Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Siberian Federal University

www.sfu-kras.ru/en/
Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Siberian Federal University is a modern multidisciplinary university located in the eastern part of Russia, Krasnoyarsk, that combines fundamental and applied research and teaching.The University holds top positions in Russian universities' rankings: 12—14 place in the total National Rating of Universities , 7—8 place in the section "Innovations and Entrepreneurship", 6—10 place in the section "Education". The Siberian Federal University was ranked #14 among Russian universities in the international rankings "Web of Science" and "Ranking Web of World Universities". The Siberian Federal University participates in the international collaboration and integration into international research and education space.The Universities' fundamental and applied research is closely connected with Institutions of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of science ; many scienties from these institutions are professors and lecturers in the SibFU. The Siberian Federal University has its own large university press, which includes the Scientific Journal of the Siberian Federal University.The University was established in 2006 by merging four large universities of Krasnoyarsk city that had been training professionals in the most competitive sectors of economy in Siberia and the Far East: Krasnoyarsk State University, Krasnoyarsk State Technical University, Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Architecture and Construction and Krasnoyarsk State University of Non-Ferrous Metals and Gold.Today Siberian Federal University is the largest higher educational institution in Siberia and consists of 19 Institutes with more than 3,000 faculty staff teaching 41,000 students. The Chairman of the University Board of Trustees is Dmitry A. Medvedev, the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 20, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

During the research, the scientists were to answer the following questions which are currently considered to be important in the realm of radiobiology: What are the peculiarities of low-dose gamma radiations effect on living creatures? What are the differences between gamma and alpha, beta radiation in terms of their effect on living creatures? Photobacterium phosphoreum, which is quite suitable for a comprehensive analysis of a radiation effect, was used as a test organism. In the course of the experiment, the luminous bacteria were put into an experimental capsule where they were undergoing the effect of different radiation capacity and duration under the temperatures of +5 °C, +10 °C, +20 °C. Research concerning gamma radiation is a significant issue, since, compared to alpha- and beta radiation, it is much more dangerous. The level of its spreading and penetrating the objects is quite high, and one cannot simply cover themselves in order to protect from radiation. For example, to prevent from being harmed by alpha radiation a sheet of paper is enough, while gamma radiation can be prevented only by using heavy metals, such as lead. The differences in effects produced by radiation of alpha-, beta- and gamma-rays are connected with the very nature of those kinds of radiation. While alpha and beta radiation are the beams of charged particles -- the nuclei of helium atoms and electrons respectively, gamma radiation is electromagnetic radiation, characterized by low ionizing power. These distinctive features are supposed to influence biological effects in case of both high-dose and low-dose radiation. As low-dose effects are currently being less analyzed, they are the subject of interest for many scientists. As a result of experiments conducted and all the data compared with the previously known information, the researchers have come to a number of significant conclusions: First, if the influence of low-intensity alpha and beta radiation on living creatures can be described applying the model of hormesis (according to which radiation can have both negative and positive influence), low-intensity gamma-radiation under the same circumstances can be only destructive, and is described as a linear correlation in dose-effect coordinates. Second, the scientists have found out that if the radiation is low-intense, the dose absorbed is not as important as its duration, which is the most significant factor in terms of toxic effect on organisms. Third, the influence of low-dose gamma radiation under the temperatures of +5 °C and +10 °C did not seem to have any harmful radiation effect during the experiment (under 175 hours). However, under the temperature of +20 °C, luminous bacteria intrinsic glow was suppressed, which indicated the presence of toxic radiation. According to the scientists, high temperatures lead to the increase in a speed of a metabolic process, thus making bacteria more sensitive to radiation. Fourth, if the danger of radiation impact is usually connected with some changes on genetic level, then in case of a low-dose gamma radiation the scientists have not found any genetic changes, which could have been responsible for the main functions of bacteria. According to one of the co-authors of a publication by the Siberian Federal University professor and a scientist of the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Nadezhda Kudryasheva, the results achieved have both a fundamental role and practical applications, ""These results help to comprehend the nature of low intensity radiations biological impact at the cell level. The cells of luminous bacteria are a suitable object for such kind of research. The practical aspect is connected with an opportunity to use luminous bacteria in order to monitor the levels of toxicity in environment in the event of chemical pollution. Our research has shown that usage of luminous bacteria for this purpose is quite prospective." "

Fedchenko I.,Siberian Federal University
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2017

The paper summarizes the transformation patterns of functional, morphological, social, and administrative structures of planned residential units - district (Russia, Eastern Europe), neighborhood (USA), community (UK, Europe), as the smallest structural and planning elements of the settlements. The study is based on the author's own on-site survey of the existing and new planned residential units, as well as on the analysis of theoretical sources. The multidisciplinary analysis of the theoretical concepts and on-site survey results showed that planned residential units formed in the early twentieth century retain their social and planning importance and identity, evolve and acquire new features and forms. At the same time, according to the current regulatory and legal instruments they remain basic planning elements of urban structure in the early twenty-first century. This paper also includes experimental analysis of the theoretical concepts of planned residential units' transformation, their conceptual planning model and formation principles in the early twenty-first century. © 2017 Author(s).

Andreev V.,Siberian Federal University
CEUR Workshop Proceedings | Year: 2017

The new partially invariant solution of two-dimential motions of heated viscous liquid equations is considered. For factor-system arised the initial boundary value problem is formulated. This problem is inverse one and describing of common motion of two immiscible liquids in a plane channel under the action of thermocapillary forces. As Marangoni number is small (so-called creeping flow) the problem becomes the linear one. Some a priori estimates are obtained and input data conditions when solution tends to stationary one are found. In Laplace transforms the exact solution is obtained as quadratures and some numerical results of velocities behavior in layers are presented.

Kolovsky A.R.,Siberian Federal University | Maksimov D.N.,RAS Kirensky Institute of Physics
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2016

We discuss the dynamical response of strongly interacting Bose atoms in an adiabatically tilted optical lattice. The analysis is performed in terms of the multilevel Landau-Zener tunneling. Different regimes of tunneling are identified and analytical expressions for the doublon number, which is the quantity measured in laboratory experiments, are derived. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Shuvaev A.,Siberian Federal University
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2014

Fitness cost is the measure of the metabolic burden of unneeded gene expression. It is defined as the lag in bacterial cells growth harboring unneeded genes relative to unburdened cells. Separate cells can concurrently adapt to the burden, demonstrating a decrease in or even a disappearance of the lag. The precise mechanisms of this adaptation are not clearly understood. One possibility is that an increased amount of free ribosomes "absorb" the unnecessary burden. In this work, the mechanism by which an increased concentration of ribosomes could result in faster growth and mask the unneeded gene expression burden is discussed. The initiation time of chromosome replication by the initiator protein DnaA, for which the accumulation speed depends on the ribosomes amount, is taken into account. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Bondareva L.,Siberian Federal University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2012

Discharges from the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC) of Rosatom, downstream from Krasnoyarsk, resulted in radioactive contamination of sediments of the River Yenisei. The concentration of artificial gamma-emitting radionuclides ( 137Cs, 60Co, 152Eu, and 241Am) was determined with the objective to analyze the migration processes leading to the transport of these radionuclides. The content of artificial radionuclides in the surface layers of the study area varied in wide ranges: 137Cs-318- 1,800 Bq/kg, 60Co-87-720 Bq/kg, 152Eu-12- 287 Bq/kg and 241Am-6-76 Bq/kg. There was a sequence of migration of radionuclides investigated in the surface layer of sediments that were collected in the near zone of influence of the MCC: 241Am≈ 152Eu> 60Co> 137Cs. Radionuclide species have been found to be directly related to sediment structure and composition. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

Gavrikov V.L.,Siberian Federal University
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2014

A geometrical model of a forest stand has been analyzed. A forest stand has been modeled as a population of cones which was described by the change of total bole surface area with density $$\hat{S}(N)$$S^(N), relation between density and a horizontal dimension (radius r) r(N), and the relation between vertical dimension (generatrix l) and radius l(r). It has been shown that there are close relationships between $$\hat{S}(N)$$S^(N), l(r) and r(N). In case of $$\hat{S}(N) = const$$S^(N)=const, power exponent of l(r) can be predicted from the power exponent of r(N) and vice versa. A comparison of the model analysis with the data available on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands has been performed. In spite of the model simplicity, its inferences proved to be workable in many cases where the data can be interpreted as a dynamics of an even-aged forest stand. In particular, if the estimation of total bole surface area is constant, the power exponent in the relation of diameter and stand density DBH(SD) can be calculated on the basis of the power exponent in the relation of height and diameter H(DBH) and vice versa. Possible limitations and the meaning of the analysis are discussed. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Kozlova S.A.,RAS Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology | Kirik S.D.,Siberian Federal University
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials | Year: 2010

The influence of different types of post-synthetic treatment (exposure at calcination, at boiling treatment in neutral, acidic and alkaline aqueous solutions, treatment in hydrofluoric acid) on the state of the silanol surface of the mesostructured mesoporous silicate materials MCM-41 and SBA-15 has been studied. The material alteration has been monitored by X-ray diffraction, IR-spectroscopy, thermal analysis and nitrogen adsorption. It has been shown that post-synthetic treatment changes the concentration of silanol groups on the material surface. The limit value has been established by experiment: about 3-4 OH/nm 2 for MCM-41 and 5-6 OH/nm 2 for SBA-15, with its excess resulting in the material destruction. The distribution of the re-formed Si-OH groups over the surface is of irregular focal nature. In spite of the destruction, the specific characteristics of the material (inner surface, volume, and lattice parameter) remain the same. The treatment type and medium content influence the material destruction rate, but not the limit density of the silanol covering. Based on the molecular model of MCM-41 and percolation theory an interpretation has been proposed due to the mechanism of fragmentary material decay. Fragments of the surface with the concentration of the OH-groups exceeding the limit eliminate from material because the concentration of OH-groups is correlated with concentrations of the broken silaxane bonds (Si-O-Si), which responsible for the surface connectivity. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Zakhvataev V.E.,Siberian Federal University
Biophysics (Russian Federation) | Year: 2015

Possible scenarios for synchronization of some biological processes with variations in the lunisolar gravitational tide acceleration are considered with regard to the trigger influence of the tidal force on the geological environment and the relevant modulation of the emanation and activity fields of radon and other radioactive elements. Mechanisms and models of the sensitivity of living systems to tidal variations of natural background radiation, including mitochondrial permeability transition, generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, bystander factors, secondary biogenic radiation, modulation of cell signaling, and rhythmic gene expression, are discussed. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The reason for the scientific interest in the eruption of the volcano Samalas is that it is considered the largest in the last thousand years throwing as much as 10 cubic miles of rock into the atmosphere, which lead to destroying Pamatan, the capital of the ancient Kingdom of Lombok. The ice cores in Greenland evidence this as the study of their chemical composition in the 1980s pointed out that there was one of the largest in history volcanic eruptions in the XIII century. The volcano itself has long remained unknown, and scientists have searched for it all over the world. After studying the writings on the palm leaves in Old Javanese, in 2003 Franck Lavigne found that this volcano could be Samalas located on the island of Lombok in Indonesia. Lake Segara Anak formed in the crater later and made it difficult to detect the volcano. One of the existing scientific theories in climatology over the impact of the eruption Samalas volcano on global climatic conditions in the XIII century says that this event may be the cause of the abnormal cold weather (chronicles describe the following year as the "year without a summer"), widespread crop failure, famine, and social upheavals in Europe after 1257. In January 2017 a paper under the title "Climate response to the Samalas volcanic eruption in 1257 revealed by proxy records" was published in the British scientific journal Nature Geoscience with high impact factor among the nature journals (12.508 for 2 years). The international writing team includes scientists from Switzerland, Russia, France, Britain, the United States, China and Canada. Vladimir Myglan (School of the Humanities of Siberian Federal University) and Olga Churakova (Sidorova) (University of Bern, Institute of Geological Sciences, V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, SB RAS) are the Krasnoyarsk scientists who took part in the research. In the scientific world, the leading hypothesis is that the eruption of the volcano Samalas in 1257 was the cause of the Little Ice Age, and more than a hundred years of social crisis in Europe. Based on the analysis of reliable sources the paper refutes this hypothesis. The international team of scientists base their studies on the chronicles of European cities (Speyer, Worms and others) and Siberia, chronicles of harvests and climate data of the annual rings of trees. During the interdisciplinary analysis of data sources, it was found that the impact of the volcanic eruption Samalas on the European climate and the severe cooling after 1257 is greatly exaggerated as the heterogeneity of climate change occurs in the places of distribution of volcanic sediments. Vladimir Myglan: "Western Europe, Siberia and Japan experienced the strongest cooling, which coincided with warmer than normal conditions in Alaska and Northern Canada. It is assumed that in North America volcanic radiation was modeled on the positive vibrations of the warm phase of the El Niño. Historical data confirm a severe famine in England and Japan, but it had started before the eruption. We believe that the eruption of the volcano Samalas only aggravated an existing crisis but it was not the cause".

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