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Kuuskankare M.,Sibelius Academy | Norilo V.,Center for Music and Technology
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2013

This paper presents rhythm reading, one of the elementary ear training exercises, as a pedagogical software application of PWGL. We use different kinds of stochastic and mathematical models to generate a rhythmic database. The database is divided into several categories, including, binary or ternary, euclidian, afro-cuban, corpus-based, and contemporary. Our musical constraints systems is used to define a rule set, which, in turn, can be used to automatically generate graded rhythm reading exercises. The user is then presented with a musical score, and he or she can perform a reading with any percussive instrument or voice and a microphone connected to a computer. Our novel signal processing system is utilized to analyze the reading. Finally, visual feedback and statistics are displayed directly as a part of the exercise. In this paper we present our rhythm reading application, and discuss the details of its implementation. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.


Kanduri C.,University of Helsinki | Ukkola-Vuoti L.,University of Helsinki | Oikkonen J.,University of Helsinki | Buck G.,Oxford Genetics | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013

Here we characterized the genome-wide architecture of copy number variations (CNVs) in 286 healthy, unrelated Finnish individuals belonging to the MUSGEN study, where molecular background underlying musical aptitude and related traits are studied. By using Illumina HumanOmniExpress-12v.1.0 beadchip, we identified 5493 CNVs that were spread across 467 different cytogenetic regions, spanning a total size of 287.83 Mb (∼9.6% of the human genome). Merging the overlapping CNVs across samples resulted in 999 discrete copy number variable regions (CNVRs), of which ∼6.9% were putatively novel. The average number of CNVs per person was 20, whereas the average size of CNV per locus was 52.39 kb. Large CNVs (>1 Mb) were present in 4% of the samples. The proportion of homozygous deletions in this data set (∼12.4%) seemed to be higher when compared with three other populations. Interestingly, several CNVRs were significantly enriched in this sample set, whereas several others were totally depleted. For example, a CNVR at chr2p22.1 intersecting GALM was more common in this population (P=3.3706 × 10 -44) than in African and other European populations. The enriched CNVRs, however, showed no significant association with music-related phenotypes. Moreover, the most common CNV locations in world's normal population cohorts (6q14.1, 11q11) were overrepresented in this population. Thus, the genome-wide CNV investigation in this Finnish sample set demonstrated features that are characteristic to isolated populations. Novel CNVRs and the functional implications of CNVs revealed in this study elucidate structural variation present in this population isolate, and may also serve as candidate gene loci for music-related traits. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Norilo V.,Sibelius Academy
15th International Conference on Digital Audio Effects, DAFx 2012 Proceedings | Year: 2012

Kronos is a visual-oriented programming language and a compiler aimed at musical signal processing tasks. Its distinctive feature is the support for functional programming idioms like closures and higher order functions in the context of high performance real time DSP. This paper examines the visual aspect of the system. The programming user interface is discussed, along with a scheme for building custom data visualization algorithms inside the system.


Ukkola-Vuoti L.,University of Helsinki | Kanduri C.,University of Helsinki | Kanduri C.,Aalto University | Oikkonen J.,University of Helsinki | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Music perception and practice represent complex cognitive functions of the human brain. Recently, evidence for the molecular genetic background of music related phenotypes has been obtained. In order to further elucidate the molecular background of musical phenotypes we analyzed genome wide copy number variations (CNVs) in five extended pedigrees and in 172 unrelated subjects characterized for musical aptitude and creative functions in music. Musical aptitude was defined by combination of the scores of three music tests (COMB scores): auditory structuring ability, Seashores test for pitch and for time. Data on creativity in music (herein composing, improvising and/or arranging music) was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire. Several CNVRs containing genes that affect neurodevelopment, learning and memory were detected. A deletion at 5q31.1 covering the protocadherin-α gene cluster (Pcdha 1-9) was found co-segregating with low music test scores (COMB) in both sample sets. Pcdha is involved in neural migration, differentiation and synaptogenesis. Creativity in music was found to co-segregate with a duplication covering glucose mutarotase gene (GALM) at 2p22. GALM has influence on serotonin release and membrane trafficking of the human serotonin transporter. Interestingly, genes related to serotonergic systems have been shown to associate not only with psychiatric disorders but also with creativity and music perception. Both, Pcdha and GALM, are related to the serotonergic systems influencing cognitive and motor functions, important for music perception and practice. Finally, a 1.3 Mb duplication was identified in a subject with low COMB scores in the region previously linked with absolute pitch (AP) at 8q24. No differences in the CNV burden was detected among the high/low music test scores or creative/non-creative groups. In summary, CNVs and genes found in this study are related to cognitive functions. Our result suggests new candidate genes for music perception related traits and supports the previous results from AP study. © 2013 Ukkola-Vuoti et al.


Kuuskankare M.,Sibelius Academy | Adhitya S.,EHESS
Proceedings of the 2013 ICMC Conference: International Developments in Electroacoustics | Year: 2013

This paper presents the latest developments of the SUM tool, aimed at the integration of image and sound. A user library within the PWGL visual programming environment, it allows both image sonification and graphical computer-aided composition. Initially developed for the sonification of graphic urban maps, in which MIDI data is generated from graphics, the SUM process can now be reversed, with MIDI being the generator of the graphics themselves. We present three new developments which allow this: the ability to import MIDI into SUM to generate spatio-temporal vector time-paths; the ability to access the temporal structure of these paths through its points; and the ability to draw vector objects and develop a custommade object library. These functions will allow us to generate graphics from music, which may form the basis of future works of 'visual music' as well as the musicalgeneration of graphical designs.


Andean J.,Sibelius Academy
Organised Sound | Year: 2011

An application of ecological psychology, based on the work of James J. Gibson, to electroacoustic music would consider the listener in relationship with both the work and the environment, in a dynamic and mutually informing relationship. This perspective is applied to various electroacoustic concert paradigms, demonstrating a wide range of listening experiences; the implications for electroacoustic music as a genre are examined. Several qualities of acousmatic music are used to explore some potential limitations of Gibson's theories. Finally, some relative strengths and weaknesses of ecological psychology are considered, as well as some potentially fruitful cooperations with other, somewhat divergent, theoretical approaches. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.


Norilo V.,Sibelius Academy
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Digital Audio Effects, DAFx 2011 | Year: 2011

This paper presents a formal grammar for discussing data flows and dependencies in audio processing graphs. A graph is a highly general representation of an algorithm, applicable to most DSP processes. To demonstrate and exercise the grammar, three central problems in audio graph processing are examined. The grammar is used to exhaustively analyze the problem of scheduling processing nodes of the graph, examine automatic parallelization as well as signal rate inferral. The grammar is presented in terms of mathematical set theory, independent of and thus applicable to any conceivable software platform.


Acousmatic music is heavily informed by a central duality which lies at the heart of the art form, between the musical layer on the one hand, and the narrative layer on the other. Emphasis shifts between these two layers, and they interact to construct further layers of meaning. In his book Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation, David Huron proposes that our responses to musical stimuli are in fact identical to our responses to real-world stimuli, and follow the same processes. This appears to negate somewhat the dichotomy of musical and narrative layers. We propose a shift in perspective away from a vision of parallel musical and narrative layers, and towards a dualism built from staggered response times to different aspects of the same material. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010.


In this paper we introduce a prototype of 'meta-score', a novel visual editor in PWGL, aimed at defining the structural, temporal and procedural properties of a musical composition. Meta-score is a music notation editor, thus, the score can be created manually by inputting the information using a GUI. However, meta-score extends the concept of a musical score so that the musical content can be defined not only manually but also procedurally. The composition is defined by placing scores (hence the name meta-score) on a timeline, creating dependencies between the objects, and defining the compositional processes associated with them. Meta-score presents the users with a three-stage compositional process beginning from the sketching of the overall structure along with the associated harmonic, rhythmic and melodic material; continuing with the procedural description of the composition and ending with the automatic production of the performance score. In this paper, we describe the present state of meta-score. Copyright © 2012, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved.


Laurson M.,Sibelius Academy | Norilo V.,Sibelius Academy
Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Digital Audio Effects, DAFx 2006 | Year: 2013

This paper gives an overview of one of the most important features in our synthesis language called PWGLSynth. We will concentrate on how to represent visually multichannel signals in a synthesis patch. PWGLSynth synthesis boxes support vectored inputs and outputs. This scheme is useful as it allows to construct compound entities which are used often in sound synthesis such as banks, parallel structures, serial structures, etc. PWGLSynth provides a rich set of tools that allow to manipulate vectors. For instance vectors can mixed, modulated, merged, or split into sub-vectors.

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