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Okayama-shi, Japan

Shujitsu University is a private university in Okayama, Okayama, Japan. The predecessor of the school, women's school, was founded in 1904, and it was chartered as a junior college in 1953. In 1979 it became a four-year women's college. Adopting the present name in 2003, it became a co-ed college in 2004. Wikipedia.

Kataoka H.,Shujitsu University
Bioanalysis | Year: 2015

Biomedical analyses of drugs and their metabolites are important in new drug development, therapeutic drug monitoring and forensic toxicology. In these analyses, sample preparation is very important to isolate target compounds from complex biological matrices and markedly influences the reliability and accuracy of determination. SPME is a simple and convenient sample preparation technique that has enabled automation, miniaturization and high-throughput performance. This article focuses on current developments, their biomedical applications and future trends with emphasis on new extraction devices using selective polymer coating materials in novel SPME techniques, including fiber SPME, in-tube SPME and related techniques. © 2015 Future Science Ltd.

Sample preparation is important for the isolation and concentration of desired trace components from complex matrices. Sample preparation is the most labor-intensive and error-prone process in analytical methodology, and greatly influences the reliable and accurate determination of analytes. The integration of sample preparation with various analytical instruments is most conveniently achieved by using microextraction techniques and/or microdevices. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is both simple and effective, enabling miniaturization, automation and high-throughput performance. Moreover, SPME has reduced analysis times, as well as the costs of solvents and disposal. This review describes current developments and future trends in novel SPME techniques, including fiber SPME, in-tube SPME and related new microextraction techniques. Especially innovative SPME approaches, including multi-well high-throughput sampling, ligand-receptor binding study for pharmacokinetics, direct in vivo sampling, chip-based microfluidic system, and new sampling techniques using intelligent carbon nanotube and temperature-response polymer in pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis are focused items. © 2011 The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry.

The linear no-threshold model (LNT) was recommended in 1956, with abandonment of the traditional threshold dose-response for genetic risk assessment. Adoption of LNT by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) became the standard for radiation regulation worldwide. The ICRP recommends a dose limit of 1 mSv/ year for the public, which is too low and which terrorizes innocent people. Indeed, LNT arose mainly from the lifespan survivor study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors. The LSS, which asserts linear dose-response and no threshold, is challenged mainly on three points. 1) Radiation doses were underestimated by half because of disregard for major residual radiation, resulting in cancer risk overestimation. 2) The dose and dose-rate eŠectiveness factor (DDREF) of 2 is used, but the actual DDREF is estimated as 16, resulting in cancer risk overestimation by several times. 3) Adaptive response (hormesis) is observed in leukemia and solid cancer cases, consistently contradicting the linearity of LNT. Drastic reduction of cancer risk moves the dose-response curve close to the control line, allowing the setting of a threshold. Living organisms have been evolving for 3.8 billion years under radiation exposure, naturally acquiring various defense mechanisms such as DNA repair mechanisms, apoptosis, and immune response. The failure of LNT lies in the neglect of carcinogenesis and these biological mechanisms. Obstinate application of LNT continues to cause tremendous human, social, and economic losses. The 60-year-old LNT must be rejected to establish a new scientiˆc knowledgebased system. © 2015 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.

Kataoka H.,Shujitsu University
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2010

Natural products have served as major sources of drugs for centuries, and about half of the pharmaceuticals in use today are derived from natural products. Therefore, screening and analysis of the bioactive components in medicinal plants are now indispensable for the discovery of new drugs and quality control of plant pharmaceuticals. Sample preparation is essential for isolating desired components from complex matrices and greatly influences the reliable and accurate analysis of plant-derived medicines. This review will summarize current trends in sample preparation techniques for the analysis of plant-derived medicines, focusing primarily on newly developed techniques, such as ultrasonic extraction (USE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pressurized-liquid extraction (PLE), supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME). The general characteristics and applications of each method in the analysis of plant-derived medicines are described. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Three major characteristics distinguish humans from other primates: bipedality, practical nakedness, and the family as a social unit. A hairless mutation introduced into the chimpanzee/human last common ancestor (CLCA) 6million years ago (Mya) diverged hairless human and hairy chimpanzee lineages. All primates except humans can carry their babies without using their hands. A hairless mother would be forced to stand and walk upright. Her activities would be markedly limited. The male partner would have to collect food and carry it to her by hand to keep her and their baby from starving; irresponsible and selfish males could not have left their offspring. The mother would have sexually accepted her partner at any time as a reward for food. Sexual relations irrespective of estrus cycles might have strengthened the pair bond. Molecular and paleontological dating indicates that CLCA existed 6Mya, and early hominin fossils show that they were bipeds, indicating that humanization from CLCA occurred rapidly. A single mutation in animals with scalp hair is known to induce hairless phenotype (ectodermal dysplasia). Bipedalism and hairlessness are disadvantageous traits; only those who could survive trials and tribulations in cooperation with family members must have been able to evolve as humans. © 2012 The Author. Journal compilation © 2012 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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