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Balazs G.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics | Tomoskozi S.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics | Harasztos A.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics | Nemeth V.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics | And 5 more authors.
Cereal Research Communications

Based on previous research on validating lab-on-A-chip data on wheat protein analysis, a comprehensive work has been carried out with the intent to demonstrate the potential of the technique for wheat related fundamental research, breeding and food industry. Sample preparation and separation methodologies were investigated for the main wheat polypeptide classes: albumins, globulins, gliadins and glutenin subunits (GS). The work was carried out on a sample population originated from Western Siberia with different genetic background providing data, and characterizing their potential interest for future breeding work. LOC results are compared with corresponding reference methods (MALDI-TOF and RP-HPLC). The research revealed that, the current technology is capable for fast profile analysis, recognizing the minor qualitative, and typical quantitative differences in the albumin and globulin protein composition. While the gliadin separation showed poor results, the method seems to be able to identify the high molecular glutenin allelic composition, and to differentiate some of the low molecular weight glutenin alleles, too. Our results provide new insights into a possible rapid and simple way for grain protein profiling. Source

Efremova T.T.,RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics | Chumanova E.V.,RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics | Trubacheeva N.V.,RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics | Arbuzova V.S.,RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics | And 2 more authors.
Russian Journal of Genetics

With the use of allele-specific primers developed for the VRN1 loci, the allelic diversity of the VRN-A1, VRN-B1, and VRN-D1 genes was studied in 148 spring common wheat cultivars cultivated under the conditions of western Siberia. It was demonstrated that modern Western Siberian cultivars have the VRN-A1a allele, which is widely distributed in the world (alone or in combination with the VRN-B1a and VRN-B1c alleles). It was established that the main contribution in acceleration of the seedling–heading time is determined by a dominant VRN-A1a allele, while the VRNA1b allele, on the contrary, determines later plant heading. Cultivars that have the VRN-A1b allele in the genotype are found with a frequency of 8%. It was shown that cultivars with different allele combinations of two dominant genes (VRN-A1a + VRN-B1c and VRN-A1a + VRN-B1a) are characterized by earlier heading and maturing. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc. Source

Morgounov A.I.,CIMMYT | Belan I.,Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture | Zelenskiy Y.,CIMMYT | Roseeva L.,Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture | And 6 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science

This study focusses on changes in yield, protein content, micronutrient composition and bread-making quality of 32 historical bread wheat varieties. The germplasm was divided into four groups: viz. 1: bred before 1935; 2: bred 1955-1975; 3: bred 1976-1985; 4: bred after 1985. Yield genetic gain was 0.59% per year. The last three periods scored significantly higher for protein, gluten content and alveograph W values, compared with the first group, but did not differ significantly from each other. The physical dough properties of varieties developed between 1976 and 1985 were superior, as reflected by the W value, farinograph mixing time and degree of softening. Loaf volume was highest for the 1950-1975 group, representing a 15.6% superiority. There were significant and gradual reductions between the earliest and latest groups for protein (7.6%) and wet gluten (7.7%) contents. No changes in zinc and iron contents, important in determining grain nutritional value, were detected. Generally, modern germplasm had superior physical dough quality and stability. This improvement was not clearly associated with changes in the frequencies of high-and low-molecular weight glutenin alleles. Sustaining the genetic gains for yield and quality will require investigation of the effects and interactions of genes controlling adaptation and end-use quality of spring wheat in Siberia. Source

Morgounov A.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Zykin V.,Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture | Belan I.,Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture | Roseeva L.,Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Field Crops Research

Short season high latitude (50°N-56°N) spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is grown on approximately 7 million ha in Western Siberia with average yield of 1.5-2.0 t/ha. A historical set of 47 varieties developed and grown in the region between 1900 and 2000 was evaluated at a trial in Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture (Omsk) in 2002-2008. The genetic gains for grain yield and associated changes in agronomic traits were analyzed for three maturity groups (early, medium and late) and four breeding periods (before 1930, 1950-1975, 1976-1985 and after 1985). The overall yield was 3.71 t/ha for modern varieties versus 2.18 t/ha for old varieties representing 0.7% increase per year in the course of 100 years. The genetic gains between the breeding periods indicated that the rate of progress for the early and medium maturity groups was more or less comparable from one breeding period to the other. For the late maturity group there was an obvious and sharp decline in genetic gain with time. Modern varieties were also characterized by average response to environmental mean and good grain yield stability evaluated according to Eberhart and Russell (1966). Thousand kernel weight and number of grains per unit area were linearly correlated with grain yield and genetic gain over time suggested their importance for breeding progress. Resistance to leaf rust in some modern varieties sustained and contributed to stability of genetic gains. The yield increase over time was not associated with plant height reduction and incorporation of Rht genes. The maturity range of the newer varieties is narrower compared to old germplasm as they tend to belong to medium maturity group. Translocation 1B.1R had limited contribution to Western Siberian germplasm being observed in only three varieties. The increase in adaptation, yield potential and its stability has been reached due to gradual accumulation of favorable genes through diverse crosses, robust selection and testing system. Resistance to leaf rust and other prevalent pathogens is of paramount importance for future progress. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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