical treatment protocol to treat Ebola virus infection with a cumulative use of both Miglustat and Toremifene to inhibit the virus effectively and synergistically. EBOV infection induces massive apoptosis of peripheral lymphocytes. Also, cytolysis of endothelial cells triggers disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and subsequent multiple organ failures. Therefore, blood transfusions and active treatments with FDA-approved drugs to treat DIC are also recommended. © 2015 Yuan; licensee BioMed Central.


Li J.Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2012

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play an important role in the susceptibility and/or resistance to many diseases. To gain an insight into the MHC background of the Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), and thereby facilitate their protection and application in biomedical research, the second exon of the Mhc-DPB1 genes from 70 Tibetan macaques in Sichuan Province were characterized by PCR, cloning, sequencing, and statistical analysis. A total of 18 Mhc-DPB1 alleles were identified from Tibetan macaques, of which one (Math-DPB1*01:06N) was a pseudogene. Math-DPB1*06:01:01 (67.14%) was the most frequent allele in all the 18 alleles detected, followed by Math-DPB1* 01:03:01 (37.14%), Math-DPB1*09:02 (25.71%), and Math-DPB1*22:01 (15.71%). The alignment of putative amino acid sequences of the 18 Math-DPB1 alleles showed that 5 variable sites were species-specific to Tibetan macaques. A phylogenetic tree constructed using DPB1 alleles in difference species demonstrated that the alleles for Math-DPB1, Mamu-DPB1, and Mafa-DPB1 tended to mix together, rather than cluster into a separate branch in a species-specific fashion, and the Trans-species polymorphism was also observed in the phylogenetic tree. Selection analysis revealed that balancing selection may play an important role in maintaining the polymorphism of Math-DPB1 genes.


Henry I.M.,University of California at Davis | Dilkes B.P.,University of California at Davis | Dilkes B.P.,University of Washington | Dilkes B.P.,Purdue University | And 5 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2014

Whole-genome duplication resulting from polyploidy is ubiquitous in the evolutionary history of plant species. Yet, polyploids must overcome the meiotic challenge of pairing, recombining, and segregating more than two sets of chromosomes. Using genomic sequencing of synthetic and natural allopolyploids of Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa, we determined that dosage variation and chromosomal translocations consistent with homoeologous pairing were more frequent in the synthetic allopolyploids. To test the role of structural chromosomal differentiation versus genetic regulation of meiotic pairing, we performed sequenced-based, high-density genetic mapping in F2 hybrids between synthetic and natural lines. This F2 population displayed frequent dosage variation and deleterious homoeologous recombination. The genetic map derived from this population provided no indication of structural evolution of the genome of the natural allopolyploid Arabidopsis suecica, compared with its predicted parents. The F2 population displayed variation in meiotic regularity and pollen viability that correlated with a single quantitative trait locus, which we named BOY NAMED SUE, and whose beneficial allele was contributed by A. suecica. This demonstrates that an additive, gain-of-function allele contributes to meiotic stability and fertility in a recently established allopolyploid and provides an Arabidopsis system to decipher evolutionary and molecular mechanisms of meiotic regularity in polyploids. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.


Zhang M.,Hiroshima University | Zhang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Nii T.,Hiroshima University | Isobe N.,Hiroshima University | Yoshimura Y.,Hiroshima University
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to determine the expression profiles of Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the testis and epididymis of rooster and whether the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, CXCLi2, and TLR-4 was affected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a TLR-4 ligand. Roosters were intravenously injected with LPS or phosphate- buffered saline. Testes and epididymis were collected before and after 3 or 6 h postinjection. Total RNA was isolated from those tissues and expression of TLR and proinflammatory cytokines was analyzed by reverse-transcription PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. Reverse-transcription PCR analysis revealed that 7 of the known 10 chicken TLR in the testis and 9 of 10 in the epididymis were expressed. Expression of TLR- 4 was found in both tissues. Expression of TLR-4 was significantly upregulated by LPS in the testis but not in the epididymis. Injection with LPS upregulated the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCLi2 in the testis and epididymis by 3 to 6 h postinjection. However, injection with phosphate-buffered saline (control) did not affect their expression. These results suggest that proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine expression was upregulated by LPS probably through TLR-4 activation, and thus the reproductive tissues are comprehensively equipped to deal with a pathogenic insult. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Jiang Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Jiang Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lee W.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011

Background: Kraits (genus Bungarus) and cobras (genus Naja) are two representative toxic genera of elapids in the old world. Although they are closely related genera and both of their venoms are very toxic, the compositions of their venoms are very different. To unveil their detailed venoms and their evolutionary patterns, we constructed venom gland cDNA libraries and genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries for Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra, respectively. We sequenced about 1500 cDNA clones for each of the venom cDNA libraries and screened BAC libraries of the two snakes by blot analysis using four kinds of toxin probes; i.e., three-finger toxin (3FTx), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), kunitz-type protease inhibitor (Kunitz), and natriuretic peptide (NP).Results: In total, 1092 valid expressed sequences tags (ESTs) for B. multicinctus and 1166 ESTs for N. atra were generated. About 70% of these ESTs can be annotated as snake toxin transcripts. 3FTx (64.5%) and β bungarotoxin (25.1%) comprise the main toxin classes in B. multicinctus, while 3FTx (95.8%) is the dominant toxin in N. atra. We also observed several less abundant venom families in B. multicinctus and N. atra, such as PLA2, C-type lectins, and Kunitz. Peculiarly a cluster of NP precursors with tandem NPs was detected in B. multicinctus. A total of 71 positive toxin BAC clones in B. multicinctus and N. atra were identified using four kinds of toxin probes (3FTx, PLA2, Kunitz, and NP), among which 39 3FTx-postive BACs were sequenced to reveal gene structures of 3FTx toxin genes.Conclusions: Based on the toxin ESTs and 3FTx gene sequences, the major components of B. multicinctus venom transcriptome are neurotoxins, including long chain alpha neurotoxins (α-ntx) and the recently originated β bungarotoxin, whereas the N. atra venom transcriptome mainly contains 3FTxs with cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity (short chain α-ntx). The data also revealed that tandem duplications contributed the most to the expansion of toxin multigene families. Analysis of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate ratios (dN/dS) indicates that not only multigene toxin families but also other less abundant toxins might have been under rapid diversifying evolution. © 2011 Jiang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Chen X.-Y.,Southwest Petroleum University | Chen T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jia C.-S.,Southwest Petroleum University
European Physical Journal Plus | Year: 2014

We solve the Klein-Gordon equation with the improved Manning-Rosen potential energy model in D spatial dimensions. The relativistic bound state energy equation and the unnormalized radial wave functions have been obtained. For fixed vibrational quantum number and various rotational quantum numbers, the relativistic energies for the a3Σu + states of the 7Li2 molecule increase as D increases. We observe that the change behavior of the relativistic vibrational energies in higher dimensions remains similar to that of the three-dimensional system. © 2014, Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Shen Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

According to the triple shear unified yield criterion, the mechanical behavior of the pressure tunnel was put forward. The calculation formulas of the radius of plastic zone were deduced with considerations of the effects of the intermediate principal stress. The results show that the intermediate principal stress effect parameter b has influences on the radius of plastic zone. With the increase of the intermediate principal stress effect parameter b, the radius of plastic zone decreases. The radius of plastic zone is increased, because of the increase of the porous hydraulic pressure. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Chen L.,University of Sichuan | Cui H.,University of Sichuan | Cui H.,Sichuan Agricultural University
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2015

Glutamine metabolism has been proved to be dysregulated in many cancer cells, and is essential for proliferation of most cancer cells, which makes glutamine an appealing target for cancer therapy. In order to be well used by cells, glutamine must be transported to cells by specific transporters and converted to glutamate by glutaminase. There are currently several drugs that target glutaminase under development or clinical trials. Also, glutamine metabolism restriction has been proved to be effective in inhibiting tumor growth both in vivo and vitro through inducing apoptosis, growth arrest and/or autophagy. Here, we review recent researches about glutamine metabolism in cancer, and cell death induced by targeting glutamine, and their potential roles in cancer therapy. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Yi Y.M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cheng D.H.,North University of China
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Carbon fiber reinforcement polymer could be used to replace steel tendon to bear loads together with concrete to solve the problem of steel tendon corrosion in concrete members. To study mechanical behavior of this kind of member, four concrete beams of partially prestressed with non-bonded carbon fiber reinforcement tendon were fabricated. In these beams, the reinforcement was taken as non prestressed tendon and carbon fiber reinforcement polymer tendon was taken as non-bonded prestressed tendon. Four points bending experiment were completed. Then the mechanical behavior of these beams has been studied through finite element analysis. The results show that a good agreement between experimental and finite element analysis results. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Xuan Y.,University of Sichuan | Yunchen W.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Proceedings of International Conference on Service Science, ICSS | Year: 2016

Under the 'new normal' of the development in financial services, high-quality of customer service experience is the core product of commercial banks, but also the determinant of new driver for competitive position in commercial bank industry. Based on the perspective of internal marketing, this study has taken 206 front-line employees in commercial banks as research samples and analyzed the impact of commercial banks' internal service quality on service performance. The study suggests that internal service quality has a positive effect on the service performance of front-line employees. Job satisfaction has a mediating effect between internal service quality and service performance, and trust has a moderating effect between internal service quality and service performance. This study has opened a black box (internal service quality → service performance), which would provide some theoretical support for the commercial banks to upraise the front-line employees' satisfaction and improve their service performance. © 2015 IEEE.


Xin X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

With the rapid development and wide application of network technology, information security issues are increasingly highlighted, received more and more attention. This article introduces the present situation of network information security, discusses the connotation of network information security, and analyzes the main threat to the security of the network information. And we separately detailed description of the data monitoring platform architecture from the data layer, network layer and presentation layer three levels, focuses on the functional structure of intelligent database platform, and puts forward to measures that ensure the safety of the platform and the internal data security. Through the design of the platform to improve the information security system has certain significance. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zhou G.B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou G.B.,China Agricultural University | Li N.,China Agricultural University
Animal Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Bovine oocytes are less likely to undergo successful cryopreservation than cleavage-stage embryos. Bovine oocytes characteristically contain high levels of lipids that represent one of the major obstacles limiting efficient cryopreservation. These droplets together with structures such as cumulus cells, zona pellucida, cytoplasm membrane, cortical granules, mitochondria, spindle, and cytoskeleton (microtubles and microfilaments) often incur serious damage during cooling and warming. The cryoinjury could, to some extent, be decreased by selection of proper permeable and non-permeable cryoprotectants, and of vitrification with high cooling and warming rates. Additionally, such measures may also enhance their cryotolerance as partial removal of cumulus cells, modification of oocyte membrane constituents, polarization of the cytoplasmic lipid droplets by centrifugation, and addition of cytoskeleton relaxants or ice blockers into vitrification solutions. The improvement in cryopreservation methodology for bovine oocytes will no doubt augment other technologies such as bovine cloning and the establishment of gene bank for transgenic cattle. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Gao F.,University of Sichuan | Gao F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang Z.-K.,University of Sichuan | Chen Q.-H.,University of Sichuan | And 2 more authors.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2012

The synthesis of a novel D-ring modified docetaxel analogue, in which the oxetane ring is replaced with a γ-lactone, was achieved from 10-deacetylbaccatin III. The key steps of the synthesis include the direct acetylation of the secondary hydroxyl group at C-5 and D-ring opening and intramolecular aldol reaction to form the γ-lactone. In MTT assays, this analogue proved to have equipotent cytotoxicity relative to paclitaxel towards HCT8, HePG2 and BGC23 cancer cell lines, and be more potent than paclitaxel against A549 and A375. It represents the first example of D-ring modified taxoids with significant cytotoxicity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Zhou G.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Proceeding of 2012 International Conference on Information Management, Innovation Management and Industrial Engineering, ICIII 2012 | Year: 2012

The development of rural tourism market is an effective way to realize the inclusive growth. It is indicated from the domestic tourism development situation that the rural tourism market has not realized an essential development. Based on an analysis for the reasons restraining the rural tourism development, the ways to realize the inclusive growth in rural tourism are obtained: insist on the scientific outlook on development, and set up a social security mechanism which is beneficial for rural tourism market development; change the consumption concept, actively create wealth, and create the realization conditions of peasantry tourism; and set up the inclusive outlook on tourism development, and develop the products systems which are suitable to rural tourism. © 2012 IEEE.


Li L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li T.-Z.,University Of Science And Technology Liaoning
Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Advanced Information Engineering and Education Science, ICAIEES 2013 | Year: 2013

Aiming at the practical difficulty in the entrepreneurship accelerate services, this paper proposes an idea of 'Simple Accelerator'. It starts with the concept of 'Simple Accelerator' and analyzes its feasibility. Then it follows with the research of 'Simple Accelerator's five serving characteristics: The physical space, infrastructure, integration policies and social resources, providing of flexible services and 'high performance-price ratio'. In the end, this paper concludes that building 'Simple Accelerator' should adopt the following measures: incubator leading, government involving, 'center-periphery' constructing, distributed sites locating and intensive managing and extending the function of incubator. © 2013. The authors - Published by Atlantis Press..


Wang Z.-Y.,Tsinghua University | Qi L.-J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang X.-Z.,Beijing Institute of Geology for Mineral Resources
Shuili Xuebao/Journal of Hydraulic Engineering | Year: 2012

Experiments were conducted with an artificial step-pool system on the new Wenjiagou Gully to mitigate large volume debris flows in 2009. The step-pool system dissipated flow energy in steps and hydraulic jumps. Analysis proved that the step-pool system dissipated 2/3 of the kinetic energy of flow, thus the critical discharge for triggering debris flow increased threefold. Due to the step-pool system maximized the flow resistance and protected the bed sediment and banks from erosion, the rainstorm floods in 2009 did not trigger debris flows. In 2010 the step-pool system was replaced with 20 check dams. Huge boulders were broken into small pieces of diameter less than 0.5 m and were used as building materials for the 20 dams. Without the protection of the step-pool system, a rainstorm flood scoured the base of the dams and caused the failure of check dams in Aug. 2010. The flow incised the gully bed by 50 m. The loose bank materials slid into the flow mixed with water and formed a large volume debris flow with a volume of 4.5 million m. Many houses were buried by the debris flow and 12 people were killed. Comparison of the two strategies proved that energy dissipation structures are necessary for controlling large volume debris flows. Check dams, if they are stable, may reduce the potential of bank failures and control debris flows. The step-pool system dissipates flow energy and control gully bed incision and bank failure. A combination of check dams and step-pool systems may be the most effective for mitigating debris flows.


Luo S.,Chongqing University of Technology | Luo S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | He M.,Chongqing University of Technology | Cao Y.,Chongqing University of Technology | Xia Y.,Chongqing University of Technology
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

Summary: In most eukaryotes, tetraspanins regulate cellular activities by associating with other membrane components. In phytopathogenic fungi, the tetraspanin Pls1 controls appressorium-mediated penetration. However, regulation of Pls1 and its associated signalling pathways are not clear. In this study, the MaPls1 gene from the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum was functionally characterized. MaPls1 was highly expressed in mycelium and appressorium, and accumulated on the plasma membrane or in the cytoplasm. Compared with a wild-type strain, the deletion mutant ΔMaPls1 had delayed germination and appressorium formation and impaired turgor pressure on locust wings, but normal germination on medium and non-host insect matrices. Bioassays showed that ΔMaPls1 had decreased virulence and hyphal body formation in haemolymph when topically inoculated, but was not different from wild type when the insect cuticle was bypassed. Moreover, the ability to grow out of the cuticle was impaired in ΔMaPls1. Digital gene expression profiling revealed that genes involved in hydrolysing host cuticle and cell wall synthesis and remodelling were downregulated in ΔMaPls1. MaPls1 participated in crosstalk with signalling pathways such as the cyclic adenosinemonophosphate-dependent protein kinase A and calmodulin-dependent pathways. Taken together, these results demonstrated the important roles of MaPls1 at the early stage of infection-associated development in M.acridum. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


He Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

A large number of design, construction and maintenance measures may be selected by bridge engineers to help ensure safe and durable service. In the present paper an improved model is developed for time-dependent reliability estimation of RC bridge decks subject to general and localized corrosion. The preliminary model developed is improved by considering weakening of the bond interface between concrete and reinforcement as a result of reinforcement corrosion and serviceability limit states in the time-dependent reliability analysis. A probabilistic model is developed that relates loss of reinforcement area to a non-linear bond stress-strain relationship. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Shi X.,Baylor College of Medicine | Li X.,Baylor College of Medicine | Li X.,China Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-responsive neuropeptide that exerts diverse actions in the gastrointestinal tract, including enhancing mucosal cell survival and proliferation. GLP-2 stimulates mucosal growth in vivo with an increased rate of protein synthesis. However, it was unclear whether GLP-2 can directly stimulate protein synthesis. The objective was to test critically whether GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) activation directly stimulates protein synthesis through a PI 3-kinase-dependent Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. HEK 293 cells (transfected with human GLP-2R cDNA) were treated with human GLP-2 with/ without pretreatment of PI 3-kinase inhibitor (LY-294002) or mTOR inhibitor (rapamycin). Results show that 1) GLP-2 specifically bound to GLP-2R overexpressed in the HEK cells with Ka = 0.22 nM and Bmax = 321 fmol/μg protein; 2) GLP-2-stimulated protein synthesis was dependent on the amount of GLP-2R cDNA and the dosage of GLP-2 and reached the plateau among 0.2-2 nM GLP-2; 3) GLP-2-stimulated protein synthesis was abolished by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor and mTOR inhibitor; and 4) GLP-2-mediated stimulation of phosphorylation on Akt and mTOR was dependent on the amount of GLP-2R cDNA transfected and the dosage of GLP-2. In addition, GLP-2-mediated action and signaling in regulation of protein synthesis were confirmed in mouse hippocampal neurons (expressing native GLP-2R). GLP-2 directly stimulated protein synthesis of primary cultured neurons in dosage-dependent, PI 3-kinase-dependent, and rapamycin-sensitive manners, which linked with activation of Akt-mTOR signaling pathway as well. We conclude that GLP-2R activation directly stimulates protein synthesis by activating the PI 3-kinase-dependent Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. GLP-2-stimulated protein synthesis may be physiologically relevant to maintaining neuronal long-term potentiation and providing secondary mediators (namely neuropeptides or growth factors).


Jie H.,China Agricultural University | Jie H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lian L.,China Agricultural University | Qu L.J.,China Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2013

Toll-like receptors (TLR) are trans-membrane sensors recognizing invading microbes. Toll-like receptors play a central role in initiating immune responses against several pathogens. In this study, we investigated the response of TLR and downstream genes to Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection. Forty 1-d-old chicks were randomly divided into 2 groups, with 20 chicks infected with MDV and 20 chicks mock-infected. Four chickens were euthanized respectively from infected and age-matched noninfected groups at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postinfection (dpi). Bursas, spleens, and thymuses were removed. The differential expression of TLR genes, including TLR3, TLR5, TLR7, TLR15, and TLR21, and downstream genes of TLR7, including MyD88, TRAF3, TRAF6, IFNA, IFNB, and IL6, in lymphoid tissues of MDV-infected and noninfected chickens was determined by real-time PCR. The results showed that the change of TLR genes was different in 3 lymphoid tissues. Expression of TLR7 and MyD88 was upregulated at 14 dpi and downregulated at 28 dpi in MDV-infected compared with noninfected spleens. The TRAF6 and IFNB were upregulated, and TRAF3, IFNA, and IL6 genes showed increasing trends in MDVinfected compared with noninfected spleens at 14 dpi. The expression of TLR3 and TLR15 genes was downregulated in MDV-infected compared with noninfected spleens at 28 dpi. The results indicated that TLR7 and its downstream genes were a response to MDV infection at 14 dpi. However, the function of TLR was impaired when the infection entered the tumor transformation phase. In bursas, TLR3 and TLR15 genes were upregulated at 7 and 4 dpi, respectively. It indicated that TLR3 and TLR15 might be involved in response to MDV infection in bursa at early phases. However, no differential expression of TLR genes was observed between MDV-infected and noninfected thymuses, which indicated that the thymus had little response to MDV infection mediated by TLR. © 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Li Y.C.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Li Y.C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yu J.Z.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2010

This study reports a comprehensive dataset of oxygenated compounds, inorganic ions and other major aerosol constituents in fine particulate matter (2.5m) in the urban atmosphere of Hong Kong in periods of different synoptic weather conditions during 2003-05. The oxygenated compounds quantified include C2-C10 dicarboxylic acids, C3-C9 ketoacids and C2-C3 dicarbonyls, their combined concentrations accounting for 3.218.2% of water-soluble organic carbon on a carbon mass basis. Six C2 and C3 oxygenated compounds, namely oxalic acid, malonic acid, glyoxylic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal, and methyl glyoxal, dominate this suite of oxygenated compounds, accounting for 75% of the total quantified oxygenated species. Good correlations were observed among most of the quantified oxygenated compounds, suggesting that a relatively stable abundance distribution exists under varying synoptic conditions. These composition profiles provide a comprehensive dataset for use in modelling and theoretical studies of aerosol-water interactions, secondary aerosol formation pathways, and speciated organic mass distributions. © CSIRO 2010.


Yang X.,Queens University of Belfast | Yang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Flynn R.,Queens University of Belfast | Von Der Kammer F.,University of Vienna | Hofmann T.,University of Vienna
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2011

This study, for the first time, investigates and quantifies the influence of slight changes in solution pH and ionic strength (IS) on colloidal microsphere deposition site coverage by Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) in a column matrix packed with saturated iron-oxide coated sand. Triple pulse experimental (TPE) results show adsorbed SRHA enhances microsphere mobility more at higher pH and lower IS and covers more sites than at higher IS and lower pH. Random sequential adsorption (RSA) modelling of experimental data suggests 1 μg of adsorbed SRHA occupied 9.28 ± 0.03 × 109 sites at pH7.6 and IS of 1.6 mMol but covered 2.75 ± 0.2 × 109 sites at pH6.3 and IS of 20 mMol. Experimental responses are suspected to arise from molecular conformation changes whereby SRHA extends more at higher pH and lower ionic strength but is more compact at lower pH and higher IS. Results suggest effects of pH and IS on regulating SRHA conformation were additive. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang Y.,China Agricultural University | He T.,China Agricultural University | Han J.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Wang J.,China Institute of Veterinary Drugs Control | And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2012

The aim of this study is to characterize the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in Escherichia coli from captive non-human primates. A total of 206 E. coli isolates were collected from primates in six zoos in China in 2009 and their susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials were tested by broth microdilution. The susceptibility patterns of E. coli strains varied greatly among different zoos reflecting different backgrounds of antimicrobial usage. Both the ESBL-encoding genes and the PMQR genes were detected by PCR. Of the 206 strains, 65 (32%) were confirmed as phenotypic ESBL producers with bla CTX-M (27%, bla CTX-M-15, n=31, bla CTX-M-3, n=23 and bla CTX-M-14, n=2) mainly mediating the ESBL phenotype. qnrS1 (18%, n=36) and oqxAB (15%, n=31) were the predominant PMQR genes and the prevalence of PMQR genes was much higher among phenotypic ESBL producers than that among phenotypic non-ESBL producers from any zoo. Notably, the PMQR genes qnrS1 and oqxAB and β-lactamase genes bla TEM-1 and bla CTX-M-3 were found together in 23 E. coli isolates in two zoos in Shanghai. PFGE analysis of these 23 isolates demonstrated nearly identical PFGE profiles (similarity matrix >97%) indicating this specific E. coli genotype was prevalent in these two zoos. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of these four genes coexisting in an E. coli genotype and the first report of antimicrobial resistance profiles in E. coli isolated from primates in China. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zou M.F.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2013

The purpose of this work was to elucidate the characteristics and the expression profiles of porcine Opn4 during developmental stages and different times of the day. The coding sequence of Opn4 gene was cloned. The mRNA expression levels of Opn4 gene in the retina of the swines during developmental stages and different times of the day were examined. The results showed that the swine ORF of Opn4 gene was 1 437 bp in length which encodes 478 amino acids residues with the molecular formula of C2398H3705N623O651S23. The expression level of Opn4 in the day was significantly higher than that in the night (P<0.01). During the growing periods, Opn4 started expressing as early as 34 d in the embryonic phase with the lowest level (P<0.01), reached to a peak 1 day after birth (P<0.01), and then stayed at a moderate standard. The difference of Opn4 expressions among the swines at 1th month, 4th month, and 84th month was not significantly different (P>0.05). In total, results showed that the Opn4 gene can regulate the biological rhythm of the swines. Furthermore, it play an important role in mediate the responsibility to the light in the postnatal swines.


Li Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

In this paper, using the variational principle of multiple two functions establishes the extremal function model of new media Internet network nodes, and the integration of Internet resources is realized by INON network node overlapping technology and P2P technology. Through the integration of Internet moral education resources in colleges, this paper carries out statistics the failure rate of computer resources, when the statistical number is 1000, the failure rate will reach the lowest, and its value is 0.2; when the statistical number is 6000, the failure rate will reach the highest, its value is 1.6. The simulation experiment has been the time curve of Internet moral education resources integration, when a number is 3000 and 4000, the required time is relatively large, and the other number required time is relatively small, which is consistent with the theory, so as to verify the reliability of multiple two variational algorithm and model. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Du J.,Sichuan University | Sun X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen J.,State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Chemistry | Zhang L.,University of Sichuan | Jiang G.,University of Sichuan
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2014

A high-stability icosahedral cluster (Ta12 2+) with spherical aromaticity was found within a DFT framework. The spherical aromaticity of the icosahedral Ta12 2+ cluster was confirmed by a high symmetry, a short bond length, a high vibrational frequency, a large HOMO-LUMO gap and negative NICS(0) values. The icosahedral Ta 12 2+ cluster is the first example of a bare metal cluster with a total of 58 valence electrons. The electron density topological analyses (QTAIM and ELF) indicate that three-center shared interactions exist in the icosahedral structure. The IR and absorption spectra were theoretically simulated as a convenient way to confirm the existence of the icosahedral structure in further experiments. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Xu H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhao P.T.,Shaoxing Municipal Bureau of Water Resources
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Shaoxing has used three water supply models, i.e. urban water supply network extension, township water factory centralized water supply, and mountain area scattered independent water supply, to improve the drinking water conditions for its 2.075 million rural dwellers. Nevertheless, there still exist problems in its water supply systems, such as difficulties in protecting water sources, small and scattered operating entities, and uneven water supply facilities and water qualities. This dissertation therefore brings forward countermeasures such as optimizing project planning and layout, implementing standardized renovation and improvement, practicing the most stringent water resources protection system, and establishing and improving the management system and testing network. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zhang Y.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology | Duan B.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology | Xian J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Korpelainen H.,University of Helsinki | Li C.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2011

In all, 48 sites of subalpine coniferous forest that had undergone natural regeneration for 5-310 years were selected as study locations in the Southwest China. We compared species richness (S), plant diversity (Shannon-Wiener index, H'; Margalef index, R), and above- and below-ground ecosystem carbon (C) pools of six plant communities along a chronosequence of vegetation restoration, and we also examined evidence for a functional relationship between plant diversity and C storage. Our results showed that above-ground C increased significantly (over 52-fold), mainly due to the increase of C in aboveground living plants and surface litter. Soil organic carbon (SOC) content increased from the herb community type (dominated by Deyeuxia scabrescens, P1) to mixed forest type (dominated by Betula spp. and Abies faxoniana, P4), which constituted the main C pool of the system (63-89%), but decreased thereafter (communities P5-P6). The mean C stock in the whole ecosystem - trees, litter layer and mineral soil - ranged from 105 to 730MgCha-1 and was especially high in the spruce forest community type (dominated by Picea purpurea, P6). On the other hand, the relationships between C stocks (soil, aboveground) and mean annual temperature or altitude were generally weak (P>0.05). Moreover, we did not detect a relationship between S and aboveground C storage, while we found a significant negative relationship between H', R and aboveground C storage. In addition, our experiment demonstrated that total root biomass and litter C/N ratio were significant functional traits influencing SOC, while S, R, and H' had little effect. Path analysis also revealed that litter C/N ratio predominantly regulated SOC through changes in the quantity of microorganisms and soil invertase enzyme activity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Hu G.,Chongqing University | Fan J.,Chongqing University | Fan J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xian Z.,Chongqing University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2014

Versatile roles of REVOLUTA (REV), a Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP III) transcription factor, have been depicted mainly in Arabidopsis and Populus. In this study, we investigated the functions of its tomato homolog, namely SlREV. Overexpression of a microRNA166-resistant version of SlREV (35S::REVRis) not only resulted in vegetative abnormalities such as curly leaves and fasciated stems, but also caused dramatic reproductive alterations including continuous production of flowers at the pedicel abscission zone (AZ) and ectopic fruit formation on receptacles. Microscopic analysis showed that meristem-like structures continuously emerged from the exodermises of the pedicel AZs and that ectopic carpels formed between the first and second whorl of floral buds in 35S::REVRis plants. Transcriptional data suggest that SlREV may regulate genes related to meristem maintenance and cell differentiation in the development of the flower pedicel abscission zone, and modulate genes in homeodomain and MADS-box families and hormone pathways during fruit formation. Altogether, these results reveal novel roles of SlREV in tomato flower development and fruit formation. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Zhang L.G.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2010

The expression of imprinted genes is regulated by epigenetic mechanism. In plant endosperm, the allele of imprinted genes is expressed in a pattern of parent-of-origin-dependent. The expression of imprinted genes plays essential roles in the development of embryos and their annexe structures, as well as seed size, reproductive barriers and apomixis. Along with the progress of plant epigenetic research, the exploration of imprinted genes is becoming hotspot in epigenetic research. This review focused on the parental conflict theory about the origin of imprinted genes, and the latest research advances in expression regulation mechanism of plant imprinted genes, using the examples of the important imprinted genes MEA, FIS2, FWA, MPC, and PHE1 in Arabidopsis, and FIEI and FIE2 in maize.


Yu Q.,Shantou University | Liu Z.,Shantou University | Lin D.,Shantou University | Zhang W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Biological Control | Year: 2013

Staphylococcus sp. strain LZ16 was isolated from seawater collected in the East China Sea. Both culture filtrate and cell lysate of LZ16 possessed strong growth inhibition activities against Magnaporthe oryzae. Morphological observations revealed that conidial germination, germ tube elongation, appressorium formation were significantly inhibited after the treatment with cell lysate of LZ16. The active substances remained stable at temperature from 7 to 45. °C, and pH from 6 to 8. One of the fractions conferring strong fungistatic activities was separated using Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B and Sephacryl S-200 High resolution columns, and identified as purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry. The gene deoD encoding PNP was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli for the verification of the antagonistic activity against M. oryzae. This is the first report that PNP was associated with fungistatic activity. Field experiments showed that the extract of the bacterial culture prevented and alleviated the disease severity of M. oryzae infection compared to the level in the untreated control. The acute toxicity study revealed the lethal oral dose was more than 5000. mg/kg, and the adverse effect was not observed on both male and female rats after treatment for 14. days. All the results suggested that strain LZ16 and its bioactive substances might be promising candidates for biopesticide development, or transgenetic plant materials for the biocontrol of rice blast. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Zheng Z.-C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zheng Z.-C.,Beijing Normal University | Zheng Z.-C.,Northwest University, China | He S.-Q.,University of Sichuan | Wu F.-Q.,Northwest University, China
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to determine the changing characteristics of soil surface roughness under different rainfall intensities and examine the interaction between soil surface roughness and different water erosion processes. Four artificial management practices (raking cropland, artificial hoeing, artificial digging, and contour tillage) were used according to the local agriculture customs of the Loess Plateau of China to simulate different types of soil surface roughness, using an additional smooth slope for comparison purposes. A total of 20 rainfall simulation experiments were conducted in five 1m by 2m boxes under two rainfall intensities (0.68 and 1.50mmmin-1) on a 15° slope. During splash erosion, soil surface roughness decreased in all treatments except raking cropland and smooth baseline under rainfall intensity of 0.68mmmin-1, while increasing for all treatments except smooth baseline under rainfall intensity of 1.50mmmin-1. During sheet erosion, soil surface roughness decreased for all treatments except hoeing cropland under rainfall intensity of 0.68mmmin-1. However, soil surface roughness increased for the artificial hoeing and raking cropland under rainfall intensity of 1.50mmmin-1. Soil surface roughness has a control effect on sheet erosion for different treatments under two rainfall intensities. For rill erosion, soil surface roughness increased for raking cropland and artificial hoeing treatments, and soil surface roughness decreased for artificial digging and the contour tillage treatments under two rainfall intensities. Under rainfall intensity of 0.68mmmin-1, the critical soil surface roughness was 0.706cm for the resistance control of runoff and sediment yield. Under rainfall intensity of 1.50mmmin-1, the critical soil surface roughness was 1.633cm for the resistance control of runoff, while the critical soil surface roughness was 0.706cm for the resistance control of sediment yield. These findings have important implications for clarifying the erosive nature of soil surface roughness and harnessing sloped farmland. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Wang J.,Nanjing University | Tan S.,Nanjing University | Zhang L.,Nanjing University | Li P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Tian D.,Nanjing University
Journal of Molecular Evolution | Year: 2011

NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat), LRR-RLK (LRR-receptor-like kinase), and LRR-only are the three major LRR-encoding genes. Owing to the crucial role played by them in plant resistance, development, and growth, extensive studies have been performed on the NBS-LRR and LRR-RLK genes. However, few studies have focused on these genes collectively; they may co-vary as all of them contain LRR motifs. To investigate their common evolutionary patterns, all major classes of LRR-encoding genes were identified in 12 plant species, and particularly compared in two pairs of close relatives, Arabidopsis thaliana-A. lyrata (At-Al) and Zea mays-Sorghum bicolor. Our results showed that these genes co-vary significantly in terms of their numbers between species and that the genes with certain evolutionary parameters are most likely to have similar functions. The development-related genes have clear orthologous relationships between closely related species, as well as lower nucleotide divergence, and Ka/Ks ratio. In contrast, resistance-related genes have exactly opposite characteristics and favor 11-15 LRRs per gene. This association could be very useful in predicting the function of LRR-encoding genes. The presence of co-variation suggests that LRRs, combined with other domains, can work better in some common functions. In order to cooperate efficiently, there should be balanced gene numbers among the different gene classes. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Li R.,China Agricultural University | Lai J.,China Agricultural University | Wang Y.,China Agricultural University | Liu S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of Salmonella isolated from different parts of the food production chain, and to characterize these isolates. A total of 165 Salmonella enterica isolates were identified from 1382 samples taken from conventional farms, abattoirs and retail markets from 2010 to 2011 in Sichuan, China. The Salmonella isolates were assayed for serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility, prevalence of class 1 integrons and β-lactamase genes, and subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Among these isolates, S. enterica serotypes Derby (76 isolates, 46%) and Typhimurium (16 isolates, 10%) were the most prevalent, and high antimicrobial resistance rates were observed for tetracycline (77%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (43%), nalidixic acid (41%) and spectinomycin (41%). Class 1 integrons were detected in 21% of these isolates, and contained gene cassettes dfrA12-aadA2, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA1, blaPSE-1 and dfrA1/aadA2. blaOXA-1 was the most commonly identified β-lactamase gene (n=14), followed by blaTEM-1 (n=6), blaPSE-1 (n=4) and blaCMY-2 (n=1). A S. enterica serotype Indiana isolate derived from chicken from a market was positive for both blaOXA-1 and blaCMY-2, and resistant to nine tested antibiotics. The PFGE patterns were diverse. Our findings indicated that most isolates from different sampling sites were phenotypically and genetically diverse, and Salmonella was widespread and may transmit along the food production chain from farm to market. Isolates with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, which are used to fight foodborne Salmonella, pose a serious threat to public health. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang C.,Hexi University | Huang Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Drought stress causes various physiologic and biochemical effects in plants. The phytohormones in plant systems are closely involved in responses against drought stress. However, information on the regulatory effect of abscisic acid (ABA), and free polyamine (PA) metabolism on the accumulation of JA is limited. Elucidating the endogenous mechanisms that confer stress resistance is essential to providing insights into the potential of plants to adapt to environmental change. This study aims to determine the relationship between the concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and the accumulation of free PAs (putrescine, spermine, and spermidine), as well as with polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity, in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum M.) seedlings grown hydroponically under polyethylene glycol - induced drought stress. The results indicate that the concentrations of endogenous ABA, JA, and free polyamines, and the PAO activity in the roots and leaves of tomato seedlings were generally higher in the treatment groups than in the untreated controls. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the concentrations of endogenous polyamines and PAO activity (R=0.708**) in roots and leaves of tomato seedlings. The time course in the present experiment demonstrated that the ABA concentrations increase in the roots prior to that in the leaves. Therefore, under drought stress, the higher concentrations of endogenous spermine and spermidine in the roots and leaves stimulate the simultaneous accumulation of endogenous ABA and JA with increasing PAO activity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Liu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
2011 2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Management Science and Electronic Commerce, AIMSEC 2011 - Proceedings | Year: 2011

Based on the method of fuzzy mathematical comprehensive evaluation, this paper assesses the quality of atmosphere in Dazhou with selecting SO 2, NO2 and PM10 as evaluation factors, consulting the standards relevant to atmosphere environment and building the attaching function and the weight muster. Then compares the results between the methods of fuzzy mathematical comprehensive evaluation and Air Pollution Index. © 2011 IEEE.


Cheng D.-Q.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Cheng D.-Q.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Li Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang J.-F.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The primate α-/θ-defensin multigene family encodes versatile endogenous cationic and amphipathic peptides that have broad-spectrum antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity. Although previous studies have reported that α-/θ-defensin (DEFA/DEFT) genes are under birth-and-death evolution with frequent duplication and rapid evolution, the phylogenetic relationships of the primate DEFA/DEFT genes; the genetic bases for the existence of similar antimicrobial spectra among closely related species; and the evolutionary processes involved in the emergence of cyclic θ-defensins in Old World monkeys and their subsequent loss of function in humans, chimpanzees and gorillas require further investigation. In this study, the DEFA/DEFT gene repertoires from primate and treeshrew were collected, followed by detailed phylogenetic, sequence and structure, selection pressure and comparative genomics analyses. All treeshrew, prosimian and simian DEFA/DEFT genes are grouped into two major clades, which are tissue-specific for enteric and myeloid defensins in simians. The simian enteric and myeloid α-defensins are classified into six functional gene clusters with diverged sequences, variable structures, altered functional constraints and different selection pressures, which likely reflect the antimicrobial spectra among closely related species. Species-specific duplication or pseudogenization within each simian cluster implies that the antimicrobial spectrum is ever-shifting, most likely challenged by the ever-changing pathogen environment. The DEFT evolved from the myeloid DEFA8. The prosegment of θ-defensin is detected with adaptive changes coevolving with the new protein fold of mature peptide, coincident with the importance of the prosegment for the correct folding of the mature peptide. Lastly, a less-is-hitchhiking hypothesis was proposed as a possible explanation for the expansion of pseudogene DEFTP and the loss of functional DEFT, where the gain or loss of the hitchhiker is determined by its adjacent driver gene during the birth-and-death evolutionary process. © 2014 Cheng et al.


Lu X.R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lu X.L.,Chuzhou University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Brake problem for a small multi-function chassis of southwest hilly region, design a set brake device, especially suitable for walking speed slow small crawler chassis. The braking device has the advantages of simple and compact structure, light weight, convenient, simple and flexible operate, reasonable use spaces etc. Through the braking test, proved that the brake braking performance is good, fully meet the requirements of the agricultural machinery braking performance. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Fan J.,Chongqing University of Science and Technology | Fan J.,University of Florida | Fan J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen C.,University of Florida | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2012

Although there are no known sources of genetic resistance, some Citrus spp. are reportedly tolerant to huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Time-course transcriptional analysis of tolerant rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) and susceptible sweet orange (C. sinensis) in response to 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection showed more genes differentially expressed in HLB-affected rough lemon than sweet orange at early stages but substantially fewer at late time points, possibly a critical factor underlying differences in sensitivity to 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Pathway analysis revealed that stress responses were distinctively modulated in rough lemon and sweet orange. Although microscopic changes (e.g., callose deposition in sieve elements and phloem cell collapse) were found in both infected species, remarkably, phloem transport activity in midribs of source leaves in rough lemon was much less affected by HLB than in sweet orange. The difference in phloem cell transport activities is also implicated in the differential sensitivity to HLB between the two species. The results potentially lead to identification of key genes and the genetic mechanism in rough lemon to restrain disease development and maintain (or recover) phloem transport activity. These potential candidate genes may be used for improving citrus tolerance (or even resistance) to HLB by genetic engineering. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society.


Huang B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang B.,Iowa State University | Hennen-Bierwagen T.A.,Iowa State University | Myers A.M.,Iowa State University
Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) provides the nucleotide sugar ADP-glucose and thus constitutes the first step in starch biosynthesis. The majority of cereal endosperm AGPase is located in the cytosol with a minor portion in amyloplasts, in contrast to its strictly plastidial location in other species and tissues. To investigate the potential functions of plastidial AGPase in maize (Zea mays) endosperm, six genes encoding AGPase large or small subunits were characterized for gene expression as well as subcellular location and biochemical activity of the encoded proteins. Seven transcripts from these genes accumulate in endosperm, including those from shrunken2 and brittle2 that encode cytosolic AGPase and five candidates that could encode subunits of the plastidial enzyme. The amino termini of these five polypeptides directed the transport of a reporter protein into chloroplasts of leaf protoplasts. All seven proteins exhibited AGPase activity when coexpressed in Escherichia coli with partner subunits. Null mutations were identified in the genes agpsemzm and agpllzm and shown to cause reduced AGPase activity in specific tissues. The functioning of these two genes was necessary for the accumulation of normal starch levels in embryo and leaf, respectively. Remnant starch was observed in both instances, indicating that additional genes encode AGPase large and small subunits in embryo and leaf. Endosperm starch was decreased by approximately 7% in agpsemzm- or agpllzm- mutants, demonstrating that plastidial AGPase activity contributes to starch production in this tissue even when the major cytosolic activity is present. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.


Nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and nuclear export signals (NESs) are important intramolecular regulatory elements for protein nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. This regulation confers spatial specificity to signal initiation and transduction in eukaryotic cells and thus is fundamental to the viability of all eukaryotic organisms. Here, we developed a simple and rapid method in which activity of putative NLSs or NESs was reported by subcellular localization of two tandem fluorescent proteins in fusion with the respective NLSs or NESs after agroinfiltration-mediated transient expression in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana (Nb). We further demonstrated that the predicted NES from amino acid residue (aa) 9 to 22 and the NLS from aa91 to 101 in the broad-spectrum disease resistance protein RPW8.2 possess nuclear export and import activity, respectively. Additionally, by testing overlapping fragments covering the full length of RPW8.2, we identified another NLS from aa65 to 74 with strong nuclear import activity and two tandem non-canonical NESs in the C-terminus with strong nuclear export activity. Taken together, our results demonstrated the utility of a simple method to evaluate potential NLSs and NESs in plant cells and suggested that RPW8.2 may be subject to opposing nucleocytoplasmic trafficking forces for its subcellular localization and functional execution.


Jiang Y.Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2013

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an essential enzyme in the lipid metabolism, and proper regulation of LPL is important for controlling the delivery of lipid nutrients to tissues. Recent studies have identified glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein-binding protein 1(GPIHBP1) as the important regulation factor of LPL that serves as a binding platform for lipolysis on the vascular lumen and an endothelial cell transporter transporting LPL from the interstitial spaces to the capillary lumen. In addition, several other regulation factors of LPL have also been identified including microRNAs, SorLA (Sortilin-related receptor with A-type repeats), and apolipoproteins that are potentially important for regulating LPL activity. These discoveries provide new directions for understanding basic mechanisms of lipolysis and hyperlipidemia. In this update, we focused on summarizing recent progresses on GPIHBP1, the endothelial cell LPL transporter. We also highlighted the recent progresses on several other regulation factors of LPL that are relevant to the regulation of LPLactivity.


Cao J.X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2013

DNA methylation is catalyzed by a family of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) that transfer a methyl group from S-adenyl methionine (SAM) to the fifth carbon of a cytosine residue to form 5mC. DNA methylation affects the interaction between the histone and DNA, which changes the chromosome structure and has reverse relationship with gene expression in general. Up to now, more and more studies have confirmed that environmental factors can alter epigenetic modifications, which do not involve in changing DNA sequence. So it can explain the phenotype of creature in a certain degree. This article focused on the influence of environmental factors, such as temperature, nutrient supply, heavy metal, early stress and radiation, on DNA methylation change. As a matter of fact, it does not only change the DNA methylation in parents and offspring but also their behavior and phenotype. Overall, this review will help us get better understanding of the relationship between environmental factors and gene expression regulation.


Zhang Q.,China Agricultural University | Liu L.,China Agricultural University | Zhu F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ning Z.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Efficiently obtaining full-length cDNA for a target gene is the key step for functional studies and probing genetic variations. However, almost all sequenced domestic animal genomes are not 'finished'. Many functionally important genes are located in these gapped regions. It can be difficult to obtain full-length cDNA for which only partial amino acid/EST sequences exist. In this study we report a general pipeline to obtain full-length cDNA, and illustrate this approach for one important gene (Ovocleidin-17, OC-17) that is associated with chicken eggshell biomineralization. Chicken OC-17 is one of the best candidates to control and regulate the deposition of calcium carbonate in the calcified eggshell layer. OC-17 protein has been purified, sequenced, and has had its three-dimensional structure solved. However, researchers still cannot conduct OC-17 mRNA related studies because the mRNA sequence is unknown and the gene is absent from the current chicken genome. We used RNA-Seq to obtain the entire transcriptome of the adult hen uterus, and then conducted de novo transcriptome assembling with bioinformatics analysis to obtain candidate OC-17 transcripts. Based on this sequence, we used RACE and PCR cloning methods to successfully obtain the full-length OC-17 cDNA. Temporal and spatial OC-17 mRNA expression analyses were also performed to demonstrate that OC-17 is predominantly expressed in the adult hen uterus during the laying cycle and barely at immature developmental stages. Differential uterine expression of OC-17 was observed in hens laying eggs with weak versus strong eggshell, confirming its important role in the regulation of eggshell mineralization and providing a new tool for genetic selection for eggshell quality parameters. This study is the first one to report the full-length OC-17 cDNA sequence, and builds a foundation for OC-17 mRNA related studies. We provide a general method for biologists experiencing difficulty in obtaining candidate gene full-length cDNA sequences. © 2014 Zhang et al.


Liu G.J.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

Under sustained loads with a fixed value, the deformation of concrete will continue to increase as time increases; this phenomenon is called creep of concrete. Currently, there are several theories to explain the phenomenon of concrete creep, viscoelasticity theory, seepage theory, viscous flow theory, plastic flow theory, micro-fractures theory and internal forces balance theory. Above models mostly studied linear creep of concrete under low stress status. This paper mainly research on concrete creep mechanism, and pointed out the advantages and limitations of the various theories, which has a guiding significance for theoretical research. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zhang L.,Northeast Agricultural University | Zhang L.,CAS Institute of Botany | Su B.Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xu H.,CAS Institute of Botany | Li Y.G.,CAS Institute of Botany
Photosynthetica | Year: 2012

Attention should be paid to ozone (O 3) sensitivity of greening plant since ground-level O 3 concentrations are increasing especially in urban and suburban area. We studied the ecophysiological responses to elevated O 3 of four shrub species [Euonymus bungeanus Maxim. (EB), Photinia × fraseri (PF), Chionanthus retusus Lindl. & Paxt. (CR) and Cornus alba L. (CA)], which are often used for garden greening in China. Saplings of those species were exposed to high O 3 concentration (70 nmol mol -1, 7 h d -1 for 65 d) in open-top growth chambers. Responses to O 3 were assessed by gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and dry mass. We found that elevated O 3 significantly decreased lightsaturated net photosynthetic rate (P Nsat), transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (g s). The ratio of intercellular CO 2 to ambient CO 2 concentration (C i/C a) did not reduce under O 3 fumigation which suggested that the O 3-induced depressions of P Nsat under O 3 fumigation were probably due to limitation of mesophyll processes rather than stomatal limitation. High O 3 exposure also significantly depressed the maximum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in the dark-adapted state (F v/F m) which meant the O3-induced photoinhibition. Both root dry mass and root/shoot ratios were significantly decreased under ozone fumigation, but the total mass was unchanged. The responses of gas exchange such as P Nsat in these four shrubs to O 3 exposure were species-specific. Highest loss of P Nsat was observed in EB (-49.6%), while the CR had the lowest loss (-36.5%). Moreover, the O 3-exposed CR showed similar g s as CF, reflecting that its O 3 flux might be unchanged under elevated O 3 environment. Ozone drastically decreased actual quantum yield of PSII (Φ PSII) and electron transport rate (ETR) in EB while increased Φ PSII and ETR in CR. Furthermore, the relative losses in P Nsat positively correlated with the relative decreases in Φ PSII and ETR which indicated that the impairment of photosynthesis was probably affected by the light reaction process. The light reaction of EB was impaired most seriously but that of CR was not damaged. All results indicated that EB was probably the most sensitive shrub species to O 3 while CR the most tolerant one. Therefore, CR might be an ideal choice for greening in ozone-polluted areas. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Ma J.,South China Agricultural University | Ma J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | He Y.,South China Agricultural University | Wu C.,South China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2012

A somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK) gene, designated as AcSERK1, was isolated from pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Shenwan). AcSERK1 shared all the characteristic domains of the SERK family, including five leucine-rich repeats, one proline-rich region motif, transmembrane domain, and kinase domains. Somatic embryogenic cultures of pineapple were established following transfer of callus cultures to Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The role of AcSERK1 during establishment of somatic embryogenesis in culture was investigated. The AcSERK1 was highly expressed during embryogenic competence acquisition and global embryo formation in culture. These findings were obtained along with morphological changes in callus cultures exhibiting embryogenic potential. Overall, levels of expression of AcSERK1 were lower in nonembryogenic tissues and organs than in embryogenic callus. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that AcSERK1 expression was detected in embryogenic tissues, including single competent cells, meristematic centers wherein embryogenic structures are formed, and global embryos. These results suggested that AcSERK1 expression was associated with induction of somatic embryogenesis and that it could be used as a potential marker gene to monitor the transition of pineapple callus tissues into competent and embryogenic cells and tissues. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Chen D.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Proceedings - 2010 International Conference on Optoelectronics and Image Processing, ICOIP 2010 | Year: 2010

This paper use the intuitionistic fuzzy value and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, based on the method of TOPSIS to select and determine the similarity function for intuitionistic fuzzy sets, and use the information entropy to calculate the weight, then use the distances from intuitionistic fuzzy sets to intuitionistic fuzzy positive ideal point (PIS) and negative ideal point (NIS), weighted and composted, finally, got the relative closeness for that need to evaluation program with the ideal point. The relative closeness is the coordination degree of enterprise node of supply chain. © 2010 IEEE.


Zhao T.,Northwest University, China | Xia H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu J.,Northwest University, China | Ma F.,Northwest University, China
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2014

The dehydration responsive element-binding (DREB) proteins play a critical role in plant development and abiotic stress-mediated gene expression. Therefore, they represent one of the most attractive regulons for breeding programs. However, no comprehensive summary of grapevine DREB family genes is available. During this study, 38 VvDREB members were identified from the entire grapevine genome and its expression sequence tag assembly. These were organized into the same subgroups, A1 through A6, as for Arabidopsis DREBs. The VvDREB genes were distributed in 15 out of 19 chromosomes in grapevine. Multiple sequence alignments were performed and a three-dimensional structure was created to demonstrate sequence conservation. Microarray analysis showed potential regulatory roles for VvDREBs in responses to various abiotic stresses, hormone treatments, berry ripening, exposure to light, and bud development. Cis-acting regulatory elements, such as W-box, MYB-binding site, and light-responsive elements, were the most frequently found in the putative promoter regions. Furthermore, microarray transcriptional profiling of grapevine plants that over-expressed VvDREB23 revealed 248 up-regulated and 229 down-regulated genes, with fold-changes of >1.5 when compared with the empty vector control. Gene ontology classifications showed that different genes function in cellular glucan metabolism, lipid transport, the endomembrane system, cell wall structure, and other important metabolic and developmental processes, as well as in the regulation of molecular functions. Our report provides an overview and constitutes a foundation for further study of this VvDREB gene family. All the microarray data and transcription profiling of transgenic versus empty-vector control transformant grapevines were retrieved from the online resources. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.


Zhao X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Sumners L.H.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Gilbert E.R.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Siegel P.B.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

This experiment used 2 lines of chickens that have been selected 54 generations for either low (LWS) or high (HWS) 8-wk BW from the same founder population, sublines (HWR and LWR) in which selection was relaxed in generation 43 in the selected lines, and crosses (HL and LH) made from generation 54 of HWS and LWS. For 8-wk BW, the difference between lines LWS and HWS in generation 54 was approximately 10-fold, whereas for the relaxed contemporary lines they were approximately 7-fold. Three trials mwere designed to measure developmental, nutritional, and genetic aspects of blood glucose homeostasis during the first 2 wk posthatch. In trial 1, we measured BW, whole blood glucose (BG), and weights (relative to BW) of liver, pancreas, and yolk sac of chicks fed from day of hatch to d 15. In trial 2, we compared those traits in chicks feed-delayed 72 h posthatch and in chicks without feed delay. In trial 3, we evaluated the effect of a 16-h fast on BW and BG on d 3, 8, and 15. There were higher levels of BG in HWS than LWS, and males than females in the fed state. Delayed access to feed for 72 h after hatch was associated with a dramatic reduction in BG. Feeding triggered a compensatory response whereby LWS displayed greater BG but smaller pancreases (% BW; d 15), compared with the controls. There were maternal effects for BW in both fed and fasted states and the reciprocal crosses exhibited heterosis for BG in the fasted state. These results show that chickens selected for high or low BW differ in BG regulation during the early posthatch period. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Zhou G.F.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Environment, Energy and Applied Technology - Proceedings of the 2014 3rd International Conference on Frontier of Energy and Environment Engineering, ICFEEE 2014 | Year: 2015

In the context of Low-Carbon (LC) economy, LC operation is the trend for the development of hotels. This paper tries to analysis how to build an interest coordination system for the Low-Carbon Hotel (LCH) to resolve the conflicts among stakeholders in the targets of interests, thus realizing a mutual-benefit relationship among stakeholders, promoting the development of LCHs. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Liu Q.-H.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu X.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ma J.-Q.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhou X.-B.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2013

As an indispensable environment element for crop growth, air temperature has brought challenge for the sustainable development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. Elevated air temperature led to great loss in rice grain yield in many districts suffering from heat stress due to the greenhouse effect worldwide, which has received more and more attention from researchers. A field experiment was conducted to investigate impacts of high air temperature (HAT) after rice heading stage on dynamics of SPAD values, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of flag leaves, and grain yield attributes. The results showed that HAT significantly reduced SPAD values, soluble sugar and protein contents, seed-setting rate, number of filled grains per panicles, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield, while increased MDA content. There exists strong correlation between each physiological parameter and days from heading stage to maturity, which can be simulated by quadratic curve equation or linear regression equation. Under HAT, the enhanced MDA content and decreased soluble sugar content demonstrated the damage of membrane structure and photosynthesis function of rice flag leaves, which was partially attributed to the reduced SPAD value and soluble protein content. In the present experiment, rice seed-setting rate was more vulnerable to HAT than grain weight. The disturbance of physiological metabolism in flag leaves was a fundamental reason for the reduction of rice grain yield under HAT.


Xu P.W.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Bing du xue bao = Chinese journal of virology / [bian ji, Bing du xue bao bian ji wei yuan hui] | Year: 2012

The M1 and HA genes of H1N1 influenza virus were amplified and then cloned into the pFastBac dual donor plasmid. The recombinant pFastBac Dual-M1-HA was identified by restriction enzyme digestion. After the pFastBacdual-M1-HA was transformed into the baculovirus shuttle plasmid (bacmid) in DH10Bac competent cells, the colonies were identified by antibiotics and blue-white selection. The rBac-mid-M1-HA was verified by PCR and transfected into S f9 cells to produce recombinant baculovirus (rBac-M1-HA). Gene insertion of rBac-M1-HA was verified and the expression of M1 and HA genes was analyzed by IFA and Western-blot, demonstrating M1 and HA were co-expressed successfully. This study provides the foundation for researching the formation mechanism of influenza VLP and developing new influenza vaccines.


Jiang Y.Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

We evaluated carcass and meat quality traits of two Chinese native crossbreeds Landrace x Meishan (LM) and Duroc x (Landrace x Meishan) (DLM) and two foreign crossbreeds Duroc x (Landrace x Yorkshire) (DLY) and PIC (an imported five-way crossbreed). One hundred and twenty weaned pigs (half castrated males and half females) were reared and slaughtered at a predestinated slaughter age. The general carcass and meat quality traits were measured and analyzed. The DLY and PIC crosses had significantly heavier live weights (93.39 and 96.33 kg, P < 0.01), significantly higher dressing percentages (80.65 and 79.39%, P < 0.05), significantly bigger loin areas (42.69 and 43.91 cm(2), P < 0.001), and significantly more lean carcasses (65.78 and 66.40%, P < 0.001) than LM and DLM. On the other hand, LM had a significantly lower live weight (70.29 kg, P < 0.01), significantly thicker back fat (3.54 cm, P < 0.001), significantly less lean carcasses (46.82%, P < 0.001), and significantly less ham and breech (26.53%, P < 0.05) than the other crossbreeds. Among meat quality parameters, LM had the highest intramuscular fat content (5.02%, P < 0.001) and the smallest fiber area (3126.45 μm(2), P < 0.01). However, PIC showed the lowest pH(1) (5.82, P < 0.01) and pH(2) (5.63, P < 0.01), the highest drip loss (2.89%, P < 0.01), and the lowest intramuscular fat (1.35%, P < 0.001). We concluded that LM and DLM had good meat quality traits but poorer carcass traits than DLY and PIC; DLY had good carcass and meat quality traits; PIC had good carcass traits, but it had less intramuscular fat, lower pH and higher drip loss.


Babu R.,CIMMYT | Rojas N.P.,CIMMYT | Gao S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yan J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Pixley K.,CIMMYT
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) compromises immune function and is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children in many developing countries. Biofortification, or breeding staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, provides a sustainable way to fight VAD and other micronutrient malnutrition problems. Polymorphisms, with associated molecular markers, have recently been identified for two loci, LcyE (lycopene epsilon cyclase) and CrtRB1 (β-carotene hydroxylase 1) that govern critical steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in maize endosperm, thereby enabling the opportunity to integrate marker-assisted selection (MAS) into carotenoid breeding programs. We validated the effects of 3 polymorphisms (LcyE5′TE, LcyE3′Indel and CrtRB1-3′TE) in 26 diverse tropical genetic backgrounds. CrtRB1-3′TE had a two-ten fold effect on enhancing beta-carotene (BC) and total provitamin A (proA) content. Reduced-function, favorable polymorphisms within LcyE resulted in 0-30 % reduction in the ratio of alpha- to beta-branch carotenoids, and increase in proA content (sometimes statistically significant). CrtRB1-3′TE had large, significant effect on enhancing BC and total ProA content, irrespective of genetic constitution for LcyE5′TE. Genotypes with homozygous favorable CrtRB1-3′TE alleles had much less zeaxanthin and an average of 25 % less total carotenoid than other genotypes, suggesting that feedback inhibition may be reducing the total flux into the carotenoid pathway. Because this feedback inhibition was most pronounced in the homozygous favorable LcyE (reduced-function) genotypes, and because maximum total proA concentrations were achieved in genotypes with homozygous unfavorable or heterozygous LcyE, we recommend not selecting for both reduced-function genes in breeding programs. LcyE exhibited significant segregation distortion (SD) in all the eight, while CrtRB1 in five of eight digenic populations studied, with favorable alleles of both the genes frequently under-represented. MAS using markers reported herein can efficiently increase proA carotenoid concentration in maize. © 2012 The Author(s).


Kulwal P.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Ishikawa G.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Benscher D.,Cornell University | Feng Z.,Cornell University | And 5 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

Association mapping identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the markers linked to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in an elite association mapping panel of white winter wheat comprising 198 genotypes. A total of 1,166 marker loci including DArT and SSR markers representing all 21 chromosomes of wheat were used in the analysis. General and mixed linear models were used to analyze PHS data collected over 4 years. Association analysis identified eight QTLs linked with 13 markers mapped on seven chromosomes. A QTL was detected on each arm of chromosome 2B and one each on chromosome arms 1BS, 2DS, 4AL, 6DL, 7BS and 7DS. All except the QTL on 7BS are located in a location similar to previous reports and, if verified, the QTL on 7BS is likely to be novel. Principal components and the kinship matrix were used to account for the presence of population structure but had only a minor effect on the results. Although, none of the QTLs was highly significant across all environments, a QTL on the long arm of chromosome 4A was detected in three different environments and also using the best linear unbiased predictions over years. Although previous reports have identified this as a major QTL, its effects were minor in our biparental mapping populations. The results of this study highlight the benefits of association mapping and the value of using elite material in association mapping for plant breeding programs. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Wang H.-J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cao C.-Q.,Leshan Normal University | Shi F.-M.,Hebei University
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

The paper describes one new species, i.e. Neocyrtopsis (Neocyrtopsis) emeishanensis Shi sp. nov., transfers Phlugiolopsis platycata Shi & Zheng, 1994 to the genus Neocyrtopsis and redescribes the species. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.


Si S.,Sichuan University | Wang Y.,Sichuan University | Xu G.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Yang S.,Sichuan University | And 3 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2012

The circular mitochondrial genomes of Brachymystax lenok and B. lenok tsinlingensis are 16,832 and 16,669 bp in length, respectively. The mitogenomes of two lenoks shared common features with those of other teleosts in terms of gene arrangement, base composition, and transfer RNA structures. The two genomes have an overall nucleotide sequence identity of 98.3%. Through the comparisons between the two lenoks, we found their gene arrangement, composition, and sizes are the same, and the AT content is identical. As with other freshwater salmonids, a T-type mononucleotide microsatellite and various tandem repeats were identified in the control regions of the lenoks. The low pairwise distance (2.1%) inferred from 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes on heavy strand showed close proximity of B. lenok and B. lenok tsinlingensis. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.


Wang L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Wuhan Academy of Agriculture Science
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

Abstract Myotrophin (MTPN) is an effective growth factor in promoting skeletal muscle growth in vitro and vivo and has been purified from porcine skeletal muscle. However, in pigs, the information on MTPN gene is very limited. In this study, we cloned cDNA sequences and analyzed the genomic structure of porcine MTPN gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of porcine MTPN contains two the ankyrin repeat domains. RT-PCR analysis revealed that porcine MTPN gene was widely expressed in many tissues, a high expression level was observed in the spleen, liver and uterus, and transient transfection indicated that porcine MTPN proteins was located in cytoplasms within Pig Kidney Epithelial cells (PK15). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses showed that MTPN expression peaked at embryonic 65 day post conception (dpc). During postnatal muscle development, MTPN expression was down-regulated from the 3 day to the 180 day in Yorkshire pigs. This result suggests that the MTPN gene may be important gene for skeletal muscle growth and provides useful information for further studies on its roles in porcine skeletal muscle.© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Yuan S.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2013

New treatments and new drugs for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection are developed continually, but there are still high mortality rates. The main reason may be that not all cell death pathways induced by AIV were blocked by the current therapies. In this review, drugs for AIV and associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are summarized. The roles of antioxidant (vitamin C) and multiple immunomodulators (such as Celecoxib, Mesalazine and Eritoran) are discussed. The clinical care of ARDS may result in ischemia reperfusion injury to poorly ventilated alveolar cells. Cyclosporin A should effectively inhibit this kind of damages and, therefore, may be the key drug for the survival of patients with virus-induced ARDS. Treatment with protease inhibitor Ulinastatin could also protect lysosome integrity after the infection. Through these analyses, a large drug combination is proposed, which may hypothetically greatly reduce the mortality rate. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Gao C.,China Agricultural University | Han H.-B.,China Agricultural University | Tian X.-Z.,China Agricultural University | Tan D.-X.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2012

Two-cell embryos of mouse were vitrified by the open-pulled straw (OPS) method. The vitrified embryos were warmed and introduced into M16 medium for culture that contains melatonin at different concentrations (10-3, 10-5, 10-7, 10-9, 10-11m). This process caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and jeopardized the development of the embryos. Melatonin, at different concentrations, significantly suppresses ROS production and promotes embryonic development in vitrified embryos compared with untreated ones. The mechanistic studies indicated that the beneficial effects of melatonin on vitrified 2-cell embryos of mouse were melatonin receptor (MT1 and MT2) independent. The direct free radical scavenging activity, the enhancement of endogenous glutathione levels, and the anti-apoptotic capacity of melatonin may account for its protective effects on vitrified embryonic development. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Sun X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Du J.,Sichuan University
European Physical Journal D | Year: 2014

The hybrid DFT functional has been utilized to investigate CO adsorption on small W n (n = 2-9) clusters. The reactivity-selectivity descriptor Δf(r) is proved to be an appropriate tool for predicting the local adsorption site. Our results indicate that the binding of CO to tungsten cluster prefers terminal adsorption mode except for W3 trimer. The Wiberg bond index can predict the interaction between W atoms and CO molecule to a good accuracy using a linear fit. The dependency on number of adsorbate and charge state of host clusters is also investigated. The high CO coverage seriously weakens the W-CO interaction. The anion cluster reveals the stronger interaction with CO molecule than cation and neutral ones. Moreover, the interesting coverage-dependence is revealed for anion cluster. © 2014 EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Yue G.,Sichuan University | Yue G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang X.,Sichuan University | Liu B.,Sichuan University | Liu B.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry
Chinese Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Terpenoids are one of hotspots in the field of chemical study of natural products and important sources of discovering potential drug leads. trans-Hydrindane-containing terpenoids attracted many organic chemists' attention because of their complex structures and versatile bioactivities. This review focuses on the synthetic methodologies and strategies toward the trans-hydrindane motif in terpenoids. © 2013 Chinese Chemical Society & SIOC, CAS.


Wang Z.Y.,Tsinghua University | Qi L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang X.,Beijing Institute of Geology for Mineral Resources
Natural Hazards | Year: 2012

Large-volume debris flow events are defined when the volume of solid materials exceeds 1 million m 3. Traditional engineering measures, such as check dams, diversion channels, and flumes, are effective for normal debris flow control but are not sufficient to control large-volume debris flows. Experiments were conducted with an artificial step-pool system on the new Wenjiagou Gully to mitigate large-volume debris flows. The old Wenjiagou Gully was buried by 81.6 million m 3 of loose solid material created by a landslide that was triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake on May 12, 2008. The new gully was formed during the scouring process caused by debris flows in 2008. Large-volume debris flows were initiated by rainstorm flood with high kinetic energy. The artificial step-pool system was constructed with huge and big boulders on the new Wenjiagou Gully in 2009. The step-pool system dissipated flow energy in steps and hydraulic jumps. Analysis proved that the step-pool system dissipated two-third of the kinetic energy of flow; thus, the critical discharge for triggering debris flow increased threefold. Due to the step-pool system maximized the flow resistance and protected the bed sediment and banks from erosion, the rainstorm floods in 2009 did not trigger debris flows. In 2010, the step-pool system was replaced with 20 check dams. Huge boulders were broken into small pieces of diameter less than 0.5 m and were used as building materials for the 20 dams. Without the protection of the step-pool system, a rainstorm flood scoured the base of the dams and caused failures for all of the 20 check dams in August 2010. The flow incised the gully bed by 50 m. The loose bank materials slid into the flow mixed with water and formed a large-volume debris flow with a volume of 4. 5 million m 3. Many houses were buried by the debris flow, and 12 people were killed. Comparison of the two strategies proved that energy dissipation structures are necessary for controlling large-volume debris flows. Check dams, if they are stable, may reduce the potential of bank failures and control debris flows. The step-pool system dissipates flow energy and control gully bed incision and bank failure. A combination of check dams and step-pool systems may be the most effective for mitigating debris flows. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Shi J.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Ma L.-S.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Forest Research | Year: 2014

International registration for bamboo cultivars is processed in accordance with the international rules. The registration is of important work with international significance and scientific value. In order to ensure the standardization, accuracy, unification and easy operation of international registration for bamboo cultivars, based on the relevant provisions of the requirements of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP), and combined with bamboo traits and characteristics, the authors summarize and discuss the significance, principles and methods of international registration for bamboo cultivars, including nomenclature, description, publication, registration and establishment of the bamboo new cultivars.


Liu G.J.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

In the civil engineering structures, when concrete structure withstand external loads, internal defects such as micro-cracks gradually developed, eventually will lead to the destruction of the concrete. Currently, there are two types of strength failure criterion of concrete, strength failure criterion based on stress-space and strength failure criterion based on strain-space, both of which have advantages and disadvantages, this paper introduces the research status of the two strength failure criteria of concrete, and the problems need further study in the future. It plays a strong practical significance in scientific research. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Liu G.J.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

Depth study of deformation characteristics of concrete can reveal failure mechanism of concrete materials based on strain. This paper studies the deformation characteristics of concrete under uniaxial compression, and draw conclusions that deformation can cause the expansion of internal micro cracks, in accordance with the expansion of micro cracks, the law of cracks development of concrete under uniaxial loads is divided into three stages, micro-cracks relatively stable, stable crack development period and unstable crack development period. The research results can provide valuable reference for future research work. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Lu X.R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lu X.L.,Chuzhou University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

This paper designs a new type of the crawler chassis brake system, which is suitable for crawler travel system slow walking speed. Characteristic of braking system has simple and compact structure, light weight, flexible use, convenient assembly and disassembly, large braking force, good braking effect, etc., can solve small crawler chassis brake problem very well. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zhu Y.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhu Y.,Cornell University | Du B.,Cornell University | Du B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Activation of plant immune responses is often associated with an inhibition of plant growth. The molecular mechanisms underlying this fitness cost are unknown. Here, we utilize the autoimmune response mutant suppressor of npr1, constitutive1 (snc1) resulting from an activated form of the Disease Resistance (R) gene to dissect the genetic component mediating growth inhibition in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The radical-induced cell death1 (rcd1) mutant defective in responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS) was isolated as an enhancer of the snc1 mutant in growth inhibition but not in defense response activation. Similarly, the vitamin C2 (vtc2) and vtc3 mutants defective in ROS detoxification enhanced the growth defects of snc1. Thus, perturbation of ROS status by R gene activation is responsible for the growth inhibition, and this effect is independent of defense response activation. This was further supported by the partial rescue of growth defects of rcd1 snc1 by the respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (rbohD) and rbohF mutations compromising the generation of ROS burst. Collectively, these findings indicate that perturbation of ROS homeostasis contributes to the fitness cost independent of defense activation. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.


Ding C.,Xihua University | Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2014

This paper focuses on inventory management in cold chain logistics problem. Based on the analysis of the overlapped randomness, the multi-objective expected value model with random–random variables is formulated to deal with decision makers’ preferences. A random simulation-based PSO algorithm for solving the programming is developed to tackle objective functions and constraints. The proposed model and algorithm are applied to inventory optimization of cold chain logistics problem. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm, and contrastive analysis of parameters shows the proposed algorithm has good robustness towards key parameters. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.


Zhang M.,Hiroshima University | Zhang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Isobe N.,Hiroshima University | Yoshimura Y.,Hiroshima University
Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to determine whether T cells were recruited in the chicken seminal tract in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The epididymis and ductus deferens were collected from matured roosters before and after 3 or 6 h of intravenous injection with 0.5 mg LPS per kg body-weight (LPS group) or phosphate buffered saline (control group). Their cryostat sections were immunostained using anti-chicken CD4 and CD8 antibodies. The frequencies of immunopositive cells in the rete testis, efferent duct and epididymal duct in the epididymis and ductus deferens were analyzed under a microscope with image analysis software. Both types of T cells were identified predominantly in the connective tissue underlying the mucosal epithelium and occasionally in the epithelium of the ducts in the epididymis and ductus deferens in all birds. Frequency of CD4+ T cell was increased in the ductus deferens 6 h post LPS injection. Their frequency in the efferent duct and ductus deferens was greater in the LPS group than in the control group after 6 h of injection. The frequency of CD8+ T cells in the LPS treated group was significantly increased in the efferent duct after 3 h and in the ductus deferens after 6 h of LPS injection. Significantly higher frequency of CD8+ T cells in the LPS group than in the control group was identified after 6 h of injection in the rete testis, efferent duct and ductus deferens. These results suggest that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are recruited in response to LPS stimulation in the rooster seminal tract, and the T cell-mediated local immune system is active in that organ. © 2013, Japan Poultry Science Association.


Wang F.,North China University of Water Conservancy and Electric Power | Qiu D.,North China University of Water Conservancy and Electric Power | Yue Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhu Y.,North China University of Water Conservancy and Electric Power
Dianli Zidonghua Shebei/Electric Power Automation Equipment | Year: 2011

A temperature monitoring scheme based on infrared technology is put forward for the field devices of substation, which makes use of the temperature difference between operating device and environment for the power supply of site temperature sensor. The transmitter transforms the measurement of temperature sensor into infrared signals, which are scanned by the infrared camera of receiver. The monitoring center system processes the received signals, displays the temperatures and issues alarm for abnormality. The software interface programmed with LabVIEW displays the temperatures of all measuring points in real time. The expensive thermal infrared imager is replaced by the infrared camera and site test proves its satisfying effect.


Jia C.-S.,Southwest Petroleum University | Chen T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | He S.,Southwest Petroleum University
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2013

By employing the improved Greene-Aldrich approximation scheme to deal with the centrifugal term, we solve approximately the Klein-Gordon equation with the improved expression of the Manning-Rosen empirical potential energy model. The bound state energy equation and the unnormalized radial wave functions have been approximately obtained by using the supersymmetric WKB approach and the function analysis method. The relativistic vibrational transition frequencies for the a3Σu+ state of 7Li2 molecule have been computed by using the Manning-Rosen potential model. The relativistic vibrational transition frequencies are in good agreement with the observed data. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Zheng J.,Beijing Forestry University | Zheng J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yu X.,Beijing Forestry University | Deng W.,Beijing Forestry University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2013

Water problems and water crises are of widespread concern around the world against the background of climate change and intense human activity. As the only source of drinking water in Beijing being confronted with severe water shortages, the Chaobai River Basin is extraordinarily important. Land use, being a common and variable influence on streamflow, has been studied widely, whereas spatiotemporal differences and the complex mechanism of land use's effect on runoff are difficult to explain. On the basis of a series of data about land use and runoff depth in the Chaobai River Basin, the sensitivity of land-use change to streamflow was explored using the principle of elasticity. Results of t-tests and F-tests showed that the difference in stream flow between the two river basins is not explained by precipitation; thus, land-use change is the main cause of stream flow variation. The influence of forests on annual runoff depth was significant and increased gradually from 1978 to 2008, whereas the effect of bare land has been insignificant in all time periods. The effect of land use on seasonal and monthly runoff depth showed significant variation. On the whole, the effects of land-use change on streamflow in summer were obvious, especially in August. It is therefore concluded that forest changes are the main factors in streamflow variation in summer. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Guan T.-W.,Xihua University | Zhao H.-P.,Xihua University | Che Z.-M.,Xihua University | Zhang X.-P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang L.-L.,Tarim University
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2013

A novel halophilic, filamentous actinomycete, designated TRM 4064 T, was isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Sichuan Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on an almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain TRM 4064T showed that it was most closely related to Actinopolyspora mortivallis (99.1 % sequence similarity). The sequence similarities between strain TRM 4064T and other Actinopolyspora species with validly-published names were <97.0 %. However, it had relatively low mean values for DNA-DNA relatedness with the A. mortivallis DSM 44261 T (23.2 %). Optimal growth occurred at 37 C, pH 7.0 and in the presence of 13 % (w/v) NaCl. The whole-cell sugar pattern consists of xylose, glucose, ribose and arabinose. The predominant menaquinones are MK-10(H 4) (38.2 %), MK-9(H4) (25.1 %), MK-9(H2) (28.6 %) and MK-8(H4) (7.3 %). The major fatty acids are anteiso-C 17:0 (36.9 %) and iso-C17:0 (19.3 %). The diagnostic phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and two unknown phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of the type strain is 66.3 mol%. Strain TRM 4064T therefore represents a novel species of the genus Actinopolyspora, for which the name Actinopolyspora dayingensis Sp. Nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 4064T (= KCTC 19979T = CCTCC AA 2010010T). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Wang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2011

Magnetic hydroxyapatite (HAP), which combined superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and HAP, composite materials were prepared by ultrasound method in this paper. It has also been found that these materials have the ability to adsorb phenol in wastewater. The magnetic materials were investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, vibrating sample magnetometer, and N2 adsorption in order to elucidate the morphology, structure, and other properties. When the prepared magnetic materials were calcined at 200°C, the prepared Fe3O4 was oxidized to Fe2O3, possessing loose-shaped holes with a high specific area of 325.2m2/g, a magnetization intensity of 12.5emu/g, and the N2 adsorption isotherm belongs to porous adsorption type I. Moreover, the magnetic HAP can adsorb 90% phenol in wastewater. This means that it is an excellent recyclable phenol sorbent for sewage treatment. Experiments confirmed that the Freundlich adsorption isotherms model applies to lower phenol concentrations (0-50mg/L), while for high phenol concentrations (50-500mg/L) the Langmuir adsorption isotherms model fits. The magnetic sorbents have the capacity to regenerate after reaching adsorption saturation using ethanol as eluant and external magnetic field as separation unit. The efficiency of adsorption was reduced only by 10% over a six time use period. The synthesis of a recyclable magnetic Fe2O3 at HAP sorbent is described here. The magnetic materials specific surface showed good adsorption capacities for phenol. Therewith, an effective, economic, and green method to remove phenol in wastewater is given. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Gan L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ding C.,Xihua University
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2014

In global supply chain (GSC), “agility” and continuous change are regarded as important characteristics. Dynamic alliances (DA) as a form of GSC came into being to reply to these characteristics which should be taken into account. In order to solve those potential problems that might emerge when various chain nodes are implemented, the basic and important procedures under different implementation circumstances, a fuzzy relation model of failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is introduced in this paper to develop quality management in DA of GSC. A solution method with Identification Algorithm Based on Genetic Algorithm (IABGA) is proposed to obtain the solution of the proposed model. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.


Zheng Z.,CSIRO | Zheng Z.,University of Western Australia | Zheng Z.,Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Wang H.B.,Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | And 4 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Generating segregating populations and 'pure lines' is an essential component in many projects of plant breeding and biological studies. Time taken to obtain these materials is often a critical factor restricting the progress of such projects. We report a procedure here which, by combining embryo culture with managements of watering regimes, lighting intensity and duration, temperature and quantity of potting mixture, allows the production of up to eight generations of wheat and nine generations of barley per annum. By dramatically shortening the time frame required to obtain segregating populations and 'pure lines', the procedure could find wide applications in breeding and biological studies. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Ma J.,CSIRO | Ma J.,University of Western Australia | Li H.B.,CSIRO | Zhang C.Y.,CSIRO | And 8 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2010

Crown rot (CR), caused by various Fusarium species, is a chronic wheat disease in Australia. As part of our objective of improving the efficiency of breeding CR resistant wheat varieties, we have been searching for novel sources of resistance. This paper reports on the genetic control of one of these newly identified resistant genotypes, 'CSCR6'. A population derived from a cross between CSCR6 and an Australian variety 'Lang' was analyzed using two Fusarium isolates belonging to two different species, one Fusarium pseudograminearum and the other Fusarium graminearum. The two isolates detected QTL with the same chromosomal locations and comparable magnitudes, indicating that CR resistance is not species-specific. The resistant allele of one of the QTL was derived from 'CSCR6'. This QTL, designated as Qcrs. cpi-3B, was located on the long arm of chromosome 3B and explains up to 48.8% of the phenotypic variance based on interval mapping analysis. Another QTL, with resistant allele from the variety 'Lang', was located on chromosome 4B. This QTL explained up to 22.8% of the phenotypic variance. A strong interaction between Qcsr. cpi-3B and Qcsr. cpi-4B was detected, reducing the maximum effect of Qcrs. cpi-3B to 43.1%. The effects of Qcrs. cpi-3B were further validated in four additional populations and the presence of this single QTL reduced CR severity by up to 42.1%. The fact that significant effects of Qcrs. cpi-3B were detected across all trials with different genetic backgrounds and with the use of isolates belonging to two different Fusarium species make it an ideal target for breeding programs as well as for further characterization of the gene(s) involved in its resistance. © Springer-Verlag 2009.


Wang A.,Yangzhou University | Wang A.,CSIRO | Garcia D.,CNRS Laboratory of Plant Reproduction and Development | Garcia D.,Institute Of Biologie Moleculaire Des Plantes | And 9 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2010

Arabidopsis seed size is regulated by the IKU pathway that includes IKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase) and MINI3 (a WRKY transcription factor). We report the cloning of the IKU1 (At2g35230) gene. iku1 mutants cause reduced endosperm growth and the production of small seeds. IKU1 encodes a protein containing a VQ motif, which is a motif specific to plants. IKU1 is expressed in the early endosperm and its progenitor, the central cell. Restoration of IKU1 function in the endosperm is sufficient to rescue seed size. A genomic construct carrying mutations in the VQ motif failed to complement the iku1 mutation, suggesting an essential role for the VQ motif. IKU1 interacts with MINI3 in the yeast two-hybrid system, consistent with an IKU1 function in the IKU-MINI pathway. Our data support the proposition that endosperm development is an important determinant of seed size. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Freeling M.,University of California at Berkeley | Xu J.,University of California at Berkeley | Xu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Woodhouse M.,University of California at Berkeley | Lisch D.,Purdue University
Molecular Plant | Year: 2015

The Genome Balance Hypothesis originated from a recent study that provided a mechanism for the phenomenon of genome dominance in ancient polyploids: unique 24nt RNA coverage near genes is greater in genes on the recessive subgenome irrespective of differences in gene expression. 24nt RNAs target transposons. Transposon position effects are now hypothesized to balance the expression of networked genes and provide spring-like tension between pericentromeric heterochromatin and microtubules. The balance (coordination) of gene expression and centromere movement is under selection. Our hypothesis states that this balance can be maintained by many or few transposons about equally well. We explain known balanced distributions of junk DNA within genomes and between subgenomes in allopolyploids (and our hypothesis passes "the onion test" for any so-called solution to the C-value paradox). Importantly, when the allotetraploid maize chromosomes delete redundant genes, their nearby transposons are also lost; this result is explained if transposons near genes function. The Genome Balance Hypothesis is hypothetical because the position effect mechanisms implicated are not proved to apply to all junk DNA, and the continuous nature of the centromeric and gene position effects have not yet been studied as a single phenomenon. © 2015 The Author.


Deng J.-B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Deng J.-B.,University of Florida | Drew B.T.,University of Florida | Drew B.T.,University of Nebraska at Kearney | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2015

Saxifragaceae (Saxifragales) contain approximately 640 species and 33 genera, about half of which are monotypic. Due to factors such as morphological stasis, convergent morphological evolution, and disjunct distributions, relationships within Saxifragaceae have historically been troublesome. The family occurs primarily in mountainous regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with the highest generic and species diversity in western North America, but disjunct taxa are known from southern South America. Here, we integrate broad gene (56 loci) and taxon (223 species) sampling strategies, both the most comprehensive to date within Saxifragaceae, with fossil calibrations and geographical distribution data to address relationships, divergence times, and historical biogeography among major lineages of Saxifragaceae. Two previously recognized main clades, the heucheroids (eight groups. +. Saniculiphyllum) and saxifragoids (Saxifraga s.s.), were re-affirmed by our phylogenetic analyses. Relationships among the eight heucheroid groups, as well as the phylogenetic position of Saniculiphyllum within the heucheroids, were resolved with mostly high support. Divergence time estimates indicate that Saxifragaceae began to diversify ca. 38.37 million years ago (Mya; 95% HPD. = 30.99-46.11. Mya) in the Mid-Late Eocene, and that the two major lineages, the heucheroids and saxifragoids, began to diversify approximately 30.04. Mya (95% HPD. = 23.87-37.15. Mya) and 30.85 Mya (95% HPD. = 23.47-39.33. Mya), respectively. We reconstructed ancestral geographic areas using statistical dispersal-vicariance (S-DIVA). These analyses indicate several radiations within Saxifragaceae: one in eastern Asia and multiple radiations in western North America. Our results also demonstrate that large amounts of sequence data coupled with broad taxon sampling can help resolve clade relationships that have thus far seemed intractable. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Yu G.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Yu G.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang M.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Zhang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Factors that determine the genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, phylogeography and demography of Tylototriton shanjing was investigated from a mitochondrial perspective to address the role of the Quaternary ice ages in shaping phylogeographic history and genetic diversity of Yunnan. A total of 146 individuals from 19 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. We detected four maternal phylogenetic lineages corresponding to four population groups, and found that major glaciation events during the Pleistocene have triggered the intra-specific divergence. Coalescent simulations indicated that the populations retreated to different refugia located in southern Yunnan, northwestern Yunnan, the border region of western Yunnan with Myanmar, and middle-western Yunnan, respectively, during previous glacial periods in the Pleistocene, and these four refugia were not retained during the Last Glacial Maximum. Population expansions occurred during the last inter-glaciation, during which ice core and pollen data indicated that the temperature and precipitation gradually increased, and declines of population sizes started after the beginning of the Last Glacial Maximum when the climate became cooler and dryer. The paleo-drainage system had no contribution to the current genetic structure and the rivers were not dispersal barriers for this salamander. © 2013 Yu et al.


Jun H.,Umea University | Jun H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Kieselbach T.,Umea University | Jonsson L.J.,Umea University
Microbial Cell Factories | Year: 2011

Background: Spent hydrolysates from bioethanolic fermentation processes based on agricultural residues have potential as an abundant and inexpensive source of pentose sugars and acids that could serve as nutrients for industrial enzyme-producing microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi. However, the enzyme mixtures produced in such media are poorly defined. In this study, the secretome of Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 grown either on a spent hydrolysate model medium (SHMM) or on a lactose-based standard medium (LBSM) was explored using proteomics.Results: Our results show that both the SHMM and LBSM serve as excellent growth media for T. reesei Rut C-30. In total, 52 protein spots on 2-D gels were identified by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-LC MS/MS). As expected, a considerable number of the identified proteins were related to the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. The enzyme production profiles in the two media were similar, but β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase were only produced in LBSM. The main cellobiohydrolases (Cel7A/Cel6A) and endoglucanases (Cel7B/Cel5A) were identified in both media and the cellobiohydrolases, i.e. Cel7A and Cel6A, were the most abundant cellulolytic enzymes. Moreover, both media can also serve as a potent inducer of xylanolytic enzymes. Several key enzymes involved in sugar assimilation and regulation of cellulase formation were identified, and were found to be differentially expressed in the two growth media.Conclusions: This study not only provides a catalogue of the prevalent proteins secreted by T. reesei in the two media, but the results also suggest that production of hydrolytic enzymes using unconventional carbon sources, such as components in spent hydrolysates, deserves further attention in the future. © 2011 Jun et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Zhang G.W.,Hiroshima University | Zhang G.W.,Southwest University | Lai S.J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yoshimura Y.,Hiroshima University | Isobe N.,Hiroshima University
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2014

Psoriasin (S100A7) is a member of the S100 protein family of calcium-binding proteins and plays a crucial role in local host defenses. The present study aimed to identify the expression of S100A7 in the goat mammary gland and in milk. The goat S100A7 coding DNA sequence was identified using direct sequencing. An S100A7 antibody was raised in rabbits by immunization with a synthetic S100A7 peptide consisting of 13 amino acids. Messenger RNA expression and protein localization in different regions of a healthy mammary gland were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Changes in the concentration of S100A7 in the milk after an intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were examined by an enzyme immunoassay.The goat S100A7 peptide had 98% and 86% sequence similarity to that of sheep and bovines, respectively. The S100A7 mRNA expression was higher in the teat and udder skin than in the cistern and parenchyma of the mammary gland. Immunoreactive S100A7 was localized in the epithelial cells of the alveolus and gland cistern, and stratified squamous epithelium of the teat. Psoriasin as a secreted protein was detectable in healthy milk, and an intramammary LPS infusion increased the concentration of S100A7 in the milk. The results suggest that S100A7 is produced in the epithelial cells of the mammary gland and is secreted into the milk. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Sumners L.H.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Zhang W.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Zhao X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Honaker C.F.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 4 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2014

Artificial selection of White Plymouth Rock chickens for juvenile (day 56) body weight resulted in two divergent genetic lines: hypophagic low weight (LWS) chickens and hyperphagic obese high weight (HWS) chickens, with the latter more than 10-fold heavier than the former at selection age. A study was designed to investigate glucose regulation and pancreas physiology at selection age in LWS chickens and HWS chickens. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests revealed differences in threshold sensitivity to insulin and glucose clearance rate between the lines. Results from real-time PCR showed greater pancreatic mRNA expression of four glucose regulatory genes (preproinsulin, PPI; preproglucagon, PPG; glucose transporter 2, GLUT2; and pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1, Pdx1) in LWS chickens, than HWS chickens. Histological analysis of the pancreas revealed that HWS chickens have larger pancreatic islets, less pancreatic islet mass, and more pancreatic inflammation than LWS chickens, all of which presumably contribute to impaired glucose metabolism. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Du B.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Industrial, Mechanical and Manufacturing Science - Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Industrial, Mechanical and Manufacturing Science, ICIMMS 2014 | Year: 2015

Mainly taking the Party’s mass line education and purity construction as research emphasis, the work analyzes their features by combining theory with practice. It can be concluded that points of the Party’s mass line education and purity construction should be expanded as much as possible in the new period, so as to better highlight the positive connection between the above two and fundamentally reflect the emphasis and difficulty of them in the modern social environment. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Liu H.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

Brachypodium distachyon has been proposed as a new model for the temperate grass because it is related to the major cereal grain species (such as wheat, barley, oat, maize, rice, and sorghum) and many forage and turf species. In this study, a multivariate statistical analysis was performed to investigate the characteristics of codon bias and the main factors affecting synonymous codon usage in Brachypodium. We found that low- and high-GC content genes with different codon usage occur frequently in the genome. The results of neutrality, correspondence, and correlation analyses indicated that mutational pressure and selective constraint were the main factors in shaping codon usage. Coding sequence length and the hydrophobicity of each protein were also identified as influences on codon usage bias, although their effect was minor. In addition, 27 codons, defined as "optimal codons", might provide useful information for gene engineering, gene prediction, and molecular evolution studies.


Chen T.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2012

Chinese cherry (Cerasus pseudocerasus Lindl.) is one of the most economically domestic fruit trees in China. The rich variation of wild Chinese cherry is the most important breeding resource for existing cultivars. In order to reveal the levels and distribution of genetic variation within wild Chinese cherry of Sichuan Province, China, where is rich in wild Chinese cherry, the sequence variation of chloroplast DNA trnQ-rps16 intergenic spacer was analyzed in 145 individuals of all nine existing populations (seven from Sichuan, two from Shanxi and Guizhou provinces) of China. The results showed that trnQ-rps16 sequence were aligned with 13 polymorphic sites (1.87%), including 3 substitutions and 10 indels in 145 individuals, which revealed a low level of genetic diversity (h= 0.562, π= 0.00184). Compared to other regions (h= 0.733, π= 0.00243), a rather lower genetic diversity (h= 0.544, π= 0.00203) was found in the populations from Sichuan, and a large scale of genetic diversity among the seven populations was detected (h= 0-0.708; π= 0-0.00298), ranging from EM (h=0.000, π=0.000) to TL (h=0.708, π=0.00298). The low genetic diversity of populations may be strongly affected by founder effect and bottleneck effect because of the marginal nature, recent reduction, and consequent genetic drift of these populations. In addition, a fairly low genetic differentiation (FST= 0.21573) was found among the studied populations. This suggest that gene flow seems to originate from pronounced seed dispersal abilities of the species and it may play a significant role in shaping such a genetic structure. The long generation cycle of the species may also contribute to this structure. Based on these findings, a conservational plan for sampling or preserving fewer populations but more individuals from each population for the species was proposed.


Huang L.K.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

Hemarthria compressa is one of the most important and widely utilized forage crops in south China, owing to its high forage yield and capability of adaptation to hot and humid conditions. We examined the population structure and genetic variation within and among 12 populations of H. compressa in south China using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. High genetic diversity was found in these samples [percentage polymorphic bands (PPB) = 82.21%, Shannon's diversity index (I) = 0.352]. However, there was relatively low level of genetic diversity at the population level (PPB = 29.17%, I = 0.155). A high degree of genetic differentiation among populations was detected based on other measures and molecular markers (Nei's genetic diversity analysis: G(ST) = 54.19%; AMOVA analysis: F(ST) = 53.35%). The SRAP markers were found to be more efficient than ISSR markers for evaluating population diversity. Based on these findings, we propose changes in sampling strategies for appraising and utilizing the genetic resources of this species.


Xu H.,CAS Institute of Botany | Su H.,CAS Institute of Botany | Su B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Han X.,CAS Institute of Botany | And 3 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2014

Long-term irrational land uses have fatigued the fragile grasslands globally, causing severe environmental problems and socio-economic losses. This paper addresses the feasibility of a new land use of chicken farming (CF) from natural, economic and social perspectives for devising sustainable development in a semi-arid grassland in northern China. The results of a 4-year controlled field experiment showed that CF could amend the infertile soils through feces inputs as indicated by the improvements in soil properties. Although there were some damage to grass growth in the first year of the experiment, vegetation coverage and aboveground biomass increased greatly in the following years, particularly in the third and fourth years. A quarter of feedstuff could be saved by chickens farmed in grassland compared with cage-raised chickens, accompanied by biological control of pest outbreaks. The 4-year practice at large scales by local household suggested that CF could be a more profitable enterprise compared to the conventional land use of ruminate grazing. Besides, CF could diversify livelihoods, which will lighten the reliance on traditional livestock grazing and thus help improve local social-ecological development. It was concluded that CF could be an integrative ecosystem management to rehabilitate the degraded grassland ecosystems toward a sustainable way. Finally, we highlighted an essential integration of bottom-up mechanism among local households with top-down incentives created by governments for sustainable development of chicken farming in the degraded grassland regions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Genetic diversity of Elymus sibiricus (Poaceae) was examined in eight populations from the southeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We detected 291 RAPD polymorphic loci in 93 samples. The percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) was 79%. Genetic diversity (H(E)) was 0.264, effective number of alleles (N(E)) was 1.444, Shannon's information index (H(O)) was 0.398, and expected Bayesian heterozygosity (H(B)) was 0.371. At the population level, PPB = 51%, N(E) = 1.306, H(E) = 0.176, I = 0.263, and H(B) = 0.247. A high level of genetic differentiation was detected based on Nei's genetic diversity analysis (G(ST) = 32.0%), Shannon's index analysis (33.7%), and the Bayesian method (θ(B) = 33.5%). The partitioning of molecular variance by AMOVA demonstrated significant genetic differentiation within populations (60%) and among populations (40%). The average number of individuals exchanged between populations per generation (N(m)) was 1.06. The populations were found to share high levels of genetic identity. No significant correlation was found between geographic distance and pairwise genetic distance (r = 0.7539, P = 0.9996). Correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation (r = 0.762) between RAPD H(E) found in this study and ISSR H(E) values from a previous study.


Xie W.G.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

Orchardgrass is a highly variable, perennial forage grass that is cultivated throughout temperate and subtropical regions of the world. Despite its economic importance, the genetic relationship and distance among and within cultivars are largely unknown but would be of great interest for breeding programs. We investigated the molecular variation and structure of cultivar populations, compared the level of genetic diversity among cultivars (Baoxing, Anba, Bote, and Kaimo), subspecies (Dactylis glomerata ssp Woronowii) and advanced breeding line (YA02-116) to determine whether there is still sufficient genetic diversity within presently used cultivars for future breeding progress in China. Twenty individuals were analyzed from each of six accessions using SSR markers; 114 easily scored bands were generated from 15 SSR primer pairs, with an average of 7.6 alleles per locus. The polymorphic rate was 100% among the 120 individuals, reflecting a high degree of genetic diversity. Among the six accessions, the highest genetic diversity was observed in Kaimo (H = 0.2518; I = 0.3916; P = 87.3%) and 02-116 had a lower level of genetic diversity (H = 0.1806; I = 0.2788; P = 58.73%) compared with other cultivars tested. An of molecular variance revealed a much larger genetic variation within accessions (65%) than between them (35%). This observation suggests that these cultivars have potential for providing rich genetic resource for further breeding program. Furthermore, the study also indicated that Chinese orchardgrass breeding has involved strong selection for adaptation to forage production, which may result in restricted genetic base of orchardgrass cultivar.


Yue G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lei K.,Nanyang Technological University | Hirao H.,Nanyang Technological University | Zhou J.S.,Nanyang Technological University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

Asymmetric reductive Heck reaction of aryl halides is realized in high stereoselectivity. Hydrogen-bond donors, trialkylammonium salts in a glycol solvent, were used to promote halide dissociation from neutral arylpalladium complexes to access cationic, stereoselective pathways. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Sun X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Du J.,Sichuan University | Jiang G.,University of Sichuan | Jiang G.,HIGH-TECH
Structural Chemistry | Year: 2013

The hybrid HF/DFT method B3LYP has been employed to investigate the geometrical and electronic structures of AuC n (n = 1-11) clusters. The properties such as geometrical parameters and electronic energies are determined for open-chain and cyclic species. Our results indicate that the open-chain structures with low spin states (doublet) are more stable than the cyclic ones for the small sizes clusters (n ≤ 9), as the cluster sizes increase (n = 10, 11), the cyclic species are more stable. The incremental binding energies show a smooth even-odd alternation phenomenon for open-chain species, n-even (n is the numbers of C atom in the clusters) species have the stronger stabilities relative to the adjacent odd-numbered ones. In addition, the most favorable dissociation channels are determined by calculating the fragmentation energies accompanying various possible pathways. The studied clusters incline to be dissociated to Au + C n and AuC n-3 + C3 fragments. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Liu A.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu A.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ye Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ye Y.,University of Sichuan | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a toxic secondary metabolic product, which threatens human and animal health. Antibody is a key factor for immunoassay against toxic stuff like AFB1, and single-chain Fv antibody fragment (scFv) has become a popular format of genetically engineered antibody. In this study, four hybridoma cell lines against AFB1 were obtained, and then scFvs 2E6 derived from hybridoma cell line 2E6 were constructed in different VH/VL orientations. Subsequently, scFvs 2E6 were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) mainly in the form of inclusion body. SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA were employed to characterize scFvs 2E6. The results revealed that the yield of inclusion body of scFvs 2E6 in either VH/VL orientation was similar; however, only the scFv in VH-linker-VL orientation showed anti-AFB1 bioactivity after refolding. The present study underscores the importance of choosing optimal VH/VL orientation for scFv construction, and scFv may be favorable for immunoassays in food industry. © 2014, Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology.


Pan J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Pan J.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Zhong S.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Neurocomputing | Year: 2010

In this paper, an impulsive reaction-diffusion Cohen-Grossberg neural network with delays and Neumann boundary condition is considered. By utilizing Poincaré inequality, constructing suitable Lyapunov functional method, some new sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the global exponential stability of the equilibrium point. The obtained sufficient conditions depend on the reaction-diffusion terms. A comparison between our results and the previous results shows that diffusion terms can be used to exponentially stabilize some reaction-diffusion neural networks with delays and the previous results have been improved. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Common bunt is one of the most important destructive diseases of wheat worldwide and is a domestic quarantined disease in China. However, a rapid and efficient method to identify the corresponding pathogens is currently limited. The objective of the present study was to develop a diagnostic molecular marker specific towards Tilletia foetida (Wall) Liro, a causal agent of the bunt disease. One specific DNA fragment for T. foetida (286 bp in length) was amplified using an Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) assay and, this fragment was cloned and sequenced. One pair of specific primers (SC(286-1)/SC(286-2)), which was designed according to the sequence, could specifically amplify the corresponding fragment in all of the T. foetida isolates employed from both the People's Republic of China and United States, whereas this fragment could not be amplified by the other fungal species tested. Therefore, a specific Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) marker was developed. This SCAR marker could distinguish T. foetida from related pathogenic fungi efficiently and could be used for the early diagnosis of the common bunt of wheat in the field, and provide an efficient way for disease surveillance and disease forecasting in cereal crop.


Yu X.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Yu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cloutier S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Tambong J.T.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Bromfield E.S.P.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2014

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 960 Carling Ave, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6, Canada Sixteen strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of Glycine max grown in Ottawa, Canada, were previously characterized and placed in a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized using a polyphasic approach. All strains possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that were 99.79% similar to the closest relative, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense LMG 18230T. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated atpD, glnII, recA, gyrB, rpoB and dnaK genes divided the 16 strains into three multilocus sequence types that were placed in a highly supported lineage distinct from named species of the genus Bradyrhizobium consistent with results of DNA-DNA hybridization. Based on analysis of symbiosis gene sequences (nodC and nifH), all novel strains were placed in a phylogenetic group with five species of the genus Bradyrhizobium that nodulate soybeans. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests including carbon and nitrogen source utilization and antibiotic resistance could be used to differentiate representative strains from recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Novel strain OO99T elicits effective nodules on Glycine max, Glycine soja and Macroptilium atropurpureum, partially effective nodules on Desmodium canadense and Vigna unguiculata, and ineffective nodules on Amphicarpaea bracteata and Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on the data presented, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium ottawaense sp. nov. is proposed, with OO99T (=LMG 26739T=HAMBI 3284T) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content is 62.6 mol%. © 2014 IUMS.


Wang L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yan H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Copy number variations (CNVs) are one of the main contributors to genetic diversity in animals and are broadly distributed in the genomes of swine. Investigating the performance and evolutionary impacts of pig CNVs requires comprehensive knowledge of their structure and function within and between breeds. In the current study, 4 different programs (i.e., GADA, PennCNV, QuantiSNP, and cnvPartition) were used to analyze Porcine SNP60 genotyping data of 585 pigs from one Large White × Minzhu intercross population to detect copy number variant regions (CNVRs). Overlapping CNVRs recalled by at least 2 programs were used to construct a powerful and comprehensive CNVR map, which contained249 CNVRs (i.e., 70 gains, 43 losses, and 136 gains/losses) and covered 26.22% of the regions in the swine genome. Ten CNVRs, representing different predicted statuses, were selected for validation via quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR); 9/10 CNVRs (i.e., 90%) were validated. When being traced back to the F0 generation, 58 events were identified in only Minzhu F0 parents and 2 events were identified in only Large White F0 parents. A series of CNVR function analyses were performed. Some of the CNVRs functions were predicted, and several interesting CNVRs for meat quality traits and hematological parameters were obtained. A comprehensive and lower false rate genome-wide CNV map was constructed for Large White and Minzhu pig genomes in this study. Our results may provide an important basis for determining the relationship between CNVRs and important qualitative and quantitative traits. In addition, it can help to further understand genetic processes in pigs. © 2013 Wang et al.


Yu G.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Yu G.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang J.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2013

Phylogeny of Rhacophoridae is constructed using two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) and two nuclear (tyrosinase and Rag-1) genes in an attempt to test for the taxonomic status of Rhacophorus appendiculatus and Kurixalus species from Tam Dao. All phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that specimens from Tam Dao are nested in Kurixalus bisacculus, indicating that they belong to K. bisacculus. R. appendiculatus is closer to genus Kurixalus than to other genera with strong support values. In combination with morphological evidence, it is suggested that R. appendiculatus should be placed in Kurixalus. Kurixalus verrucosus is not related to Kurixalus appendiculatus and it is the sister taxon to the clade of K. bisacculus and Kurixalus odontotarsus, which rejects that K. verrucosus is a synonym of K. appendiculatus. The genus Kurixalus needs redefinition by clear synapomorphic characters, and generic status of Kurixalus ananjevae deserves further examination. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Dai H.B.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Bing du xue bao = Chinese journal of virology / [bian ji, Bing du xue bao bian ji wei yuan hui] | Year: 2012

In the present work, we reviewed the discovery, epidemiology, molecular biology and detection of Kobuvirus. Future fields of research were also discussed.


Liu H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ding C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Han X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2013

Riemerella anatipestifer infections cause major economic losses in the duck industry. In this study, a trivalent inactivated vaccine of R. anatipestifer, including strains CH3 (serotype 1), NJ3 (serotype 2), and HXb2 (serotype 10), was developed. Animal experiments showed that the ducks that received two immunizations with the vaccine were 100% protected from challenge with strains from any of the three serotypes (1, 2, or 10). No death or clinical signs of diarrhea, tremors, or limb swelling were shown in the protected ducks. Also, no R. anatipestifer bacteria were isolated from the livers or brains of the protected ducks. Furthermore, no histopathological changes were observed in the liver, spleen, or brain samples from the protected ducks during histological examination. The ducks that received two immunizations with the vaccine generated high antibody titers of 1:3,200 to 1:6,400 against the three serotypes of strains. The vaccine significantly enhanced the production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) after one immunization and enhanced the production of IL-4 and IL-10 after two immunizations. In addition, real-time PCR indicated that the expression of major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I), as well as that of CD40 and CD154 molecules, was significantly increased after one immunization, and the expressions of both MHC-I and MHC-II molecules were increased after two immunizations. Our study indicates that the vaccine can induce both humoral and cellular immunities in ducks and offer effective protection against R. anatipestifer infection. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Liu M.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology | Year: 2013

Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. Most Bartonella species appear to share a natural cycle that involves an arthropod transmission, followed by exploitation of a mammalian host in which they cause long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia. Persistence in erythrocytes is considered an adaptation to transmission by bloodsucking arthropod vectors and a strategy to obtain heme required for Bartonella growth. Bartonella genomes do not encode for siderophore biosynthesis or a complete iron Fe(3+) transport system. Only genes, sharing strong homology with all components of a Fe(2+) transport system, are present in Bartonella genomes. Also, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme transport system. Bartonella must face various environments in their hosts and vectors. In mammals, free heme and iron are rare and oxygen concentration is low. In arthropod vectors, toxic heme levels are found in the gut where oxygen concentration is high. Bartonella genomes encode for 3-5 heme-binding proteins. In Bartonella henselae heme-binding proteins were shown to be involved in heme uptake process, oxidative stress response, and survival inside endothelial cells and in the flea. In this report, we discuss the use of the heme uptake and storage system of B. henselae during its infection cycle. Also, we establish a comparison with the iron and heme uptake systems of Yersinia pestis used during its infection cycle.


Luan J.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Luan J.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Cui L.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Xiang C.,Sichuan Academy of Forestry | And 4 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2014

Grazing removal exclosure is important to restore grass in rangeland. However, little is known about the effects of exclosure on soil organic carbon (SOC) in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and whether different ecosystems response equally to exclosure. In this study, we evaluated the effects of grazing removal exclosure on SOC and total nitrogen (TN) as well as SOC quality for the top soil layer (0-10cm) through comparing three grazing-removal exclosure pairs of ecosystems (i.e., marsh, wet meadow, and meadow) in Zoige, east Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Both SOC and labile OC (i.e. microbial biomass carbon, MBC; dissolved organic carbon, DOC; light fraction organic carbon, LFOC) were investigated. Our results indicated that the exclosures of five years old significantly increased SOC stock and marginal significantly increased soil N stock for meadow. No exclosure effects on SOC and N stocks were found for marsh and wet meadow. No significant changes of MBC and DOC were found for the three ecosystems as a consequence of five years grazing removal. However, grazing exclosures significantly increased LFOC, light fraction nitrogen (LFN), heavy fraction organic carbon (HFOC), and lability of carbon pool as determined by a density fractionation method (LLFOC) for meadow, but no corresponding change occurred in wet meadow and marsh. The increase of SOC after grazing removal was attributed to increases in both labile (represented by LFOC) and non-labile (represented by HFOC) OC. Furthermore, the change of SOC is associated with TN both in light, heavy and dissolved fractions. Soil bulk density (BD) well explained the change of SOC after grazing exclusion, whereas the change of BD was mainly attributed to the change of heavy fraction. These results suggested that exclosure effects on SOC of rangeland were determined by ecosystem types. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Sun X.,Sichuan University | Sun X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lin H.-H.,Sichuan University
Biologia | Year: 2010

Plant antioxidation system is composed of a series of complex mechanisms, in which many antioxidants including some special proteins are involved. Dehydrins are a family of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins which usually accumulate in plants during late embryogenesis or in response to environmental stresses. They were suggested to be associated with specific protective functions in plant cells, such as preventing coagulation of macromolecules and maintaining integrity of crucial cell structures. In recent years, many studies implied that dehydrins also play an antioxidative role to alleviate oxidative damage in stressed plants. They were proposed to scavenge radicals directly and sequester metals which are sources for radical generation to avoid the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this paper, we will discuss the novel putative role of dehydrins in plant antioxidation mechanisms and how dehydrins perform their antioxidative activity. © 2010 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.


Zhongyu W.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Proceedings - PACCS 2011: 2011 3rd Pacific-Asia Conference on Circuits, Communications and System | Year: 2011

The physical ability training has the vital significance to the basketball athlete skill enhancement, the scientific training method often can get up the wasted effort effect, the speed, the overall strength, the patience is to the basketball athlete physical ability basic request, the article relation basketball movement physical ability training characteristic, has carried on the analysis to the athlete in the basketball aspect physical ability training theory, and aims at the actual situation, proposed the innovation basketball physical ability training method. © 2011 IEEE.


An elite maize inbred line with high tolerance to low phosphorus, 178, was studied for constructing root library and analyzing some genes closely related to phosphorus (P) deficiency using SSH and Semi-quantitative RT-PCR. As a result, 3648 preliminary clones were obtained for root library under stress of P deficiency. By DNA sequencing of 34 random clones, we obtained 23 unique EST sequences which are involved in functions of root cell structure, tolerance and defense, protein modification and composition, transcription regulation, metabolism, and other unknown aspects. Five representative genes were further analyzed for their expression models. The results suggested that the molecular mechanism to adapt P deficiency in maize, performed by multi-genes with different contributions, is similar to rice, Arabidopsis and soybean. The expression order of 5 low P tolerant genes in maize root was PAP, GCS, TOM, PDI and AIP. And it was considered preliminarily that physiological and biochemical changes were prior to morphologic changes in maize root and the essential tolerance to low P may be determined by extending absorption of P to wide soil range through adaption of root architecture and root secretions, which is the greatest difference between tolerant and sensitive maize varieties under low P stress.


Xia H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xia H.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu S.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Ma F.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2014

There is now biochemical and genetic evidence that oxidative cleavage of cis-epoxycarotenoids by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the critical step in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis in higher plants. To understand the expression characteristics of NCED during ABA biosynthesis in apple (Malus), two NCED genes cDNA sequence were cloned from Malus prunifolia using RT-PCR techniques, named MpNCED1 and MpNCED2. The two cDNA sequences have full-length open reading frame, encoding a polypeptide of 607 and 614 amino acids, respectively. Sequences analysis showed that the deduced two apple NCED proteins were highly homologous to other NCED proteins from different plant species. Real-time PCR analysis revealed MpNCED2 were expressed continuously during the whole period of apple fruit development with the pattern of “higher-low-highest”, while the expression of MpNCED1 clearly declined to a steady low level in the mid-later period of fruit development. Expression of the MpNCED2 increased under the drought stress, high temperature and low temperature strongly and rapidly, whereas expression of the MpNCED1 was detected in response to temperature stress, but did not detected under drought stress. These results revealed that MpNCED1 and MpNCED2 may play different roles in regulation of the ABA biosynthesis in fruit development and various stresses response. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Veeck G.,Western Michigan University | Shui W.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Eurasian Geography and Economics | Year: 2011

Two specialists on China's agricultural sector review the recent course of agrarian reform in the country since the year 2000. More specifically, they summarize the more significant policy changes occurring during the period 2000-2009 (including the rollout of major new programs and agricultural tax relief) while simultaneously tracking impressive improvements in a variety of standard indicators of agricultural performance and rural per capita incomes across China's province-level units. Among other things, the authors draw contrasts between the current (post-WTO accession) and earlier reform period (1980-1985) in agriculture in terms of level of government direction and commitment to develop the sector for its own sake, outline measures undertaken to address problems with the production of tainted and/or adulterated food products, trace significant spatial "reshufflings" of rice and corn production at the provincial level, and offer possible explanations for the outwardly confounding lack of positive relationships between aggregate value of field crops/total value of all agricultural activities and rural incomes at the provincial level. They argue that renewed (yet underpublicized) government attention to the farm sector since 2000 has helped promote social stability in China by increasing food supplies (thus reducing food price effects on inflation), encouraging more sustainable farming practices, and improving rural environmental quality in many areas.


Li Z.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Li Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou M.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
ICIME 2010 - 2010 2nd IEEE International Conference on Information Management and Engineering | Year: 2010

On large scale dataset, the effect of automatic text classification is now still far from perfect. It's a common agreement that more sufficient text semantic meaning be adopted in text representation to deal with the challenge. This paper introduces semantic meaning of coreference in and to improve traditional BOW representation. The result of text classification experiment shows that, contrasted with traditional BOW representation, the improved model increases the discernment to positive instances. And that the classification performance of the new BOW representation model is no less good than that of stemmed BOW representation model. © 2010 IEEE.


Yang M.,University of Sichuan | Liu Y.,Sichuan University | Cai Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | You Z.,Sichuan University
Neurocomputing | Year: 2016

Stereo matching is one of the most important and fundamental topics in computer vision. Encouraging self-similar pixels to be assigned to the same label has been proved to be effective for stereo. A typical way of taking advantage of self-similarity is performing a color segmentation on the image and motivating the pixels within each segment to share an identical label. However, some cases cannot be handled by image segmentation, such as the pixels in disconnected regions. This paper proposes a stereo method based on the assumption, that a 3D scene is a collection of a few smooth surfaces and a few classes of reflective materials, such that the 3D points belonging to an identical material are likely to lie on a small number of surfaces and the 3D points lying on a single surface belong to a few classes of reflective materials. Each material is expected to have specific albedo properties. This paper presents two methods for classifying the albedo properties depending on whether the illumination environment is known, without recovering the albedo parameters. The proposed model is formulated as an energy function incorporating some new priors, that is optimized via fusion move algorithm. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Yan X.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Gong W.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Gong W.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Plant and Soil | Year: 2010

Fertilization practice in the North China Plain has been changing since the late 1970s. To evaluate how organic and chemical fertilizers contribute to yield, yield variability and soil carbon sequestration, we analyzed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield data in a long-term fertilization experiment that began in 1989, conducted pot experiments using soils from the long-term fertilization experiment plots, and simulated the soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics of individual treatments in the long-term experiments. Wheat yield results showed that when organic fertilizer was used as an alternative nutrient source for chemical fertilizers, it was neither directly beneficial to crop yield, nor decreased yield variability when compared to a balanced chemical fertilizer. However, there was a linear relationship between yield trend and SOC change rate (r = 0.951, P < 0.01). The use of organic fertilizer increased SOC and soil fertility and consequently resulted in a larger yield trend when compared to a balanced chemical fertilizer. Roth-C model simulation and pot experimental results indicated that soils with higher SOC had a higher root/shoot ratio. Therefore, the long-term use of organic fertilizer not only directly increases SOC, but indirectly contributes to carbon sequestration by favoring root development. We found that yield variability was determined by the relative contributions of soil fertility and fertilizer to yield (the contribution of fertilizer to yield is the yield difference between fertilized and unfertilized treatments). The contribution of balanced chemical fertilizer to yield was higher than that of organic fertilizer, resulting in less yield variability in balanced chemical fertilizer treatment. However, if organic fertilizer was used as a complementary nutrient source with chemical fertilizers, it would increase the contribution of fertilizers to yield, thus decreasing yield variability. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Yu H.-Y.,Beijing Normal University | Yu H.-Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang K.-L.,Beijing Normal University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang H.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Zhang H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Koblizkova A.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Wang K.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 11 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2014

Centromeres are composed of long arrays of satellite repeats in most multicellular eukaryotes investigated to date. The satellite repeat-based centromeres are believed to have evolved from "neocentromeres" that originally contained only single- or low-copy sequences. However, the emergence and evolution of the satellite repeats in centromeres has been elusive. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) provides a model system for studying centromere evolution because each of its 12 centromeres contains distinct DNA sequences, allowing comparative analysis of homoeologous centromeres from related species. We conducted genome-wide analysis of the centromeric sequences in Solanum verrucosum, a wild species closely related to potato. Unambiguous homoeologous centromeric sequences were detected in only a single centromere (Cen9) between the two species. Four centromeres (Cen2, Cen4, Cen7, and Cen10) in S. verrucosum contained distinct satellite repeats that were amplified from retrotransposon-related sequences. Strikingly, the same four centromeres in potato contain either different satellite repeats (Cen2 and Cen7) or exclusively single- and low-copy sequences (Cen4 and Cen10). Our sequence comparison of five homoeologous centromeres in two Solanum species reveals rapid divergence of centromeric sequences among closely related species. We propose that centromeric satellite repeats undergo boom-bust cycles before a favorable repeat is fixed in the population. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.


Qiao N.-S.,University of Science and Arts of Iran | Sun P.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Guangzi Xuebao/Acta Photonica Sinica | Year: 2013

In order to carry out printed circuit board (PCB) circuitry detection better, an effective detection method was proposed. Firstly, the basic principle of image preprocessing based on histogram potential function model was analyzed; such principle was applied to PCB photoelectric image preprocessing, and the primary edge images after removing dark and noise were obtained. Secondly, a line detection method based on improved Hough transform was proposed, the approximate location of line existed in image was ascertained by such method, and the characteristic point sets in the candidate areas were obtained roughly. Then, the basic principle of line detection by using least square method was discussed, the accurate line parameters were acquired by applying least square method to fit these lines detected by the improved Hough transform, and the eventual edge lines were obtained by adding pattern clustering. Finally, the edge detection experiment was carried out by the method in the dark and noisy PCB photoelectric image acquired actually. The results show that the proposed method can better incarnate the PCB circuitry detection.


Liu Q.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu X.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ma J.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2013

High air temperature (HAT) limits grain yield and quality in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Th is study was conducted to determine the eff ects of HAT from R3 (panicle exertion from boot) to R8 stage (physiological maturity) on rice grain yield and quality (milling, appearance, cooking and eating, and nutrition qualities). A split-spot experiment based on randomized complete design was performed, involving two cultivars (japonica Koshihikari and indica IR72), two temperature treatments, and three replicates. Rice cultivars as main plot treatments were grown in a paddy fi eld. Th e HAT and natural air temperature (NAT) treatments were regarded as subplot. Percentage of chalky kernel increased, whereas head rice yield, amylose and starch contents, and grain yield decreased in both cultivars under HAT, when compared with those under NAT. Th e HAT enhanced values of peak viscosity and breakdown, but decreased value of setback for Koshihikari. Conversely, starch viscosity characteristics for IR72 were unaff ected by HAT. Relative content of amino acids in grains were enhanced; however, absolute content of some amino acids did not increase due to the reduction of grain weight under HAT. Th e HAT also increased absolute content of grain protein in IR72, but not in Koshihikari. Th e present study indicates that HAT decreased rice milling, appearance qualities and grain yield, while it positively infl uenced not only cooking and eating qualities in Koshihikari but also some nutritional components of grains in both cultivars. © 2013 by the American Society of Agronomy, 5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711. All rights reserved.


Zhang H.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology | Liu Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Cao Y.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology | Feng X.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology | And 5 more authors.
Microbial Cell Factories | Year: 2014

Background: Sabinene, one kind of monoterpene, accumulated limitedly in natural organisms, is being explored as a potential component for the next generation of aircraft fuels. And demand for advanced fuels impels us to develop biosynthetic routes for the production of sabinene from renewable sugar. Results: In this study, sabinene was significantly produced by assembling a biosynthetic pathway using the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) or heterologous mevalonate (MVA) pathway combining the GPP and sabinene synthase genes in an engineered Escherichia coli strain. Subsequently, the culture medium and process conditions were optimized to enhance sabinene production with a maximum titer of 82.18 mg/L. Finally, the fed-batch fermentation of sabinene was evaluated using the optimized culture medium and process conditions, which reached a maximum concentration of 2.65 g/L with an average productivity of 0.018 g h-1 g-1 dry cells, and the conversion efficiency of glycerol to sabinene (gram to gram) reached 3.49%.Conclusions: This is the first report of microbial synthesis of sabinene using an engineered E. coli strain with the renewable carbon source as feedstock. Therefore, a green and sustainable production strategy has been established for sabinene. © 2014 Zhang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Yin L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban | Year: 2010

A pot experiment with controlled water supply was conducted to study the effects of drought stress (continuous drought for 0 d, 5 d, 10 d, ... 45 d) on the photosynthetic characteristics and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings under different nitrogen fertilization levels (N0, 0 kg N x hm(-2); N(L), 96 kg N x hm(-2; N(M), 288 kg N x hm(-2); N(H), 480 kg N x hm(-2)). With the enhancement of drought stress, the leaf relative water content (RWC1), height growth (Z(h)), basal diameter growth (Z(d), leaf area (L(a)), net photosynthetic rate ( P(n)), transpiration rate (T(r)), and stomatal conductance (G(s)) decreased significantly (P < 0.01), irrespective of nitrogen fertilization level. The chlorophyll (Chl) content and water use efficiency (WUE) increased first and decreased then, while the intercellular CO2, concentration (C(i)) had an increase after an initial decrease. Under adequate water condition, nitrogen fertilization promoted the photosynthesis and growth of J. curcas seedlings to different degrees, and the effect was increased with increasing nitrogen fertilization level. Under drought stress, the effects of nitrogen nutrition on the photosynthesis and growth were dependent on drought intensity and nitrogen fertilization level. Specifically, increasing nitrogen fertilization level could promote the photosynthesis and growth of J. curcas seedlings under mild drought, the promotion effect of N(M) was higher than that of N(L) and N(H) under moderate drought, and N(L) had the best promotion effect while N(H) weakened the effect or made it negative under severe drought.


Biville F.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Liu M.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology | Year: 2013

Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. Most Bartonella species appear to share a natural cycle that involves an arthropod transmission, followed by exploitation of a mammalian host in which they cause long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia. Persistence in erythrocytes is considered an adaptation to transmission by bloodsucking arthropod vectors and a strategy to obtain heme required for Bartonella growth. Bartonella genomes do not encode for siderophore biosynthesis or a complete iron Fe3+ transport system. Only genes, sharing strong homology with all components of a Fe2+ transport system, are present in Bartonella genomes. Also, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme transport system. Bartonella must face various environments in their hosts and vectors. In mammals, free heme and iron are rare and oxygen concentration is low. In arthropod vectors, toxic heme levels are found in the gut where oxygen concentration is high. Bartonella genomes encode for 3-5 heme-binding proteins. In Bartonella henselae heme-binding proteins were shown to be involved in heme uptake process, oxidative stress response, and survival inside endothelial cells and in the flea. In this report, we discuss the use of the heme uptake and storage system of B. henselae during its infection cycle. Also, we establish a comparison with the iron and heme uptake systems of Yersinia pestis used during its infection cycle. ©2013 Liu and Biville.


Yang Y.,China Agricultural University | Yang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhao C.,China Agricultural University | Xiao S.,China Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of developmental stage on lipids deposition, composition and oxidative stability of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and Longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) in Guizhou mini-pig. Pigs were raised in the same condition, and SAT and LDM were sampled on 90 d, 180 d and 270 d. Lipids content decreased (P < 0.01) from 90 d to 180 d and increased (P < 0.01) from 180 d to 270 d in SAT and LDM. Neutral lipids in both tissues decreased (P < 0.01) from 90 d to 180 d and increased (P < 0.01) from 180 d to 270 d, while phospholipids content changed inversely during the three selected time points. Developmental times had great influence on fatty acids (FAs) composition of neutral lipids, phospholipids and free fatty acids (FFAs) except FAs composition of FFAs in SAT. Lipids oxidative stability in SAT and LDM both decreased between 90 d and 180 d (P < 0.05) and increased by 270 d (P < 0.05). In conclusion, due to the increased contents of unsaturated fatty acids and decreased oxidation stability, Guizhou or other mini-pigs slaughtered at an early age may have a negative effect on meat quality. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Shen F.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Shen F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yuan H.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Pang Y.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | And 7 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

The co-digestion of fruit & vegetable waste (FVW) and food waste (FW) was performed at various organic loading ratios (OLRs) in single-phase and two-phase system, respectively. The results showed that the ethanol-type fermentation dominated in both digestion processes when OLR was at low levels (<2.0g(VS)L-1d-1). The propionic acid was rapidly accumulated as OLR was increased to higher levels (>2.0g(VS)L-1d-1), which could cause unstable anaerobic digestion. Single-phase digestion was better than two-phase digestion in term of 4.1% increase in CH4 production at lower OLRs (<2.0g(VS)L-1d-1). However, at higher level of OLR (≥2.0g(VS)L-1d-1), two-phase digestion achieved higher CH4 production of 0.351-0.455L(gVS)-1d-1, which were 7.0-15.8% more than that of single-phase. Additionally, two-phase digestion presented more stable operation, and higher OLR treatment capacity. Furthermore, comparison of these two systems with bioenergy recovery revealed that two-phase system overall presented higher bioenergy yield than single-phase. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Yang K.,Hohai University | Zheng J.,Dongfeng Management Office | Yang M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou R.,Hohai University | Liu G.,Hohai University
Water Resources Management | Year: 2013

For the specialty of cascade reservoirs optimization and the premature convergence of GA, several improvement strategies are presented in this paper. Firstly, solution space generation method is found application to generate feasible initial population. Secondly, chaos optimization is adopted to optimize initial population. Thirdly, new selective operators, trigonometric selective operators, are proposed to overcome the fitness requirement of non-negative and to maintain the diversity of population. Fourthly, adaptive probabilities of crossing and mutation are adopted in order to improve the convergence speed of GA. Besides, elitist strategy is used to ensure that the best individual can be remained in each generation. Furthermore, the performance of these proposed improvement strategies was checked against the historical improvement strategies by simulating optimal operation of Three Gorges cascade reservoirs premised on historical hourly inflows, and the comparison yields indications of superior performance. In these proposed improvement strategies, trigonometric selective operators are feasible and effective for optimizing operation of cascade reservoirs. These new selective operators could help GA to find a more excellent solution in the same algebra, and the performance of convergence speed is advanced. Adaptive probabilities of crossing and mutation have better performance than other improvement strategies, such as annealing chaotic mutation and simulated annealing of large probability of mutation, because this method realizes the twin goals of maintaining diversity in the population and advancing the convergence speed of GA. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Wang Y.,China Agricultural University | Schwarz S.,Institute of Farm Animal Genetics | Shen Z.,Iowa State University | Zhou N.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Objectives: To investigate the presence and the genetic environment of the multiresistance gene cfr in Jeotgalicoccus pinnipedialis and Macrococcus caseolyticus from pigs. Methods: A total of 391 bacterial isolates with florfenicol MICs ≥16 mg/L were obtained from nasal swabs of 557 individual pigs; of these, 75 Gram-positive isolates other than staphylococci and enterococci were screened by PCR for the presence of known florfenicol resistance genes. Species assignments of the cfr-carrying isolates were based on the results of biochemical profiling and 16S rDNA sequencing. The locations of the cfr gene were determined by Southern blotting. Regions flanking each cfr gene were sequenced by a modified random primer walking strategy, and the transferability of cfr was assessed by electrotransformation. Results: Two M. caseolyticus isolates and one J. pinnipedialis isolate were cfr positive. The cfr gene was located either on a 7057 bp plasmid, pSS-03, which was widely distributed among staphylococci of pig origin, or on the ~53 kb plasmid pJP1. The region of pJP1 that included the cfr gene and the adjacent IS21-558, showed 99.7% identity to the corresponding region of plasmid pSCFS3. In addition, the genes aadD + aacA-aphD, ble and erm(C), coding for aminoglycoside, bleomycin and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, respectively, were also identified on plasmid pJP1. Conclusions: This study showed that plasmids carrying the multidrug resistance gene cfr are present in two new genera of commensal and environmental bacteria, Macrococcus and Jeotgalicoccus. This observation underlines the role of commensal and environmental flora in the dissemination of clinically important resistance genes, such as cfr. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Zhang C.B.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2011

Three maize male sterile mutants were obtained from the offsprings of two maize inbred lines 18-599 and 08-641, which were carried into space by the Shijian 8 Satellite. The stability of male sterile expression was observed in different locations, years, and seasons. In order to analyze the genetic characteristic of male sterility, testcross, backcross and reciprocal cross were made with these male sterile plants. The results showed that the male sterility character was stable in different locations, years, and seasons, and the sterility was inheritable. Because the maintainer lines and restorer lines for these sterile materials were found, and there was no male sterile plant separated among the reciprocal cross F2. Thus, we concluded that these mutants could be cytoplasmic male sterile. Combining the results of male fertility restoration test and PCR analysis, we could conclude that the three male sterile mutants were classified into the CMS-C type in maize. Owing to their difference in fertility restoration, these mutants may belong to different subgroups of CMS-C type. The discovery of the three male sterile mutants increased the genetic diversity of CMS-C type, improved the tolerance to Bipolaris maydis, and laid a foundation for extensive application of CMS-C in seeds production.


Liu S.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2011

To study the effects of spraying uniconazole on plant morphology and total alkaloid content of Aconitum carmichaeli for providing theory base for establishment of planting measure. The mainly morphological character and total alkaloid content of Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata were studied under different uniconazole spraying time and density. Unieonazole could decrease plant height and leaf area, increase stem diameter, leaves and fibril roots, and the amount of dry matter. The difference in total alkaloid was not significant. In this experiment,Spraying uniconazole has no significant effect on total alkaloid content of Aconitum carmichaeli. It is better for increasing yield per plant to applied 120 mg/L unieonazole at sub-root enlargement stage than sub-root formation stage, and it is better to applied the same density at another stage for adjusting the plant morphology.


Liu H.-L.,Zhejiang University | Liu H.-L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhu J.,Zhejiang University
Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of transfer RNA (tRNA) responsible for the association between tRNA genes and genes of apparently foreign origin (genomic islands) in five high-light adapted Prochlorococcus strains. Both bidirectional best BLASTP (basic local alignment search tool for proteins) search and the conservation of gene order against each other were utilized to identify genomic islands, and 7 genomic islands were found to be immediately adjacent to tRNAs in Prochlorococcus marinus AS9601, 11 in P. marinus MIT9515, 8 in P. marinus MED4, 6 in P. marinus MIT9301, and 6 in P. marinus MIT9312. Monte Carlo simulation showed that tRNA genes are hotspots for the integration of genomic islands in Prochlorococcus strains. The tRNA genes associated with genomic islands showed the following characteristics: (1) the association was biased towards a specific subset of all iso-accepting tRNA genes; (2) the codon usages of genes within genomic islands appear to be unrelated to the codons recognized by associated tRNAs; and, (3) the majority of the 3′ ends of associated tRNAs lack CCA ends. These findings contradict previous hypotheses concerning the molecular basis for the frequent use of tRNA as the insertion site for foreign genetic materials. The analysis of a genomic island associated with a tRNA-Asn gene in P. marinus MIT9301 suggests that foreign genetic material is inserted into the host genomes by means of site-specific recombination, with the 3′ end of the tRNA as the target, and during the process, a direct repeat of the 3′ end sequence of a boundary tRNA (namely, a scar from the process of insertion) is formed elsewhere in the genomic island. Through the analysis of the sequences of these targets, it can be concluded that a region characterized by both high GC content and a palindromic structure is the preferred insertion site. © 2010 Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zhu W.-Z.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment | Xiang J.-S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang S.-G.,Southwest University | Li M.-H.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | Li M.-H.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Resprouting is the main regeneration mechanism of most Quercus species after severe disturbance such as fire or coppicing. Yet little is known about the relationships between the amounts of resources stored in the roots and resprouting ability when the total aboveground part of plants/trees was fully removed or destroyed, and about the resprouting ability in relation to increasing elevation associated with decreasing site productivity. The present study investigated the non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations and its pool size in roots of Quercus aquifolioides clumps grown at 3000. m, 3500. m, and 3950. m a.s.l. on Zheduo Mt., southwestern China, to test two competing hypotheses that (1) decreases in net primary productivity and growing season length with increasing elevation result in less allocation to storage of belowground NSC reserves, so that after coppicing, shrubs at higher elevations produce fewer resprouts and less total biomass than those at lower elevations, vs. (2) the shrubs growing at high-elevation sites with low-productivity produce more resprouts and biomass than those at low-elevation sites after coppicing, as it is expected that resprouting is favored in low-productivity environments. Our results indicated that early resprouting of Q. aquifolioides shrubs after coppicing is largely determined by the initial carbohydrate pool but not by the carbohydrate concentrations in roots. The large resprouting vigor of this species may be mainly ascribed to its large ratios of root to shoot biomass or root NSC pool to shoot NSC pool. The resprouting vigor of clumps decreased significantly with increasing elevation, which corresponds to significant decreases in the root biomass or root NSC pool size per clump with increasing elevation. Resprouts self-thinned more early and rapidly in clumps at lower elevations than at higher elevations, which may be mainly resulted from competition occurred more early in the more productive sites at lower elevations compared to higher elevations. Our results support the 1st but not the 2nd hypothesis. The present study has important implications for resources storage dealing with ecophysiology-based management strategy of coppicing woodland across scales. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zhao X.-Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu X.-H.,Nankai University | Li J.-J.,Nankai University | Zhao B.,Nankai University
CrystEngComm | Year: 2013

Ten novel lanthanide-based coordination polymers {[LnL(H2O) 2]·H2O}n (Ln = Pr (1), Nd (2), Eu (3), Gd (4), Tb (5), Dy (6), Ho (7), Er (8), Yb (9), and Lu (10), H3L = 2-(carboxylmethoxy)terephthalic acid), have been successfully synthesized through hydrothermal reactions of corresponding Ln(OH)3 with semirigid tricarboxylate H3L ligands. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural, containing a 3D porous framework built of carboxylate-bridged layers with 66-topology, while 3-10 display the same 2D double-layer structure based on binuclear Ln2O2 units with 4 3·63-topology. The PXRD and TGA prove their phase purity and high thermal stability, respectively. Photoluminescent studies indicate the efficient energy transfer from L3- ligand to Ln 3+ ions, exhibiting the typical intense emissions of corresponding Ln3+ ions in the visible region. The magnetic exchange interactions also are studied in compounds 4-7 for their short O bridges between Ln 3+ ions, and the results show that there may be ferromagnetic interactions in 4-6, while in 7 the interactions cannot be distinctly deduced from the curves due to the nature of the Ho3+ ions. Furthermore, compound 6 displays slow magnetization relaxation, exhibiting single-molecule magnetic behavior. © 2013 This journal isThe Royal Society of Chemistry.


Hu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Implement the waste sawdust that has widely regarded as a partial sand replacement material to produce sawdust concrete. The replacement ratio are 0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%, by using orthogonal test, analyzed the mechanical and heat preservation and heat insulation property and got an optimal replacement ratio. Besides, the deficiencies of this research have also been proposed. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Ge X.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Yu J.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Yu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang H.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

Growth hormone is a major stimulator of skeletal muscle growth in animals, including cattle. In this study, we determined whether GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle by direct stimulation of proliferation or fusion of myoblasts, by direct stimulation of protein synthesis, or by direct inhibition of protein degradation in myotubes. We also determined whether these direct effects of GH are mediated by IGF-I produced by myoblasts or myotubes. Satellite cells were isolated from cattle skeletal muscle and were allowed to proliferate as myoblasts or induced to fuse into myotubes in culture. Growth hormone at 10 and 100 ng/mL increased protein synthesis in myotubes (P < 0.05), but had no effect on protein degradation in myotubes or proliferation of myoblasts (P > 0.05). Insulin-like growth factor-I at 50 and 500 ng/mL stimulated protein synthesis (P < 0.01), and this effect of IGF-I was much greater than that of GH (P < 0.05). Besides stimulating protein synthesis, IGF-I at 50 and500 ng/mL also inhibited protein degradation in myotubes (P < 0.01), and IGF-I at 500 ng/mL stimulated proliferation of myoblasts (P < 0.05). Neither GH nor IGF-I had effects on fusion of myoblasts into myotubes (P > 0.1). These data indicate that GH and IGF-I have largely different direct effects on bovine muscle cells. Growth hormone at 10 and 100 ng/mL had no effect on IGF-I mRNA expression in either myoblasts or myotubes (P > 0.1). This lack of effect was not because the cultured myoblasts or myotubes were not responsive to GH; GH receptor mRNA was detectable in them and the expression of the cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CISH) gene, a well-established GH target gene, was increased by GH in bovine myoblasts (P < 0.05). Overall, the data suggest that GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle in part through stimulation of protein synthesis in the muscle and that this stimulation is not mediated through increased IGF-I mRNA expression in the muscle. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Wang Y.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment | Wang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang J.H.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment | Zhang Z.H.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment | Jia L.Z.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

Little has been known of the interaction between tillage erosion and water erosion, while the two erosion processes was independently studied. Can tillage-induced soil redistribution lead to exaggerated (or retarded) runoff flow and sediment concentrations in steeply sloping fields? A series of simulated tillage and artificial rainfall events were applied to rectangular runoff plots (m × 8 m) with a slope of 15° to examine the impacts of tillage erosion intensities on water erosion in the Yangtze Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Mean flow velocity, effective/critical shear stress, and soil erodibility factor K were calculated to analyze the differences in hydrodynamic characteristics induced by tillage. Our experimental results suggest that mean runoff rates were 2.26, 1.19, and 0.65 L min-1 and that mean soil detachment rates were 1.53, 1.01, and 0.61 g m-2 min-1 during the 70-min simulated rainfall events for 52-31-and 10-year tillage, respectively. A significant difference (< 0.05) in cumulative detachment amounts was found among different tillage intensities. Compared with the soil flux of 0 kg m-1, cumulative detachment amounts for the soil fluxes of 9.86 and 24.72 kg m-1 increased by 40.02% and 100.94%, respectively, during the 30-min rainfall event. The results imply that soil and water losses tended to increase with increasing tillage intensity. A significant difference in mean flow velocity occurred near the upper and lower slope boundaries of the field, while significant differences (< 0.05) in runoff depth and effective shear stress were observed among different slope positions. Soil erodibility factor K for the soil fluxes of 9.86 and 24.72 kg m-1 were 2.40 and 5.11 times higher, respectively, than that for the soil flux of 0 kg m-1. As tillage intensity increased, critical shear stress trended to gradually decrease for all soil fluxes. Our results indicate that tillage erosion increases soil erodibility and delivers the soil for water erosion in sloping fields, accelerating water erosion. © 2016.


Shen F.,Shanghai Jiao Jong University | Shen F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu R.,Shanghai Jiao Jong University
Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy | Year: 2010

The storage of sweet sorghum fresh juice with Ethyl-p-Hydroxybenzoate (EH) and the ethanol fermentation with the preserved juice were investigated in this study. The results of juice storage indicated that the EH additions of 0.01%, 0.02% and 0.05% in the juice were effective to preserve fresh sweet sorghum juice. Specifically, for the juice with 0.05% EH addition, the dissolved solids was almost kept constant and 81.49% total soluble sugar was preserved after 56 days. When the preserved juice was used for ethanol fermentation, the highest ethanol content was obtained at EH concentration of 0.05%. According to the sugar recovery and fermentation result, 0.05% EH could be selected as an effective and compromising dosage for fresh juice storage for producing ethanol from sweet sorghum. Copyright © 2010 American Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.


Li H.-Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Proceedings of 2012 International Conference on Quality, Reliability, Risk, Maintenance, and Safety Engineering, ICQR2MSE 2012 | Year: 2012

With the development of social market economy system and the rapid development of commodity economy in our country, it is necessary to accelerate the development of sports. Researching on how to improve the economic benefit of sport investment is the core of economic activities. Both sports theory workers and leaders should pay attention to an important question of improving the economic benefit of sport investment. We should plan how to invest to produce more economic benefit. © 2012 IEEE.


Sun P.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Sun P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang Y.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Xie G.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2010

Poly-(bistriethylphosphine)-platinum-diethynylbenzene (Pt-DEB) was synthesized by dehydrohalogenation reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), FTIR, and 1H-NMR spectra were used to identify the formation of Pt-DEB target material. Sensitive properties of Pt-DEB-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor to various organic vapors such as trichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, and methanol have been studied. The results show that Pt-DEB has good reversibility, reproducibility, and linear sensitivity to organic vapors at room temperature. The sensitivity of Pt-DEB (dissolved in CHCl3) toward CHCl3 is clearly higher than that toward other analytes, and a larger molecular weight of alcohol has a higher sensitivity response. The Pt-DEB-based QCM gas sensor shows low detection limits ranging from 1.0 to 3.56 ppm for the organic vapors and stable performance during a period of 30 days. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Jiang W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang W.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Chen X.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Industrial Management and Data Systems | Year: 2016

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the manufacturer's production, pricing and green technology investment decision problem when strategic customer behavior and carbon emissionssensitive random demand is taken into consideration and discuss the impact of carbon emissions-sensitive demand on the manufacturer's operation strategies, total carbon emissions and maximum expected profit. Design/methodology/approach - The authors formulate a model to introduce carbon emissionssensitive demand into the newsvendor framework with strategic customer behavior. The authors characterize the rational expectations equilibrium to derive the optimal solutions to the manufacturer. The authors analyze the effects of carbon emissions-sensitive demand on the manufacturer's optimal strategies, total carbon emissions and maximum expected profit by comparative analysis. Findings - The authors obtain the manufacturer's optimal production, pricing and green technology investment strategies under rational expectations equilibrium in scenario of price-sensitive demand and that of carbon emissions-sensitive demand, respectively. The authors find that as customer demand changes from price-sensitive demand to carbon emissions-sensitive demand, the manufacturer's optimal prices are the same but optimal production quantity, optimal unit carbon emissions and maximum expected profit go down. Though the total emissions decrease, the carbon emissions reduction would not increase as the demand is more carbon emissions-sensitive. Whether it increases or decreases depends on the model parameters. Originality/value - Carbon emissions-sensitive demand and strategic customer behavior are considered simultaneously in an integrated model. The result can guide the manufacturer decision-making. The proposed model are hoped to shed light to the future works in the field of sustainable supply chain management. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Lin D.R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Hu L.J.,Harbin Institute of Technology
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

In this study, the optimum reaction conditions of preparing bridged monomer by dodecylamine (DDA) and of γ-(2,3-epoxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPMS) were obtained at 60°C water bath for 36h. The synthesized materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy(IR), atomic force microscopy(AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle (CA). The result of FTIR indicates the formation of the DDA and GPMS bonded reactions during the synthesis of monomer, and preparation of the skeleton structure. Characterization of AFM on the structure of the surface morphology of the acid-catalyzed materials indicates the formation of layered structure. The acid-catalyzed materials were characterized by SEM indicates the rough structure of micron-level, which was conducive to the hydrophobic properties of the material. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Yu H.-Y.,Beijing Normal University | Yu H.-Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Peng W.-Y.,Capital University of Economics and Business | Ma X.,Beijing Normal University | Zhang K.-L.,Beijing Normal University
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2011

Field experiments were conducted in 2006-2008 to study the effects of no-tillage on the spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water content and related soil physical properties in spring corn fields in Beijing region during growth season. In study period, the water storage in 0-100 cm soil layer in tillage and no-tillage treatments had the same variation trend with time and precipitation, but the water storage at different time periods and under different precipitations was 2.1%-30. 3% higher in no-tillage treatment than in tillage treatment. When the precipitation was relatively abundant, the increment of soil water storage was somewhat increased, but no-tillage was still worth to be popularized in the regions relatively deficit in precipitation. Under no-tillage, the average water storage in 0-100 cm soil layer during the three growth seasons in 2006-2008 was 3. 4%-12. 8% higher than that under conventional tillage, and the increment of the water storage in 0-20 cm and 80-100 cm soil layers under no-tillage was higher than that in intermediate layer, with the highest increment reached 22. 2%. No-tillage improved soil water-holding capacity and water use efficiency via decreasing soil bulk density, increasing soil porosity, and promoting the formation of soil waterstable aggregates, and thereby, promoted crop yielding. After 3 years no-tillage, the soil water use efficiency and spring corn yield were increased by 13.3% and 16.4%, respectively, compared with those under conventional tillage.


Wu W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ren Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2013

Six1, an evolutionary conserved transcription factor, has been shown to play an important role in organogenesis and diseases. However, no reports were shown to investigate its transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. In the present study, we first identified porcine Six1 gene core promoter region (+. 170/360) using luciferase reporter assay system and found that promoter activities were significantly higher in the mouse myoblast C2C12 cells than that in the mouse fibroblast C3H10T1/2 cells, implying that Six1 promoter could possess muscle-specific characteristics. Moreover, our results showed that promoter activities of Six1 were decreased as induction of differentiation of C2C12 cells, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of mRNA expression of Six1 gene. In addition, we found that the DNA methylation of Six1 promoters in vitro obviously influences the promoter activities and the DNA methylation level of Six1 promoter core region was negatively correlated to Six1 gene expression in vivo. Taken together, we preliminarily clarified transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of Six1 gene, which should be useful for investigating its subtle transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in the future. On the other hand, based on Six1 involved in tumorigenesis, our data also provide a genetic foundation to control the generation of diseases via pursuing Six1 as therapeutic target gene. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Yang Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Proceedings of the 2010 2nd International Conference on Future Computer and Communication, ICFCC 2010 | Year: 2010

In the last decade, particle swam optimization (PSO) become popular for its simple concept, easy implementation and effectiveness. In order to enhance the performance of PSO, this paper presents an improved PSO variant, called IPSO, by hybridization of standard PSO and a mutation scheme. Simulation studies on ten famous benchmark problems show that IPSO surpasses standard PSO in all test cases. ©2010 IEEE.


Xie G.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Sun P.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Sun P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yan X.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | And 2 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2010

The polyaniline/PdO composite was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with PdO nanoparticles. A methane gas sensor was made by deposition polyaniline/PdO thin films on a mass-type quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) device through layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. Scanning electron microscopy inspection shows that the polyaniline/PdO multilayers are formed with a dense network of nanofibers. The frequency responses of the polyaniline/PdO based QCM sensor to methane gas were measured at room temperature and 50 °C. It exhibited that the polyaniline/PdO based QCM gas sensor has a better response at room temperature than that at 50 °C. Meanwhile, the humidity effect is also discussed. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ren H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ren H.,Chongqing Academy of Animal Science | Li L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011

Background: Whether myofibers increase with a pulsed-wave mode at particular developmental stages or whether they augment evenly across developmental stages in large mammals is unclear. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of myostatin in myofiber hyperplasia at the fetal stage in sheep remain unknown. Using the first specialized transcriptome-wide sheep oligo DNA microarray and histological methods, we investigated the gene expression profile and histological characteristics of developing fetal ovine longissimus muscle in Texel sheep (high muscle and low fat), as a myostatin model of natural mutation, and Ujumqin sheep (low muscle and high fat). Fetal skeletal muscles were sampled at 70, 85, 100, 120, and 135 d of gestation.Results: Myofiber number increased sharply with a pulsed-wave mode at certain developmental stages but was not augmented evenly across developmental stages in fetal sheep. The surges in myofiber hyperplasia occurred at 85 and 120 d in Texel sheep, whereas a unique proliferative surge appeared at 100 d in Ujumqin sheep. Analysis of the microarray demonstrated that immune and hematological systems' development and function, lipid metabolism, and cell communication were the biological functions that were most differentially expressed between Texel and Ujumqin sheep during muscle development. Pathways associated with myogenesis and the proliferation of myoblasts, such as calcium signaling, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 signaling, and vascular endothelial growth factor signaling, were affected significantly at specific fetal stages, which underpinned fetal myofiber hyperplasia and postnatal muscle hypertrophy. Moreover, we identified some differentially expressed genes between the two breeds that could be potential myostatin targets for further investigation.Conclusions: Proliferation of myofibers proceeded in a pulsed-wave mode at particular fetal stages in the sheep. The myostatin mutation changed the gene expression pattern in skeletal muscle at a transcriptome-wide level, resulting in variation in myofiber phenotype between Texel and Ujumqin sheep during the second half of gestation. Our findings provide a novel and dynamic description of the effect of myostatin on skeletal muscle development, which contributes to understanding the biology of muscle development in large mammals. © 2011 Ren et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Wang X.G.,University College Dublin | Liu Z.J.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2014

Objective This review focuses on current knowledge of traditional Chinese herbs on prevention and treatment of viral respiratory infections, especially caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndromes (SARS) virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza viruses. Data sources The data used in this review were obtained from PubMed and CNKI up to May 2013. Terms of Chinese herbs and infections of respiratory tract were used in the search. Study selection Articles related that Chinese herbs preventing and treating infections in respiratory tract were retrieved and reviewed. The risk of bias of included studies was assessed by the method in the "Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reveiws of Interventionsand studies" with high risk of bias were excluded. Four criteria for selections were set as following: randomized controlled trial, particular effective compound or derivative, reproducible result and animal test. Results Infectious respiratory tract diseases cause most mortality among infectious illnesses around the world. As traditional medicines, Chinese herbs have been widely used to deal with diseases for centuries and have been proved effective in practice. The administration of some Chinese herbs stimulates, suppresses or regulates the activity of immune system, thus protecting the respiratory tract or relieving infections of pathogens. Many herbs have remarkable antiviral effects, therefore they are used as substitutes of antimicrobial drugs. Based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, mix-using herbs provide a synergistic benefit on preventing and healing respiratory tract infections. Many commercial herbal medicines containing one or more compounds have been successfully applied to prevent and treat viral infections of respiratory tract clinically. Conclusions Traditional Chinese herbs could directly inhibit pathogens infecting respiratory tract, or coordinate the activity of immune system to avoid or relieve infections. With the emergence of antidrug pathogens or new variants, Chinese herbs give strong evidence to protect human health.


Yunzhong C.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Yunzhong C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Peiji S.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Wenlong Z.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Advances in Information Sciences and Service Sciences | Year: 2012

Microblogging service has become an important way to propagate information and conduct precision marketing in business operation. However, there is still a lack of deep knowledge about the determinants of information propagation on this platform. This paper has been conducted a study of why and how people participate in information propagation in microblogging service by investigating information systems continuance model and relational capital theory. The empirical analysis method and structural equation model (SEM) in this paper are employed to figure out the determinants of information propagation in microblogging sites. Data from 185 respondents indicate that the proposed model can predict the intention of information propagation in microblogging service effectively. According to the collected data, the relational capital theory can determine antecedents of information propagation within this context: both reciprocity among individuals and affective commitment in microblogging have positive effects on information propagation.


Wang W.-M.,University of Maryland College Park | Wang W.-M.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ma X.-F.,University of Maryland College Park | Ma X.-F.,Hunan Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Plant | Year: 2012

Many fungal and oomycete pathogens differentiate a feeding structure named the haustorium to extract nutrition from the plant epidermal cell. The atypical resistance (R) protein RPW8.2 activates salicylic acid (SA)-dependent, haustorium-targeted defenses against Golovinomyces spp., the causal agents of powdery mildew diseases on multiple plant species. How RPW8.2 activates defense remains uncharacterized. Here, we report that RPW8.2 interacts with the phytochrome-associated protein phosphatase type 2C (PAPP2C) in yeast and in planta as evidenced by co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. Down-regulation of PAPP2C by RNA interference (RNAi) in Col-0 plants lacking RPW8.2 leads to leaf spontaneous cell death and enhanced disease resistance to powdery mildew via the SA-dependent signaling pathway. Moreover, down-regulation of PAPP2C by RNAi in the RPW8.2 background results in strong HR-like cell death, which correlates with elevated RPW8.2 expression. We further demonstrate that hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged PAPP2C prepared from tobacco leaf cells transiently transformed with HA-PAPP2C possesses phosphatase activity. In addition, silencing a rice gene (Os04g0452000) homologous to PAPP2C also results in spontaneous cell death in rice. Combined, our results suggest that RPW8.2 is functionally connected with PAPP2C and that PAPP2C negatively regulates SA-dependent basal defense against powdery mildew in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2012. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.


Kong X.,Shanxi Institute of Coal CAS Chemistry | Kong X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zheng R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhu Y.,Shanxi Institute of Coal CAS Chemistry | And 5 more authors.
Green Chemistry | Year: 2015

Selective hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is of great importance for future energy and chemical supply. Herein, we propose for the first time that non-noble Ni-Al2O3 catalysts derived from hydrotalcite-like compounds can efficiently and selectively convert HMF into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran (DMTHF) and 2,5-dihydroxymethyltetrahydrofuran (DHMTHF). Homogeneous elemental distributions of the hydrotalcite-like precursor facilitate good dispersion of Ni and Al2O3 species and strong interaction between them over the resulting catalysts. The catalysts therefore exhibited superior reactivity. Through fine modulation of surface metal-acid bifunctional sites and control of reaction conditions, high yields of DMF (91.5%), DMTHF (97.4%) and DHMTHF (96.2%) can be diversely achieved. The results demonstrate the feasibility of Ni catalysts for selective hydrogenation of C=O, C=C and C-O bonds, which have great potential for biomass utilization. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Fu S.L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2011

The F5 plants derived from octoploid triticale × common wheat were investigated by FISH methods using repetitive DNA sequences pAS1 and pSc119.2 as probes. The disease resistance of these plants was also screened and evaluated in the field. The 1R, 2R, 3R, 4R, 5R, 6R and 7R monosomic addition lines and 1R and 2R disomic addition lines were found. The occurrence frequencies of chromosomes 1R and 4R addition lines were higher than that of chromosomes 2R, 3R, 5R, 6R, and 7R addition lines in the high generation screened. The 5R and 6R monosomic addition lines were immune to powdery mildew. The chromosome 5R in this study might carry new powdery mildew resistance gene(s). In addition, the preferential elimination of chromosome 4B was observed in several plants.


Yang H.,Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology | Tan Y.,Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology | Zhang T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Tang L.,Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Type III secretion system (T3SS) of the plague bacterium Y. pestis encodes a syringe-like structure consisting of more than 20 proteins, which can inject virulence effectors into host cells to modulate the cellular functions. Here in this report, interactions among the possible components in T3SS of Yersinia pestis were identified using yeast mating technique. A total of 57 genes, including all the pCD1-encoded genes except those involved in plasmid replication and partition, pseudogenes, and the putative transposase genes, were subjected to yeast mating analysis. 21 pairs of interaction proteins were identified, among which 9 pairs had been previously reported and 12 novel pairs were identified in this study. Six of them were tested by GST pull down assay, and interaction pairs of YscG-SycD, YscG-TyeA, YscI-YscF, and YopN-YpCD1.09c were successfully validated, suggesting that these interactions might play potential roles in function of Yersinia T3SS. Several potential new interactions among T3SS components could help to understand the assembly and regulation of Yersinia T3SS. © 2013 Yang et al.


He L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Torres G.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Torres G.A.,Federal University of Lavras | And 4 more authors.
Chromosome Research | Year: 2013

Interstitial telomeric repeats (ITRs) were reported in a number of animal and plant species. Most ITRs are organized as short tandem arrays and are likely evolutionary relics derived from chromosomal rearrangements and DNA repairs. However, megabase-sized ITR arrays were reported in Solanum species. Here, we report a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) survey of ITRs in all representative diploid Solanum species, including potato, tomato, and eggplant. FISH revealed massive amplification of ITRs in the centromeric regions of chromosomes from the Solanum species containing the B and P genomes. A significant proportion of the ITR FISH signals was mapped within the primary constrictions of the pachytene chromosomes of Solanum pinnatisectum (B genome). In addition, some ITR sites overlapped with St49, a satellite repeat enriched in centromeric DNA sequences associated with CENH3 nucleosomes, in both A and B genome Solanum species. These results show that some ITR subfamilies have been amplified and invaded in the functional centromeres of chromosomes in Solanum species. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Tang J.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Tang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Bromfield E.S.P.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Rodrigue N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 3 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2012

Microevolution and origins of Bradyrhizobium populations associated with soybeans at two field sites (A and B, 280 km apart in Canada) with contrasting histories of inoculation was investigated using probabilistic analyses of six core (housekeeping) gene sequences. These analyses supported division of 220 isolates in five lineages corresponding either to B. japonicum groups 1 and 1a or to one of three novel lineages within the genus Bradyrhizobium. None of the isolates from site A and about 20% from site B (the only site with a recent inoculation history) were attributed to inoculation sources. The data suggest that most isolates were of indigenous origin based on sequence analysis of 148 isolates of soybean-nodulating bacteria from native legumes (Amphicarpaea bracteata and Desmodium canadense). Isolates from D. canadense clustered with B. japonicum group 1, whereas those from A. bracteata were placed in two novel lineages encountered at soybean field sites. One of these novel lineages predominated at soybean sites and exhibited a significant clonal expansion likely reflecting selection by the plant host. Homologous recombination events detected in the 35 sequence types from soybean sites had an effect on genetic diversification that was approximately equal to mutation. Interlineage transfer of core genes was infrequent and mostly attributable to gyrB that had a history of frequent recombination. Symbiotic gene sequences (nodC and nifH) of isolates from soybean sites and native legumes clustered in two lineages corresponding to B. japonicum and B. elkani with the inheritance of these genes appearing predominantly by vertical transmission. The data suggest that soybean-nodulating bacteria associated with native legumes represent a novel source of ecologically adapted bacteria for soybean inoculation. © 2012 The Authors.


Zeng Y.,China Agricultural University | Fu X.,China Agricultural University | Zhou G.,China Agricultural University | Zhou G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2013

The objective was to investigate expression of cell adhesion-related proteins (E-cadherin, β-catenin, and the cytoskeletal protein F-actin) in bovine parthenogenetic embryos derived from vitrified-warmed oocytes. Bovine oocytes at metaphase II were randomly allocated into three groups: (1) untreated (control); (2) exposed to vitrification solution without freezing (toxicity); and (3) vitrified and warmed by the open-pulled straw method (vitrification). After parthenogenetic activation, in the vitrification group compared with the control, the timing of compaction was delayed in (108-120 vs. 96-108 hours, respectively), and the percentage of blastocysts that developed from eight-cell embryos was lower (32.08% vs. 61.03%; P < 0.05). To investigate whether vitrification delayed embryo compaction by affecting adhesion junction formation and function, immunostaining and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were done to characterize distribution patterns (E-cadherin, β-catenin, and the cytoskeletal protein F-actin) and expression levels of cell adhesion-related proteins (β-catenin). Distribution of β-catenin in eight-cell embryos from the vitrification group changed dramatically compared with the control and toxicity groups. Relative expression of β-catenin at the mRNA and protein levels was lower (P < 0.05) than that of the fresh and toxicity groups. However, expression and distribution of E-cadherin were similar among groups. In conclusion, abnormal distribution and decreased expression of β-catenin in bovine parthenogenetic eight-cell embryos derived from vitrified-warmed oocytes were associated with embryo compaction and reduced competence for subsequent embryo development. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Li Y.-C.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Li Y.-C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yu J.Z.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Ho S.S.H.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2012

In this study, we investigate the influence of long-range transport (LRT) episodes brought in by cold front on the concentration levels of PM 2.5, major aerosol constituents, organic tracers, and PM 2.5 source characteristics in Hong Kong, China. PM 2.5 samples were collected during January-March 2004 and January-March 2005 and analyzed for major constituents and organic tracer species. Synoptic weather conditions and characteristics of common air pollutants were used to categorize the sampling days to three groups, i.e., groups mainly affected by local emissions or regional transport (RT) or cold front LRT. Concentrations of PM 2.5 mass and its major constituents during cold-front days were lower than those during RT-dominated periods but higher than those during local emissions-dominated periods. Source apportionment using chemical mass balance (CMB) indicates that vehicular exhaust was a significant primary OC source of mainly local emissions, making average contributions of 1.82, 1.50, and 2.39μgCm -3 to OC in the local, LRT, and RT sample groups, respectively. During cold front periods, primary OC concentrations attributable to biomass burning and coal combustion were approximately triple and double, respectively, those during periods dominated by local emissions. Suspended dust, a minor primary OC source (0.24-0.40μgCm -3), also showed increased contribution during cold fronts. The unexplained OC by CMB (i.e., total OC minus apportioned primary OC), an approximate indicator for secondary OC, was a significant fraction of OC (>48%) and its mass concentration was much higher in the cold front LRT and RT sample groups (6.37 and 9.48μgCm -3) than in the local sample group (3.8μgCm -3). Source analysis as well as tracer concentration variation shows that biomass burning OC and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were correlated, suggesting biomass burning as a significant contributor to WSOC. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Liu H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Guo X.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University | Wu J.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University | Chen G.-B.,University of Queensland | Ying Y.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2013

Key message: We develop a set of universal genetic markers based on single-copy orthologous (COSII) genes in Poaceae. Being evolutionary conserved, single-copy orthologous (COSII) genes are particularly useful in comparative mapping and phylogenetic investigation among species. In this study, we identified 2,684 COSII genes based on five sequenced Poaceae genomes including rice, maize, sorghum, foxtail millet, and brachypodium, and then developed 1,072 COSII markers whose transferability and polymorphism among five bamboo species were further evaluated with 46 pairs of randomly selected primers. 91. 3 % of the 46 primers obtained clear amplification in at least one bamboo species, and 65. 2 % of them produced polymorphism in more than one species. We also used 42 of them to construct the phylogeny for the five bamboo species, and it might reflect more precise evolutionary relationship than the one based on the vegetative morphology. The results indicated a promising prospect of applying these markers to the investigation of genetic diversity and the classification of Poaceae. To ease and facilitate access of the information of common interest to readers, a web-based database of the COSII markers is provided (http://www. sicau. edu. cn/web/yms/PCOSWeb/PCOS. html). © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Li Y.-S.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chemical Industry | Year: 2010

The extraction procedure of effective components such as synephrine, hespridin, naringin, neohespridin, limonin pectin, natural pigment; aetherolea, flavone, with high quality protein feedstuff from Fructus Aurantii Immaturus in Sichuan Province of China by clean, synchronous and highly efficient technology is studied, and a route of separation and purification is gotten. The processing results show the yield of synephrine, hespridin, naringin, neohespridin, limonin, pectin, aetherolea, flavone, and high quality protein feedstuff can be 0.5%, 25.2%, 3.2%, 1.1%, 0.1%, 15.2%, 1.4%, 10.8%, 62%, respectively. The content of above ones can be 98.4%, 96.4%, 99.4%, 98.8%, 99.2%, 93%, 75%, 80%, 25.2%, respectively.


Xie W.,Logan Research | Xie W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Robins J.G.,Logan Research | Bushman B.S.,Logan Research
Genome | Year: 2012

Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), or cocksfoot, is indigenous to Eurasia and northern Africa, but has been naturalized on nearly every continent and is one of the top perennial forage grasses grown worldwide. To improve the understanding of genetic architecture of orchardgrass and provide a template for heading date candidate gene search in this species, the goals of the present study were to construct a tetraploid orchardgrass genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci associated with heading date. A combination of SSR markers derived from an orchardgrass EST library and AFLP markers were used to genotype an F1 population of 284 individuals derived from a very late heading Dactylis glomerata subsp. himalayensis parent and an early to mid-heading Dactylis glomerata subsp. aschersoniana parent. Two parental maps were constructed with 28 cosegregation groups and seven consensus linkage groups each, and homologous linkage groups were tied together by 38 bridging markers. Linkage group lengths varied from 98 to 187 cM, with an average distance between markers of 5.5 cM. All but two mapped SSR markers had homologies to physically mapped rice (Oryza sativa L.) genes, and six of the seven orchardgrass linkage groups were assigned based on this putative synteny with rice. Quantitative trait loci were detected for heading date on linkage groups 2, 5, and 6 in both parental maps, explaining between 12% and 24% of the variation. © 2012 Published by NRC Research Press.


Li X.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Jiang Y.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Xie G.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Tai H.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | And 2 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2013

Bottom contact organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) using SiO2 dielectric layer deposited on silicon wafer were fabricated for the gas sensor application. Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) was used as an active layer of OTFT device to test current-voltage characteristics and gas-sensing properties of the device. When the device was exposed to the atmosphere of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at room temperature, the source-drain current changed within a few minutes at the appropriate gate voltage and drain voltage. The dependence of sensing properties on the thickness of the insulator layer was investigated. The results showed that the device with an insulator layer of 195 nm exhibited the optimum electronic and sensing properties comparing with other devices based on the insulator layer of 125 nm and 300 nm. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Xu M.-J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhou D.-H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Nisbet A.J.,Moredun Research Institute | Huang S.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii can interfere with host cell signaling pathways, alter host defense systems and cell cycle control, and establish a chronic infection in the central nervous system. T. gondii infection may alter the expression profile of host microRNAs (miRNAs) which have key regulatory functions at the post-transcriptional level. Methods. Using high-throughput sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR technology, we compared the miRNA expression profiles of uninfected mouse brains with brains from mice at 14 days and 21 days after infection with cyst-forming T. gondii (Type II). Results: A total of 51.30 million raw reads were obtained from all samples and 495 (14d infected mouse sample), 511 (14d sham-infected control), 504 (21d infected mouse sample) and 514 (21d sham-infected control) miRNA candidates identified. Among these, 414 miRNAs were consistent across all the studied groups, 17 were specific to the 14d infected group and 32 were specific to the 21d infected group. In addition, 9 miRNAs were common to both the 14d- and 21d-infected groups. Enrichment analysis for the targets of these miRNAs showed a high percentage of "protein tag" functions. Immune related targets including chemokines, cytokines, growth factors and interleukins were also found. Conclusions: These results not only showed that the miRNA expression of the host can be changed by the invasion of cyst-forming T. gondii, but also indicated that the host attempts to respond using two tactics: marking proteins with "protein tags" and adaptation of immune related systems. © 2013 Xu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Dong L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2012

To investigate the bacteria community and biodiversity of four-years pickled Yanshan Dongcai. We studied the bacterial communities of Dongcai by 16S rDNA diversity analysis and the cultured species isolated from Dongcai sample by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rDNA diversity showed that the bacteria belonged to the phyla Proteobacteria (87.9% ) and Firmicutes (7.1% ), including many moderately halophilic bacteria such as Virgibacillus kekensis, Marinococcus albus, Salinicoccus sp., Lactobacillus halophilus and Halomonas. Only 5% of clone sequences belonged to the phylum Actinobacteria. Thirty-five strains were isolated from Dongcai sample, and 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis indicated that 34 isolates affiliated with the phylum Firmicutes, including Virgibacillus, Bacillus megaterium and Gracilibacillus saliphilus which were moderately halophilic bacteria, but only one isolate belonged to the phylum Actinobacteria. The bacterial diversity is low in Dongcai, dominated by moderately halophilic bacteria.


Yang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang X.,Queens University of Belfast | Flynn R.,Queens University of Belfast | Von Der Kammer F.,University of Vienna | Hofmann T.,University of Vienna
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology | Year: 2012

Our recent study reported that conformation change of granule-associated Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) may influence the role of the protein controlling colloid deposition in porous media (Flynn et al., 2012). The present study conceptualized the observed phenomena with an ellipsoid morphology model, describing BSA as an ellipsoid taking a side-on or end-on conformation on granular surface, and identified the following processes: (1) at low adsorbed concentrations, BSA exhibited a side-on conformation blocking colloid deposition; (2) at high adsorbed concentrations, BSA adapted to an end-on conformation promoted colloid deposition; and (3) colloid deposition on the BSA layer may progressively generate end-on molecules (sites) by conformation change of side-on BSA, resulting in sustained increasing deposition rates. Generally, the protein layer lowered colloid attenuation by the porous medium, suggesting the overall effect of BSA was inhibitory at the experimental time scale. A mathematical model was developed to interpret the ripening curves. Modeling analysis identified the site generation efficiency of colloid as a control on the ripening rate (declining rate in colloid concentrations), and this efficiency was higher for BSA adsorbed from a more dilute BSA solution. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Kang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Khan S.,Regional Science Bureau for Asia and the Pacific UNESCO Jakarta Indonesia | Ma X.,Northwest University, China
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2015

Climate change impacts on food production and water use efficiency are becoming more and more important. This paper mainly discusses the climate change effects on water use indices and maize yield under rainfed and irrigated conditions projected by three climate models in the Murray Darling Basin, Australia in 2020, 2050 and 2080 under A2 and B2 scenarios. The climate prediction results show that it is similar to the future precipitation and temperature projected by three climate models for the same time slices. For rainfed and irrigated maize, the crop yield, the potential and actual evapotranspiration will increase by 3-32, 3-12, 30-45 and 32-45, 3-15, 6-15% under both scenarios in the future during the maize growth period compared with the baseline respectively. Water use indices of maize under rainfed conditions will decrease and the variable increment will gradually be larger in the future, including evapotranspiration efficiency, crop water use efficiency and total water use efficiency. However, all the water use indices analysed under irrigated conditions will increase. The variation for evapotranspiration efficiency, ratio of evapotranspiration and irrigation is around 20%, but the variation for the other three indices is more than 30%. The projection results also indicate that the indices under the B2 scenario are smaller than those under A2 although the variable tendency and range are consistent. The conclusions suggest that it is significant to develop irrigated agriculture so as to mitigate climate change effects on crop production in the Murray Darling Basin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..


Zheng J.,Hohai University | Yang K.,Hohai University | Lu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Hydrology Research | Year: 2013

A limited adaptive genetic algorithm (LAGA) is proposed in the paper for inner-plant economical operation of a hydropower station. In the LAGA, limited solution strategy, with the feasible solution generation method for generating an initial population and the limited perturbation mutation operator, is presented to avoid hydro units operating in cavitation-vibration regions. The adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation are introduced to improve the convergence speed of the genetic algorithm (GA). Furthermore, the performance of the limited solution strategy and the adaptive parameter controlling improvement are checked against the historical methods, and the results of simulating inner-plant economical operation of the Three Gorges hydropower station demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. First, the limited solution strategy can support the safety operations of hydro units by avoiding cavitation-vibration region operations, and it achieves a better solution, because the non-negative fitness function is achieved. Second, the adaptive parameter method is shown to have better performance than other methods, because it realizes the twin goals of maintaining diversity in the population and advancing the convergence speed of GA. Thus, the LAGA is feasible and effective in optimizing inner-plant economical operation of hydropower stations. © IWA Publishing 2013.


Yang L.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2011

The genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been widely applied to research of transgenic plants. As the vector of the exotic genes, the integration patterns of T-DNA fragments affects not only transformation efficiency and stability, but also expression properties of the transgenes. This review summaries the two major patterns and the rules of T-DNA integration in Agrobacterim-mediated transformation, rules of T-DNA mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, as well as research tools for flanking sequence amplification. It is attempted to provide references for researches on transformation and T-DNA integration mutation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.


Luo M.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2011

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an extensive class of endogenous, non-coding, short (21~25 nt) RNA molecules, which regulate expression of target genes through miRNA-guided cleavage or translational repression of mRNAs. Plant miRNAs are involved in all aspects of regulation of plant growth and development. The miR319 was shown to regulate TCPs transcription factor controlling the fate of plant organ growth such as leaves and flowers and was involved in regulating part of hormone biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways. Thus, they play a key biochemical function in plant organs development. This review focused on the key roles of miR319 in regulation of the morphogenesis, development, and senescence of plant organs such as leaves and flowers.


Zhang F.T.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2012

Plant height is one of the most important agronomic traits, which determines grain yield. By a largescale screening of our mutant population, we identified a dwarf with twisty leaf mutant (dwarf and twist leaf 1, dtl1). Besides dwarf with twisty leaf, dtl1 also showed reduced tiller number and sterile phenotypes. Based on the internode length of dtl1, this mutant belongs to the nl type of dwarfing phenotype. Physiological assay with two phytohormones, gibberellin (GA), and brassinosteroid (BR), suggested that dtl1 was neither deficient nor insensitive to GA and BR. Genetic analysis showed that the phenotype of dtl1 was controlled by a single recessive gene. Using F2 population derived from a cross between dtl1 and an indica cultivar Taichung Native 1, the DTL1 gene was narrowed down to a 70.4 kb between two SSR markers, RM25923 and RM6673, on the long arm of chromosome 10, and co-segregated with InDel marker Z10-29, where thirteen open reading frames were predicted without known gene involved in controlling plant height. Thus, the DTL1 gene might be a novel gene which is related to plant height in rice.


Dong C.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2011

The aims that indicated in "The Guidance Outline on Elementary and Middle Schools Information Technology Curriculum" are to enable students to have abilities of acquiring, transmitting, processing and applying information through learning information technology courses; cultivate them to have good information literacy; make information technology as a significant way of supporting for lifelong and cooperative learning, laying a necessary foundation of adapting to the study, work and life in information society. With the application of multimedia computers and networks, education and teaching have undergone profound changes that the integration of information technology and subject teaching (or course) has become the focus in educational reform, so how to integrate instruction with the information technology curriculum? I think the idea that combing with other subjects teaching in the information technology curriculum to carry out thematic inquiry learning not only can achieve unique effects, but also is a win-win teaching model of information technology and other teaching courses. This paper aims at exploring the positive ways and meaning of the integration of information technology and other subjects through thematic inquiry learning cases. © Trans Tech Publications.


Wu X.,Nanyang Technological University | Lei C.,Nanyang Technological University | Yue G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou J.,Nanyang Technological University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

Many 1,3-azoles and thiophenes are directly cyclopropylated in the presence of a simple palladium catalyst. The relative configuration on the three-membered rings is retained in the products. Thus, the cyclopropyl-halide bond undergoes concerted oxidative addition to palladium(0) and cyclopropyl radicals are not involved in the productive pathway. The cyclopropylation reaction shown in the scheme proceeds by concerted oxidative addition of the C¯I bond to palladium. Notably, the relative configuration on the three-membered rings is retained in the products. Control experiments confirm that radicals are not involved in this reaction. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


He G.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

There is an increasing concern about low-carbon economy development in China in the context of sustainable development. Based on analyzing the current situations and the constraints, this paper aims to present policy suggestion to realize China's low-carbon economy development. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Liu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

With significant meaning, the application of virtual reality technology in sports field is a revolutionary tradition education mode. A high level of physical education teaching training direction is easier to get, the teaching process can be optimized, sports injury can be avoided, and Resources can be saved. The traditional concept can change and physical education can be developed. This advantage can help to break development bottleneck effective. Usually, this kind of technique used only to a high level of training or competition. Teaching the trial in only in basketball and volleyball is limited. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zhao X.L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhao X.L.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Honaker C.F.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Siegel P.B.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

A long-term bidirectional selection experiment was conducted to study antibody response to SRBC. Lines, high antibody selection (HAS) and low antibody selection (LAS), originating from the same White Leghorn base population had undergone 37 generations of selection for either high or low antibody response 5 d after a single intravenous injection of 0.1 mL of a 0.25% suspension of SRBC antigen. Subpopulations, where selection was relaxed, were maintained as contemporaries with the selected lines from generations 16 to 24 [high antibody relaxed (HAR) and low antibody relaxed (LAR)] and 24 to 37. Body weights were obtained at 4, 24, and 38 wk of age and at the onset of lay (BW at first egg). Also measured were age in days to first egg, percentages of hen-day ovulations and normal egg production, and percentages of normal and defective eggs from total ovulation (PNe and PDe). Selection lead to a large divergence in antibody titers between the selected lines, with a plateau reached in line LAS. Line HAS and HAR females displayed higher antibody titers, lower BW4, and matured at older ages than those from LAS and LAR (P < 0.05). Correlations between BW at 4 wk and antibody titers were different between the selected lines, being positive in line LAS and negative in line HAS. Quadratic regression models fit well with antibody titers, BW4, and PNe, with limiting values for these traits calculated based on regression curves. For line HAS, plots showed that an increased tendency of antibody titers was followed by decreased BW4 and increased PNe. For line LAS, however, antibody titers and BW4 decreased in parallel while PNe increased. It appears that at the phenotypic level there was a resource balance between immune response, growth, and reproductive traits, which during long-term selection, individuals altered their dynamic of resource allocations to satisfy certain needs. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Guan T.-W.,Tarim University | Guan T.-W.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Wu N.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Xia Z.-F.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | And 4 more authors.
Extremophiles | Year: 2011

A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 40133T, was isolated from a hypersaline habitat of Tarim basin in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on an almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain showed that it formed a well-seperated sub-branch within the radiation of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found between the strain TRM 40133T and Saccharopolyspora qijiaojingensis YIM 91168T (96. 5%). The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolate are typical for the genus Saccharopolyspora. It contained meso-DAP as the diagnostic diamino acid. Whole cell hydrolysate contained arabinose, xylose, ribose and glucose. The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown phospholipids. The main menaquinone was MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H4). No mycolic acid was detected. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C16:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68. 2 mol%. In addition, the strain TRM 40133T had a phenotypic profile that readily distinguished it from the recognized representatives of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The strain TRM 40133T therefore represents a novel species of the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora lacisalsi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 40133T (=KCTC 19987T =CCTCC AA 2010012T). © 2011 Springer.


Zhang Y.,Hunan University | Zhang Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhu R.,Hunan University | Cui Y.,Hunan University | And 3 more authors.
Nanotechnology | Year: 2014

Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons (NMPCs) with well-developed polyhedral morphology were prepared by direct carbonization of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) nanopolyhedrons. The fantastic structural characteristics of NMPCs such as ultrahigh BET surface area (1960 m2 g-1), large pore volume (1.16 cm3 g-1), and nitrogen doping make it an excellent catalyst support. PtRu nanoparticles (with a size of approximately 1.9 nm) were homogeneously supported on NMPCs by microwave-assisted reduction in ethylene glycol, and the obtained PtRu/NMPCs catalyst shows a significantly higher electrocatalytic activity and stability for methanol oxidation than the typical commercial PtRu/C (E-TEK) catalyst. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Yue G.,Nanyang Technological University | Yue G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lei K.,Nanyang Technological University | Hirao H.,Nanyang Technological University | Zhou J.,Nanyang Technological University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

Asymmetric reductive Heck reaction of aryl halides is realized in high stereoselectivity. Hydrogen-bond donors, trialkylammonium salts in a glycol solvent, were used to promote halide dissociation from neutral arylpalladium complexes to access cationic, stereoselective pathways. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Yang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2012

According to the current market of furniture and furniture, manufacturing enterprises is using flexible design. And traditional furniture production process, and on the basis of this paper put forward a new concept offurniture flexible manufacturing technology and furniture flexible manufacturing systems. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Xue B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xue B.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | Yan T.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | Ferris C.F.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | Mayne C.S.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey-Holstein crossbred dairy cows (all primiparous) were used in a repeated 2 (genotype) × 2 (concentrate level) factorial design study involving a total of 4 periods (each of 6-wk duration), designed to examine the effect of cross-breeding on the efficiency of milk production and energy use. The 4 periods began at 5, 11, 27, and 33 wk of lactation, respectively. Animals were offered a completely mixed diet containing grass silage and concentrates, with the level of concentrate in the diet either 30 or 70% of dry matter (DM). During the final 10 d of each period, ration digestibility and energy use was measured, the latter in indirect open-circuit respiration calorimeters. No significant interaction existed between cow genotype and dietary concentrate level for feed intake, milk production, or any of the energy use parameters measured. Across the 2 genotypes, total DM intake, milk yield, and milk protein and lactose concentrations increased with increasing dietary concentrate level. Thus, cows offered the high-concentrate diet had a higher gross energy (GE) intake, and a higher energy output in feces, urine, milk as heat, and a higher metabolizable energy (ME) intake as a proportion of GE intake and as a proportion of digestible energy intake. Across the 2 levels of concentrates, the Jersey-Holstein cows had a significantly higher total DM intake and body condition score, and produced milk with higher fat, protein, and energy concentrations, compared with those of the Holstein cows. In addition, the Jersey-Holstein cows had a significantly higher GE intake and energy output in urine, methane, and milk. However, crossbreeding had no significant effect on energy digestibility or metabolizability, energy partitioning between milk and body tissue, or the efficiency of ME use for lactation. Relating ME intake to milk energy output and heat production indicated that crossbreeding did not influence ME requirement for maintenance or energy efficiencies. The energy metabolism data were also used to compare energy efficiencies between " early" (data pooled for the first 2 periods) and " late" (data pooled for the second 2 periods) stages of lactation. Stage of lactation had no effect on energy digestibility or metabolizability, whereas increasing stage of lactation increased the rate of energy partitioning into body tissue and reduced the rate of energy partitioning into milk, irrespective of cow genotype. In conclusion, crossbreeding of Holstein dams with Jersey sires had no adverse effects on the overall production efficiency of Holstein dairy cows in terms of milk production, efficiency of ME use for lactation, and energy partitioning between milk and body tissue. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association.


Gao F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Gao F.,University of Pennsylvania | Kim B.-S.,University of Pennsylvania | Walsh P.J.,University of Pennsylvania
Chemical Science | Year: 2016

Control of chemoselectivity is one of the most challenging problems facing chemists and is particularly important in the synthesis of bioactive compounds and medications. Herein, the first highly chemoselective tandem C(sp3)-H arylation/[1,2]-Wittig rearrangement of pyridylmethyl ethers is presented. The efficient and operationally simple protocols enable generation of either arylation products or tandem arylation/[1,2]-Wittig rearrangement products with remarkable selectivity and good to excellent yields (60-99%). Choice of base, solvent, and reaction temperature play a pivotal role in tuning the reactivity of intermediates and controlling the relative rates of competing processes. The novel arylation step is catalyzed by a Pd(OAc)2/NIXANTPHOS-based system via a deprotonative cross-coupling process. The method provides rapid access to skeletally diverse aryl(pyridyl)methanol core structures, which are central components of several medications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.


Xin X.,Sichuan Agricultural University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

This paper mainly design B/S system structure and small information management system that often appear some problems of college student information management, combines the actual situation of students and student instructor management work. In the process of the development of the whole system, the main use of Microsoft.NET technology as a whole system of compiler environment, SQL Server 2000 is used in the design of backstage supporter's database, were developed and designed by Visual Studi02005 tool, in exchange for page dynamically selected by the ASP.NET database and system interface between Webpage generation. This system has high reliability, high security, low input, so that the efficiency of information management students to improve. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zhao Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Yu X.,Beijing Forestry University