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Apidianakis Y.,Harvard University | Apidianakis Y.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Apidianakis Y.,Shriners Burn Institute | Que Y.-A.,Harvard University | And 18 more authors.
FASEB Journal

Patients with severe burns are highly susceptible to bacterial infection. While immunosuppression facilitates infection, the contribution of soft tissues to infection beyond providing a portal for bacterial entry remains unclear. We showed previously that glutathione S-transferase S1 (gstS1), an enzyme with conjugating activity against the lipid peroxidation byproduct 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), is important for resistance against wound infection in Drosophila muscle. The importance of the mammalian functional counterpart of GstS1 in the context of wounds and infection has not been investigated. Here we demonstrate that the presence of a burn wound dramatically affects expression of both human (hGSTA4) and mouse (mGsta4) 4HNE scavengers. hGSTA4 is down-regulated significantly within 1 wk of thermal burn injury in the muscle and fat tissues of patients from the large-scale collaborative Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury multicentered study. Similarly, mGsta4, the murine GST with the highest catalytic efficiency for 4HNE, is down-regulated to approximately half of normal levels in mouse muscle immediately postburn. Consequently, 4HNE protein adducts are increased 4- to 5-fold in mouse muscle postburn. Using an open wound infection model, we show that deletion of mGsta4 renders mice more susceptible to infection with the prevalent wound pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while muscle hGSTA4 expression negatively correlates with burn wound infection episodes per patient. Our data suggest that hGSTA4 down-regulation and the concomitant increase in 4HNE adducts in human muscle are indicative of susceptibility to infection in individuals with severely thermal injuries. © FASEB. Source

Righi V.,Harvard University | Righi V.,Shriners Burn Institute | Apidianakis Y.,Shriners Burn Institute | Apidianakis Y.,Harvard University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Visualized Experiments

High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is a novel non-destructive technique that improves spectral line-widths and allows high-resolution spectra to be obtained from extracts, intact cells, cell cultures, and more importantly intact tissue to investigate relationships between metabolites and cellular processes. In vivo HRMAS 1H-MRS studies have yet to be reported in the live fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila, as a simpler genetic organism, allows the multiple biological functions and various evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways to be examined at the whole organism level and it is a useful model for investigating genetics and physiology. To this end, we developed and implemented an in vivo HRMAS 1H-MRS method to investigate live Drosophila at 14.1 T. Here, we outline an HRMAS 1H-MRS protocol for the molecular characterization of Drosophila with a conventional MR spectrometer equipped with an HRMAS probe. This technique is a novel, in vivo, non-destructive Drosophila metabolite measurement approach, which enables the identification of disease biomarkers and thus may contribute to novel therapeutic development.© JoVE 2006-2011 All Rights Reserved. Source

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