Sichuan Academy of Animal Science

Chengdu, China

Sichuan Academy of Animal Science

Chengdu, China
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Jiang W.-D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Kuang S.-Y.,Sichuan Academy of Animal Science | Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2013

This study investigated the effects of myo-inositol (MI) on the growth and antioxidant capacity of carp enterocytes. The enterocytes were incubated in media containing 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 mg MI L-1 for 96 h. The results indicated that MI could increase cell viability. In addition, the activities of cellular alkaline phosphatase (AKP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), Na+, K+-adenosine trisphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase) and creatinkinase (CK) increased with MI supplementation at levels ranging from 15 to 60 mg MI L-1 medium, indicating an improvement in cell differentiation and function. Further, enzymatic antioxidant ability, as measured by total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, improved with MI supplementation. Finally, cell damage, as indicated by lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the medium and cellular protein carbonyls (PC), was all depressed by MI. Correlation analyses showed that cell viability (MTT) was positively related to the antioxidant enzyme activities, but negatively related to cell damage (LDH, MDA and PC). In summary, the data showed that MI could improve the growth of fish enterocytes. This result may be partly due to the enhanced antioxidant status and depressed oxidative damage. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Chen G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Feng L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Kuang S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Kuang S.,Sichuan Academy of Animal Science | And 8 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary arginine promotes digestion and absorption capacity, and, thus, enhances fish growth. This improvement might be related to the target of rapamycin (TOR) and eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP). A total of 1200 juvenile Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian, with an average initial weight of 6•33 (se 0•03) g, were fed with diets containing graded concentrations of arginine, namely, 9•8 (control), 12•7, 16•1, 18•5, 21•9 and 24•5 g arginine/kg diet for 9 weeks. An real-time quantitative PCR analysis was performed to determine the relative expression of TOR and 4E-BP in fish muscle, hepatopancreas and intestine. Dietary arginine increased (P < 0•05): (1) glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase activities in muscle and hepatopancreas; (2) intestine and hepatopancreas protein content, folds height, and trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, Na +/K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, I'-glutamyl transpeptidase and creatine kinase activities in intestine; (3) Lactobacillus counts; (4) relative expression of TOR in the muscle, hepatopancreas and distal intestine (DI); (5) relative expression of 4E-BP in proximal intestine (PI) and mid-intestine (MI), as compared with the control group. In contrast, dietary arginine reduced (P < 0•05): (1) plasma ammonia content; (2) Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli counts; (3) relative expression of TOR in PI and MI; (4) relative expression of 4E-BP in the muscle, hepatopancreas and DI. The arginine requirement estimated by specific growth rate using quadratic regression analysis was found to be 18•0 g/kg diet. These results indicate that arginine improved fish growth, digestive and absorptive ability and regulated the expression of TOR and 4E-BP genes. © 2011 The Authors.

Zhang J.-X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Guo L.-Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Feng L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang W.-D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

β-conglycinin has been identified as one of the major feed allergens. However, studies of β-conglycinin on fish are scarce. This study investigated the effects of β-conglycinin on the growth, digestive and absorptive ability, inflammatory response, oxidative status and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and their enterocytes in vitro. The results indicated that the specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake, and feed efficiency were reduced by β-conglycinin. In addition, activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, creatine kinase, Na+,K+-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in the intestine showed similar tendencies. The protein content of the hepatopancreas and intestines, and the weight and length of the intestines were all reduced by β-conglycinin. β-conglycinin increased lipid and protein oxidation in the detected tissues and cells. However, β-conglycinin decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content in the intestine and enterocytes. Similar antioxidant activity in the hepatopancreas was observed, except for GST. The expression of target of rapamycin (TOR) gene was reduced by β-conglycinin. Furthermore, mRNA levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) genes were increased by β-conglycinin. However, β-conglycinin increased CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, and GPx1b gene expression. In conclusion, this study indicates that β-conglycinin induces inflammation and oxidation, and causes dysfunction of intestinal digestion and absorption in fish, and finally reduces fish growth. The results of this study provide some information to the mechanism of β-conglycinin-induced negative effects. © 2013 Zhang et al.

Wang B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Feng L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang W.-D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Growth performance, flesh quality, antioxidant status and antioxidant-related signalling molecule expression in the muscle of young grass carp, which were fed graded levels of arginine (6.9-24.5 g/kg diet) for eight weeks, were investigated. Muscle protein, lipid and nitric oxide contents, shear force, hydroxyproline concentration, and pH were significantly improved by appropriate arginine. Cooking loss, lactate content, cathepsins activities, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents exhibited an opposite tendency. Additionally, optimum arginine significantly enhanced glutathione content and the activities and gene expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in muscle. Moreover, the expression levels of glutamate-cysteine ligase, target of rapamycin, ribosome protein S6 kinase 1, casein kinase 2 and NF-E2-related factor 2 in muscle were significantly elevated by appropriate arginine. However, optimum arginine significantly decreased Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 mRNA levels in muscle. In conclusion, arginine improved the flesh quality and muscle antioxidant capacity and regulated antioxidant-related signalling molecule expression. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Wang B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Feng L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang W.-D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2015

This study explored the possible preventive effects of dietary arginine on copper (Cu)-induced tight junction mRNA expression changes, apoptosis and antioxidant responses in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The results indicated that exposure to 0.7. mg/L (11.01. μmol/L) Cu for 96. h induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby increasing protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the gills of fish. However, these oxidative effects were prevented by arginine supplementation. Arginine also prevented the toxic effects of Cu on the activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione- S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and the glutathione (GSH) content (P<. 0.05). However, Cu induced an adaptive increase in the activity of catalase (CAT), and arginine supplementation further increased CAT activity (P<. 0.05). Moreover, Cu induced increases in the relative mRNA expressions of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GST, caspase-3, caspase-9, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) in the gills of grass carp (P<. 0.05). In contrast, the relative mRNA expression levels of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin b, claudin 3, claudin 12, target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) in the gills were decreased by Cu (P<. 0.05). However, pre-treatment of fish with arginine prevented Cu-induced relative mRNA expression decrease. Interestingly, Cu exposure resulted in increases in claudin 15a mRNA expression (P<. 0.05) but could not induce claudin c, caspase-8 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA expression changes in the gill of fish (P>. 0.05). These results indicated that Cu exposure induced apoptosis and antioxidant system and tight junction mRNA changes in the fish gills, which could be completely blocked by dietary arginine pre-supplementation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | Sichuan Academy of Animal Science, China Agricultural University, CAS Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology and Sichuan Agricultural University
Type: | Journal: Fish & shellfish immunology | Year: 2017

This study was conducted to explore the possible effects of dietary ALA/LNA ratios on the gill immunity, tight junction and antioxidant capacity, and the related signaling factor mRNA levels of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed diets with different ALA/LNA ratios (0.01, 0.34, 0.68, 1.03, 1.41, 1.76 and 2.15) for 60 days. The present results showed that ALA/LNA ratio of 1.03 significantly enhanced lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 contents, promoted mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (Hepcidin and liver expression antimicrobial peptide-2), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor 1) and inhibitor protein B, whereas suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor a and interferon 2), and signal molecules (IB kinase , IB kines and nuclear factor B p65) mRNA levels in the gill, indicating that optimal dietary ALA/LNA ratio improve gill immunity of juvenile fish. Besides, ALA/LNA ratio of 1.03 increased mRNA levels of the barrier functional proteins (occludin, zonula occludens-1, claudin-b, -c and -3), and reduced the pore-formation proteins (claudin-15a) and myosin light-chain kinase mRNA abundance in the gill of juvenile grass carp, indicating optimum ALA/LNA ratio strengthen gill tight junction of juvenile fish. Additionally, ALA/LNA ratio of 1.03 increased glutathione contents, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities and mRNA abundance, and nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 mRNA levels in the gill of fish, suggesting that optimal ALA/LNA ratio ameliorate gill antioxidant status of juvenile fish. Interestingly, dietary ALA/LNA ratios had no effect on IB kinase and catalase activities in fish gills. Collectively, optimal dietary ALA/LNA ratio could improve gill immunity and strengthen physical barrier of juvenile fish. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of complement 3 content in the gill, optimal dietary ALA/LNA ratio for maximum growth of juvenile grass carp was estimated to be 1.12.

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