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Patel D.J.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Patel D.J.,Mahatma Gandhi Institute | Tekade P.R.,Government Medical College
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2011

A number of Organophosphorus compounds have been introduced in Indian market as agricultural insecticides, being effective against wide range of insects and pests. But a number of these compounds have proved to be more toxic to humans than its utility as insecticides, pesticides or fungicides. This study aims to evaluate the certain factors which are very significant in relation to outcome of Organophosphorus compound poisoning like age, sex, SE status, marital status, reason of committing suicide, etc. and attempt to know its prevalence in society and try to plan for future preventive strategy. The study was carried out on 288 cases of Organophosphorus compound poisoning which come to Maharani Hospital, Jagdalpur, (C.G) from 01/01/2007 to 31/12/2009. M: F ratio was 1.3: 1.0. Majority of the cases were in age group of 21-30 yrs includes 128 cases (44.44%). Higher proportion of cases from lower class of society 141 cases (48.95%), from rural area 237 cases (82.29%), due to lack of education in affected community. Suicidal intent to consume the compound was the commonest - 250 cases (86.80%). Recovery rate was highest amongst those who consume less than 10 ml of poison - 120 cases (41.66%).


Prateek S.S.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Saurabh R.S.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute
African Health Sciences | Year: 2012

Background: India was the first country in world to launch - The National Family Welfare Programme in1951 but even today the couple protection rate (CPR) is still not achieved as desired. Objectives: To determine extent of awareness regarding contraception among married women. To estimate proportion of couples using contraceptive methods, identify reasons for their adoption & non adoption and to assess unmet needs for contraception. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of four months duration was conducted among married women in reproductive age group (15 - 49 years) attending general out-patient department in Urban Health Centre (UHC) employing universal sampling method. Participants not willing to respond and pregnant women were excluded. Total of 180 women were selected as study participants. Every woman was interviewed face to face with pre-tested questionnaire after taking informed consent. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16. Results: 94 (52.2%) were in age group of 20 - 24years. 52.4% of women were aware about contraceptive practices, of which only 32.2% of subjects were using contraceptive methods. Out of these subjects, 89.66% used temporary methods and 10.34% used permanent methods. Cu-T (41.37%) was most preferred method. 93 subjects (51.6%) had unmet need for contraception. Religion, education status and age at marriage were significantly associated with contraceptive usage. Conclusion: The results suggest a significant Knowledge - Application Gap with regards to contraceptives knowledge and their actual usage in study participants. Almost fifty percent of the subjects had unmet need for contraception. This shows the need for more intense awareness campaigns for promoting contraceptive usage.


Shrivastava S.R.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Shrivastava P.S.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Ramasamy J.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2015

Ebola virus disease (EVD), previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a severe illness caused by Ebola filovirus, and is often fatal if left untreated. The first case of the current EVD was diagnosed in Guinea in March 2014, and since then it has spread to Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria, and Senegal. The current review has been performed with an objective to explore the magnitude of the current Ebola virus epidemic and identify the multiple determinants that have resulted in the exponential growth of the epidemic. An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was done for almost two months (August-October) in Pubmed, Medline, World Health Organization website and Google Scholar search engines. Relevant documents, reports, recommendations, guidelines and research articles focusing on the different aspects of Ebola virus and its current outbreak, published in the period 2002-2014 were included in the review. Keywords used in the search include Ebola virus, Ebola virus disease, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Ebola vaccine, and Ebola treatment. The current EVD epidemic has turned out to be extensive, severe, and uncontrollable because of a delayed response and ineffective public health care delivery system. In fact, multiple challenges have also been identified and thus a range of interventions have been proposed to control the epidemic. In conclusion, the 2014 epidemic of EVD has shown to the world that in absence of a strong public health care delivery system even a rare disease can risk the lives of millions of people. The crux of this epidemic is that a large scale and coordinated international response is the need of the hour to support affected and at-risk nations in intensifying their response activities and strengthening of national capacities. © 2015 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.


Shrivastava P.S.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Shrivastava S.R.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute
International Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Gender-based violence is recognized as a major issue on international human rights agenda. Domestic violence and abuse can happen to anyone, yet the problem is often overlooked, excused, or denied. This is especially true when abuse is psychological, rather than physical. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study of 6 months duration was undertaken with the objective of studying the proportion and different forms of domestic violence, factors influencing it, and to study treatment-seeking behavior of these women. The study participants were married women in the age group 18-45 years residing in an urban slum area of Malwani, Mumbai. Using stratified random sampling, 274 subjects were selected. House to house visits were paid and they were interviewed face to face using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire after obtaining their informed consent. Rapport was established with the help of a Medical Social Worker. The questionnaire included information pertaining to the sociodemographic parameters and experience of domestic violence in the last 1 year and their treatment-seeking behavior for the same. Utmost care was taken to maintain privacy and confidentiality. Analysis was done using SPSS version 17. Results: The proportion of domestic violence was 36.9%. The most common form of violence was verbal in 87 (86.1%) followed by physical in 64 (63.4%). Conclusion: A significant association was found between domestic violence and age, education, spousal alcoholism, and duration of marriage.


Rambiharilal Shrivastava S.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Saurabh Shrivastava P.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Ramasamy J.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute
Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Mental health is an integral and essential component of health. The World Health Organization (WHO) constitution states: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."More than 450 million people suffer from mental disorders worldwide. In India, mental health services, especially for children and adolescents, are limited both in terms of number of facilities as well as trained professionals. The majority of mental health services are restricted to urban areas, that is, medical colleges or regional mental health institutes. Mere presence of a treatment facility does not guarantee that all children/adolescents suffering from mental illness will utilize such services. In fact, most of the time there is a significant delay from the patient side in accessing mental health services either because of lack of awareness or associated stigma. It is high time to promote positive mental health in children, adolescents and their parents through health education. Parental counseling is of utmost importance in order to avoid the delay in treatment seeking.


Sinha S.P.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Shrivastava S.R.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Ramasamy J.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute
MEDICC Review | Year: 2013

INTRODUCTION With a rapidly aging society, geriatric mental health is emerging as an important public health concern. According to the WHO, prevalence of depression in adults aged ≥60 years in developed and developing countries was 0.5 million and 4.8 million respectively in 2004. In India, increased life expectancy led to a rise in the older adult population between 2001 and 2011, expected to reach 324 million by 2050. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of depression and assess association between sociodemographic parameters and depression among older adults in a rural Indian community. METHODS A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in February and March 2012 in the rural village of Sembakkam, Kancheepuram District in the state of Tamil Nadu, India; the village has a population of 5948, 3.1% of whom are aged ≥60 years. Universal sampling technique was employed, in which every household in the community was visited and all elderly persons were selected. After obtaining written informed consent (a thumbprint was taken if the person was illiterate), participants were assessed face to face for depression using the Short Form Geriatric Depression Scale. The inclusion criterion was a score >24 on the mini-mental state examination. Final sample size was 103. Study variables included sociodemographic parameters such as age, sex, education, occupation, socioeconomic status, and marital status. Data entry and statistical analysis used SPSS version 17. RESULTS Of 103 respondents interviewed, 73 (70.9%) were aged 60-69 years and 58 (56.3%) were male. Forty-four (42.7%) individuals (17 males, 27 females) were found to be depressed; 23 (22.3%) with mild depression, 14 (13.6%) moderate depression and 7 (6.8%) severe depression. Female sex and widowhood were significantly associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS Depression, particularly mild depression, is common in this rural population of older adults, particularly among women and widowed elderly. These study findings can help program managers implement a more comprehensive strategy in this community for timely interventions to promote mental health and prevent geriatric depression.


Shrivastava S.R.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Ghorpade A.G.,Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital
Journal of Research in Health Sciences | Year: 2014

Background: We aimed to assess the prevalence of type-2 diabetes in rural Pondicherry and to study the determinants of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in the rural population of Pondicherry, south India.Methods: It was a cross-sectional community-based study conducted from November 2010 to January 2012 in two of the field practice villages affiliated to a Medical College in Pondicherry. Sample size was calculated using open source software, Open Epi Version 2.3.10. The sampling frame comprised individuals aged above 25 years and single stage cluster random sampling was carried out. After obtaining the verbal informed consent each of the study participants were inter-viewed face-to-face using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 16.Results: The age of the study participants ranged from 25 to 98 years with mean of 42.6 (±13.7) and majority of the study participants 339 (32.5%) from the age-group of 30-39 years. The prevalence of diabetes was 19.8% (60-69 years), 17.1% (40-49 years), 16.8% (50-59 years), and 13.6% (>69 years) among study subjects. In univariate analysis, higher age, being educat-ed, unemployed and poor was associated with higher risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). Further-more, a high triglyceride level was significantly associated with increase in the risk of DM (ad-justed odds ratio: 3.01; 95% CI: 1.86, 4.86).Conclusions: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important public health problem in the adults of rural Pondicherry. Among non-modifiable factors, higher age, better socio-educational background and positive family history of diabetes was significantly associated with T2DM. © 2014, Health Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.


Shrivastava S.R.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Shrivastava P.S.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Ramasamy J.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute
Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders | Year: 2013

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic progressive metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia mainly due to absolute (Type 1 DM) or relative (Type 2 DM) deficiency of insulin hormone. World Health Organization estimates that more than 346 million people worldwide have DM. This number is likely to more than double by 2030 without any intervention. The needs of diabetic patients are not only limited to adequate glycemic control but also correspond with preventing complications; disability limitation and rehabilitation. There are seven essential self-care behaviors in people with diabetes which predict good outcomes namely healthy eating, being physically active, monitoring of blood sugar, compliant with medications, good problem-solving skills, healthy coping skills and risk-reduction behaviors. All these seven behaviors have been found to be positively correlated with good glycemic control, reduction of complications and improvement in quality of life. Individuals with diabetes have been shown to make a dramatic impact on the progression and development of their disease by participating in their own care. Despite this fact, compliance or adherence to these activities has been found to be low, especially when looking at long-term changes. Though multiple demographic, socio-economic and social support factors can be considered as positive contributors in facilitating self-care activities in diabetic patients, role of clinicians in promoting self-care is vital and has to be emphasized. Realizing the multi-faceted nature of the problem, a systematic, multi-pronged and an integrated approach is required for promoting self-care practices among diabetic patients to avert any long-term complications. © 2013 Shrivastava et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Shrivastava S.R.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Shrivastava P.S.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Ramasamy J.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute
International Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Hypertension is a significant public health concern of world-wide distribution and is also the most common cardiovascular disease risk factor. Adequate control of blood pressure is a critical element in the prevention of hypertension induced-organ damage and life-threatening complications. Prevention of hypertension is possible and early detection and effective treatment can significantly reduce the incidence of adverse clinical outcomes. Methods: An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was carried out in PubMed, Medline, World Health Organization website and Google Scholar search engines. Keywords used in the search included hypertension, cardiovascular disease, public health, life-style modifications and awareness. Overall 51 articles were selected and analyzed. Results: Multiple socio-demographic and potential risk factors have been recognized in the causation and determining the long-term outcomes of the disease world-wide. As the natural history of hypertension is complex and etiology is multi-factorial the strategy to combat also should be multi-pronged based on the trends and magnitude of the disease in variable settings. Conclusions: To conclude, although progress has been observed in the area of awareness, treatment and control, the need continues to be high for sustainable and cost-effective interventions that will ultimately halt and reverse the rising tide of hypertension prevalence. Population-based health education, dietary and life-style modification and pharmacological therapy are all effective measures to reduce the prevalence and increase the control rate of hypertension.


Shrivastava S.R.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Shrivastava P.S.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute | Ramasamy J.,Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice | Year: 2015

Depression is widely prevalent among women in the child-bearing age, especially during the antenatal and postnatal period. Globally, post-partum depression has been reported in almost 10% to 20% of mothers, and it can start from the moment of birth, or may result from depression evolving continuously since pregnancy. The presence of depression among women has gained a lot of attention not only because of the rising incidence or worldwide distribution, but also because of the serious negative impact on personal, family and child developmental outcomes. Realizing the importance of maternal depression on different aspects-personal, child, and familial life, there is a crucial need to design a comprehensive public health policy (including a mental health strategy), to ensure that universal psychosocial assessment in perinatal women is undertaken within the primary health care system. To conclude, depression during pregnancy and in the postnatal period is a serious public health issue, which essentially requires continuous health sector support to eventually benefit not only the woman, but also the family, the community, and health care professionals.

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