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Muller M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Combalbert S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Delgenes N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bergheaud V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 5 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

Estrogens, which contribute greatly to the endocrine-disrupting activity in sewage, are partially sorbed onto particulate matter during sewage treatment. We thus investigated the occurrence of estrogens in different kinds of sludge and throughout a plant-scale anaerobic digestion process. The analytical method was first validated when sorption interaction between spiked estrogens and sludge could occur. Hence, the recovery ratio of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were determined when added to liquid sludge and mixed under various conditions. We show that minor non-extractable residues were formed (5-10%), suggesting that the sorption interaction established with sludge did not limit estrogen extraction. Estrogen concentrations measured in collected samples varied with sludge type. Secondary sludge showed higher E1 contents than primary sludge: respectively, 43 and 8ngg-1 dry weight (dw). Two pathways of E1 production during secondary treatment are proposed to explain such a result. Higher estrogen concentrations were found in secondary sludge from a conventional plant (55ngg-1dw) compared to those from an advanced plant (13ngg-1dw). Based on estimated estrogen concentrations in sewage, we conclude that operating parameters play a role in the sorption of estrogens during secondary treatment. Also, the hydrophobic properties of the estrogens influenced the individual adsorption of each molecule. Thus, E3 showed the highest estimated concentrations in sewage but very low concentrations in sludge. Finally, plant-scale anaerobic digestion showed low efficiency (<40%) for removing estrogens and, regarding the final dewatering process, concentrations increased for E2 and EE2. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | Rocher V.,Siaap | Gilbert S.,University Paris Est Creteil | Azimi S.,Siaap Site Seine Center | Chebbo G.,University Paris Est Creteil
Water Research | Year: 2010

This study investigates the occurrence of all priority substances (n = 41) listed in the Water Framework Directive and additional substances (n = 47) in raw sewage, as well as the removal performance of lamella clarification and biofiltration techniques. Once the efficiency of both types of techniques has been assessed for typical wastewater parameters, the differences in each technique's ability to remove pollutants becomes obvious; nevertheless, pollutant removal in quantitative terms still depends on the physico-chemical properties of the compounds used and operating conditions within the selected facility. For lamella clarification, the removal of organic chemicals was found to be primarily correlated with their sorption potential and, hence, strongly dependent upon log K ow of the compound under study. Compounds with a strong hydrophobic character (log K ow > 4.5) are removed to a significant extent (approx. 85%), while hydrophilic compounds (log K ow < 3.5) are poorly removed (<20%). For biofiltration, the removal of chemicals appears to be compound-dependent, although this outcome involves several mechanisms, namely: i) physical filtration of total suspended solids, ii) volatilisation, iii) sorption, and iv) biotransformation of substances. Even if the complex processes within a biofilter system do not yield an accurate prediction of pollutant removal, two groups of chemicals can still be clearly identified: i) hydrophobic or volatile compounds, for which moderate to high removal rates are observed (from 50% to over 80%); and ii) hydrophilic, non-volatile and refractory compounds for which a low removal rate would be expected (<20%). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Cladiere M.,University Paris Est Creteil | Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | Lorgeoux C.,University Paris Est Creteil | Bonhomme C.,University Paris Est Creteil | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP1EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Berge A.,Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police | Berge A.,University Paris Est Creteil | Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | Rocher V.,SIAAP | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Phthalates and alkylphenols are toxics classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). They are of particular concern due to their ubiquity and generally higher levels found in the environment comparatively to other EDCs. Industrial and domestic discharges might affect the quality of receiving waters by discharging organic matter and contaminants through treated waters and combined sewer overflows. Historically, industrial discharges are often considered as the principal vector of pollution in urban areas. If this observation was true in the past for some contaminants, no current data are today available to compare the quality of industrial and domestic discharges as regards EDCs. In this context, a total of 45 domestic samples as well as 101 industrial samples were collected from different sites, including 14 residential and 33 industrial facilities. This study focuses more specifically on 4 phthalates and 2 alkylphenols, among the most commonly studied congeners. A particular attention was also given to routine wastewater quality parameters. For most substances, wastewaters from the different sites were heavily contaminated; they display concentrations up to 1200. μg/l for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and between 10 and 100. μg/l for diethyl phthalate and nonylphenol. Overall, for the majority of compounds, the industrial contribution to the flux of contaminant reaching the wastewater treatment plants ranges between 1 and 3%. The data generated during this work constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe on industrial fluxes for a variety of sectors of activity. The study of the wastewater contribution was used to better predict the industrial and domestic contributions at the scale of a huge conurbation heavily urbanized but with a weak industrial cover, illustrated by Paris. Our results indicate that specific investigations on domestic discharges are necessary in order to reduce the release of phthalates and alkylphenols in the sewer systems for such conurbations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Mailler R.,University Paris Est Creteil | Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | Chebbo G.,University Paris Est Creteil | Rocher V.,SIAAP
Waste Management | Year: 2014

This paper aims at characterizing the quality of different treated sludges from Paris conurbation in terms of micropollutants and assessing their fate during different sludge treatment processes (STP). To achieve this, a large panel of priority and emerging pollutants (n=117) have been monitored in different STPs from Parisian wastewater treatment plants including anaerobic digestion, thermal drying, centrifugation and a sludge cake production unit. Considering the quality of treated sludges, comparable micropollutant patterns are found for the different sludges investigated (in mg/kg DM - dry matter). 35 compounds were detected in treated sludges. Some compounds (metals, organotins, alkylphenols, DEHP) are found in every kinds of sludge while pesticides or VOCs are never detected. Sludge cake is the most contaminated sludge, resulting from concentration phenomenon during different treatments. As regards treatments, both centrifugation and thermal drying have broadly no important impact on sludge contamination for metals and organic compounds, even if a slight removal seems to be possible with thermal drying for several compounds by abiotic transfers. Three different behaviors can be highlighted in anaerobic digestion: (i) no removal (metals), (ii) removal following dry matter (DM) elimination (organotins and NP) and iii) removal higher than DM (alkylphenols - except NP - BDE 209 and DEHP). Thus, this process allows a clear removal of biodegradable micropollutants which could be potentially significantly improved by increasing DM removal through operational parameters modifications (retention time, temperature, pre-treatment, etc.). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Gilbert S.,University Paris Est Creteil | Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | Rocher V.,SIAAP | Lorgeoux C.,University Paris Est Creteil | Chebbo G.,University Paris Est Creteil
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2012

This paper investigates the occurrence of alkylphenols (APs) and polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs) in raw wastewater during dry and wet-weather periods, and their removal by physico-chemical lamellar settling and biofiltration techniques. Due to in-sewer deposit erosion and, to a lesser extent, to external inputs, raw effluents exhibit from 1.5 to 5 times higher AP and PBDE concentrations during wet periods compared with dry ones. The lamellar settler obtains high removal of APs and PBDEs under both dry and wet-weather flows (>53% for Σ6AP and >89% for Σ 4PBDE), confirming the insensitivity of this technique to varying in fluent conditions. Indeed, despite the higher pollutant concentrations observed in raw effluents under wet-weather flows, adjusting the addition of coagulant-flocculent allows for efficient removal. By combining physical and biological processes, the biofiltration unit treats nutrient pollution, as well as Σ6AP and Σ4PBDE contamination (58 ± 5% and 75 ± 6% respectively). Although the operating conditions of the biofiltration unit are modified during wet periods, the performance in nutrient pollution, APs and light PBDE congeners remains high. Nevertheless, lower efficiency has been noted in nitrogen pollution, i.e. no denitrification occurs, and BDE-209 (not removed during wet-weather periods). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the combination of both techniques treats AP and PBDE pollution efficiently during dry periods, but that they are also suitable for stormwater treatment. © IWA Publishing 2012.

Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | Zgheib S.,University Paris Est Creteil | Zgheib S.,Lebanese Center for Water Management and Conservation | Cladiere M.,University Paris Est Creteil | And 3 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

This study has evaluated the quality of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in an urban watershed, such as Paris, by providing accurate data on the occurrence of priority pollutants (PPs) and additional substances, as well as on the significance of their concentrations in comparison with wastewater and stormwater. Of the 88 substances monitored, 49 PPs were detected, with most of these also being frequently encountered in wastewater and stormwater, thus confirming their ubiquity in urban settings. For the majority of organic substances, concentrations range between 0.01 and 1μgl-1, while metals tend to display concentrations above 10μgl-1. Despite this ubiquity, CSO, wastewater and stormwater feature a number of differences in both their concentration ranges and pollutant patterns. For most hydrophobic organic pollutants and some particulate-bound metals, CSOs exhibit higher concentrations than those found in stormwater and wastewater, due to the contribution of in-sewer deposit erosion. For pesticides and Zn, CSOs have shown concentrations close to those of stormwater, suggesting runoff as the major contributor, while wastewater appears to be the main source of volatile organic compounds. Surprisingly, similar concentration ranges have been found for DEHP and tributyltin compounds in CSOs, wastewater and stormwater. The last section of this article identifies substances for which CSO discharges might constitute a major risk of exceeding Environmental Quality Standards in receiving waters and moreover indicates a significant risk for PAHs, tributyltin compounds and chloroalkanes. The data generated during this survey can subsequently be used to identify PPs of potential significance that merit further investigation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | Laborie B.,SIAAP | Rocher V.,SIAAP
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2012

This study aims at examining the performance of the ballasted flocculation unit (BFU) on treating combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and the evaluation depends on the values obtained of routine wastewater parameters and on the contents of a large broad spectrum of pollutants. Accordingly, the full-scale BFU at the largest wastewater treatment plant in Europe (Seine Aval plant near Paris, France) is investigated during three sampling campaigns. Of the 97 molecules targeted, 57 substances including 18 priority substances and 11 priority hazardous substances were detected in the BFU influents confirming that wet weather flow (WWF) treatment has definitively proven to be necessary. The WWF treatment by ballasted flocculation appears as a promising but not a fully adapted technology for use in densely urbanized areas to considerably mitigate the CSO impacts. On operating at the optimal chemical and sand doses, this process appears to be a suitable technology to remove particles, carbonaceous and phosphorous pollutants, particulate metals and most of hydrophobic organic compounds whilst nitrogenous pollutants and most of hydrophilic compounds are from poorly (<20%) to moderately (<50%) removed. The BFU appeared less sensitive to the influent concentration fluctuations and hydraulic peak load (at the scale of the campaigns considered) than to the adjustments of chemical doses and sand injection. Investigating the performance of such process, could serve to develop management strategies that enable mitigating the impacts of CSOs on receiving water in compliance with the Water Framework Directive objectives. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Vilmin L.,MINES ParisTech | Flipo N.,MINES ParisTech | Escoffier N.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Rocher V.,SIAAP | Groleau A.,University Paris Diderot
Global Biogeochemical Cycles | Year: 2016

Fluvial networks play an important role in regional and global carbon (C) budgets. The Seine River, from the Paris urban area to the entrance of its estuary (220 km), is studied here as an example of a large human-impacted river system subject to temperate climatic conditions. We assess organic C (OC) budgets upstream and downstream from one of the world's largest wastewater treatment plants and for different hydrological conditions using a hydrobiogeochemical model. The fine representation of sediment accumulation on the river bed allows for the quantification of pelagic and benthic effects on OC export toward the estuary and on river metabolism (i.e., net CO2 production). OC export is significantly affected by benthic dynamics during the driest periods, when 25% of the inputs to the system is transformed or stored in the sediment layer. Benthic processes also substantially affect river metabolism under any hydrological condition. On average, benthic respiration accounts for one third of the total river respiration along the studied stretch (0.27 out of 0.86 g C m-2 d-1). Even though the importance of benthic processes was already acknowledged by the scientific community for headwater streams, these results stress the major influence of benthic dynamics, and thus of physical processes such as sedimentation and resuspension, on C cycling in downstream river systems. It opens the door to new developments in the quantification of C emissions by global models, whereby biogeochemical processing and benthic dynamics should be taken into account. ©2016. American Geophysical Union.

The SIAAP (Syndicat Interdépartemental pour l'Assainissement de l'Agglomération Parisienne - Interdepartmental union for the sanitation of the Paris Conurbation), that manages the sanitation of nearly 9 million Ile-de-France residents, is faced with the need to renovate, modernise and backfit its transport and treatment facilities. In-depth considerations, focusing in particular on energy expenditure, were the driving force behind the SIAAP's strategy to optimise its production and development of biogas recoverable from sludge generated by waste water treatment. This presentation describes and compares the various methods of recovery and reuse of this biogas for energy purposes in view of identifying the best application at each of the 2 largest remediation plants. Reuse internal to the site traditionally concerns selfconsumed heat and electricity production, but recent regulatory measures point to possible optimisation by re-injecting the electricity into the ErDF grid, or the purified biogas into the GDF network, or even to the production of BioLNG liquefied methane for an evolving market. The economic, legal and environment context is considered in light of the historical and geographical situation and of the plants' treatment processes.

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