Okayama-shi, Japan
Okayama-shi, Japan

Shujitsu University is a private university in Okayama, Okayama, Japan. The predecessor of the school, women's school, was founded in 1904, and it was chartered as a junior college in 1953. In 1979 it became a four-year women's college. Adopting the present name in 2003, it became a co-ed college in 2004. Wikipedia.


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Three major characteristics distinguish humans from other primates: bipedality, practical nakedness, and the family as a social unit. A hairless mutation introduced into the chimpanzee/human last common ancestor (CLCA) 6million years ago (Mya) diverged hairless human and hairy chimpanzee lineages. All primates except humans can carry their babies without using their hands. A hairless mother would be forced to stand and walk upright. Her activities would be markedly limited. The male partner would have to collect food and carry it to her by hand to keep her and their baby from starving; irresponsible and selfish males could not have left their offspring. The mother would have sexually accepted her partner at any time as a reward for food. Sexual relations irrespective of estrus cycles might have strengthened the pair bond. Molecular and paleontological dating indicates that CLCA existed 6Mya, and early hominin fossils show that they were bipeds, indicating that humanization from CLCA occurred rapidly. A single mutation in animals with scalp hair is known to induce hairless phenotype (ectodermal dysplasia). Bipedalism and hairlessness are disadvantageous traits; only those who could survive trials and tribulations in cooperation with family members must have been able to evolve as humans. © 2012 The Author. Journal compilation © 2012 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Kataoka H.,Shujitsu University
Bioanalysis | Year: 2015

Biomedical analyses of drugs and their metabolites are important in new drug development, therapeutic drug monitoring and forensic toxicology. In these analyses, sample preparation is very important to isolate target compounds from complex biological matrices and markedly influences the reliability and accuracy of determination. SPME is a simple and convenient sample preparation technique that has enabled automation, miniaturization and high-throughput performance. This article focuses on current developments, their biomedical applications and future trends with emphasis on new extraction devices using selective polymer coating materials in novel SPME techniques, including fiber SPME, in-tube SPME and related techniques. © 2015 Future Science Ltd.


Kataoka H.,Shujitsu University | Saito K.,Shujitsu University
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2011

Biomedical analyses of drugs, metabolites, poisons, environmental and occupational pollutants, disease biomarkers and endogenous substances in body fluids and tissues are important in the development of new drugs, therapeutic monitoring, forensic toxicology, patient diagnosis, and biomonitoring of human exposure to hazardous chemicals. In these analyses, sample preparation is essential for isolation of desired components from complex biological matrices and greatly influences their reliable and accurate determination. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is an effective sample preparation technique that has enabled miniaturization, automation and high-throughput performance. The use of SPME has reduced assay times, as well as the costs of solvents and disposal. This review focuses on recent advances in novel SPME techniques, including fiber SPME and in-tube SPME, in biomedical analysis. We also summarize the applications of these techniques to pharmacotherapeutic, forensic, and diagnostic studies, and to determinations of environmental and occupational exposure. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Kataoka H.,Shujitsu University
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2010

Natural products have served as major sources of drugs for centuries, and about half of the pharmaceuticals in use today are derived from natural products. Therefore, screening and analysis of the bioactive components in medicinal plants are now indispensable for the discovery of new drugs and quality control of plant pharmaceuticals. Sample preparation is essential for isolating desired components from complex matrices and greatly influences the reliable and accurate analysis of plant-derived medicines. This review will summarize current trends in sample preparation techniques for the analysis of plant-derived medicines, focusing primarily on newly developed techniques, such as ultrasonic extraction (USE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pressurized-liquid extraction (PLE), supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME). The general characteristics and applications of each method in the analysis of plant-derived medicines are described. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Kataoka H.,Shujitsu University | Saito K.,Shujitsu University
Bioanalysis | Year: 2012

Column switching techniques, using two or more stationary phase columns, are useful for trace enrichment and online automated sample preparation. Target fractions from the first column are transferred online to a second column with different properties for further separation. Column switching techniques can be used to determine the analytes in a complex matrix by direct sample injection or by simple sample treatment. Online column switching sample preparation is usually performed in combination with HPLC or capillary electrophoresis. SPE or turbulent flow chromatography using a cartridge column and in-tube solid-phase microextraction using a capillary column have been developed for convenient column switching sample preparation. Furthermore, various micro-/nano-sample preparation devices using new polymer-coating materials have been developed to improve extraction efficiency. This review describes current developments and future trends in novel column switching sample preparation in bioanalysis, focusing on innovative column switching techniques using new extraction devices and materials. © 2012 Future Science Ltd.


Saito K.,Shujitsu University | Ikeuchi R.,Shujitsu University | Kataoka H.,Shujitsu University
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2012

A simple and sensitive method for the determination of ochratoxins A and B in nuts and grain samples was developed using an automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Ochratoxins were separated within 5min by high-performance liquid chromatography using an Inertsil ODS-3 column with 5mM anmonium acetate/acetonitrile (65/35, v/v) as the mobile phase. Electrospray ionization conditions in the positive ion mode were optimized for mass spectrometric detection of ochratoxins. The pseudo molecular ion [M+H]+ was used to detect ochratoxins with selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 20 draw/eject cycles of 40μL of sample using a Carboxen-1006 PLOT capillary column as an extraction device. The extracted ochratoxins were easily desorbed from the capillary by passage of the mobile phase, and no carryover was observed. Using the in-tube SPME/LC-MS with SIM method, good linearities of the calibration curves (r=0.9993 for ochratoxin A and r=0.9989 for ochratoxin B) were obtained in the concentration range from 0.5 to 20ng/mL. The detection limits (S/N=3) for ochratoxins A and B were 92 and 89pg/mL, respectively. The in-tube SPME method showed above 15-19-fold greater sensitivity than the direct injection method (10μL injection). The within-day and between-day precisions (relative standard deviations) were below 5.1% and 7.7% (n=6), respectively. This method was applied successfully to analysis of nuts and grain samples without interference peaks. The recoveries of ochratoxins spiked into extraction solution from nut samples were above 88%. Ochratoxins were detected at 0.7-8.8ng/g levels in various nuts and grain samples. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Sample preparation is important for the isolation and concentration of desired trace components from complex matrices. Sample preparation is the most labor-intensive and error-prone process in analytical methodology, and greatly influences the reliable and accurate determination of analytes. The integration of sample preparation with various analytical instruments is most conveniently achieved by using microextraction techniques and/or microdevices. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is both simple and effective, enabling miniaturization, automation and high-throughput performance. Moreover, SPME has reduced analysis times, as well as the costs of solvents and disposal. This review describes current developments and future trends in novel SPME techniques, including fiber SPME, in-tube SPME and related new microextraction techniques. Especially innovative SPME approaches, including multi-well high-throughput sampling, ligand-receptor binding study for pharmacokinetics, direct in vivo sampling, chip-based microfluidic system, and new sampling techniques using intelligent carbon nanotube and temperature-response polymer in pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis are focused items. © 2011 The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry.


Bipedalism paved the way to delivery of immature babies and development of the brain after birth. This communication presents the argument that hairlessness allowed hominins to access fire through wildfires, which occurred frequently after a climate shift from a wet to a dry environment 2.5 million years ago (Ma). Initially, naked hominins approached fire for warming, but soon must have come across burnt animals in the aftermath of wildfires. They learned the taste of burnt meat, which must have been a driving force compelling them to become meateaters. Hominins must have learned gradually how to control fire and how to repel hairy animals that abhor fire. Because they could neither run fast nor have muscles sufficiently strong to compete with large carnivores' fangs and claws, they chose not to be hunters but robbers. When they found that a carnivore had killed a prey animal, they approached the hungry predator and repulsed it using fire and stones, then claiming the prey intact. This is the core of the human robber hypothesis. The timing of global cooling, the appearance of savannahs, the appearance of transitional humans, decline of large predators, the manufacture of stone tools, and the start of cooking largely coincide at 2.5 Ma. They also smoked out animals from their dens or caves, and robbed them of shelter and territory. Cooked meat is both tasty and easily digested, providing hominins with rich nutrients sufficient to enlarge the brain, while most large carnivores were forced to extinction. Consequently, the use of fire, facilitated by hairlessness, must have played important roles in protecting hominins from cold, in repelling predators, in robbing large carnivores of prey and dwellings, and in providing the brain with nutrients for strong growth into adolescence. Development of the eccrine glands is also discussed as a result of hairlessness. © The Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society.


The linear no-threshold model (LNT) was recommended in 1956, with abandonment of the traditional threshold dose-response for genetic risk assessment. Adoption of LNT by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) became the standard for radiation regulation worldwide. The ICRP recommends a dose limit of 1 mSv/ year for the public, which is too low and which terrorizes innocent people. Indeed, LNT arose mainly from the lifespan survivor study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors. The LSS, which asserts linear dose-response and no threshold, is challenged mainly on three points. 1) Radiation doses were underestimated by half because of disregard for major residual radiation, resulting in cancer risk overestimation. 2) The dose and dose-rate eŠectiveness factor (DDREF) of 2 is used, but the actual DDREF is estimated as 16, resulting in cancer risk overestimation by several times. 3) Adaptive response (hormesis) is observed in leukemia and solid cancer cases, consistently contradicting the linearity of LNT. Drastic reduction of cancer risk moves the dose-response curve close to the control line, allowing the setting of a threshold. Living organisms have been evolving for 3.8 billion years under radiation exposure, naturally acquiring various defense mechanisms such as DNA repair mechanisms, apoptosis, and immune response. The failure of LNT lies in the neglect of carcinogenesis and these biological mechanisms. Obstinate application of LNT continues to cause tremendous human, social, and economic losses. The 60-year-old LNT must be rejected to establish a new scientiˆc knowledgebased system. © 2015 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.


Kataoka H.,Shujitsu University
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

Sample preparation is important for isolating desired components from complex matrices and greatly influences their reliable and accurate analysis. Recent trends in sample preparation include miniaturization, automation, high-throughput performance, online coupling with analytical instruments, and low-cost operation through extremely low or no solvent consumption. Microextraction techniques, such as liquid-phase microextraction and solid-phase microextraction, have these advantages over the traditional approaches of liquid-liquid extraction and conventional solid-phase extraction. This review focuses primarily on these microextraction techniques developed over the last decade, and presents a summary of the characteristics of various approaches in drug analysis. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

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