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Annapurna B.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Meenakshi S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Bhat S.D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Seshadri S.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2013

The extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) produced by a bacterium, Rhizobium sp. MBJ1 (Accession No. JF713722) isolated from the stem nodules of Aeschynomene indica (L) was precipitated using acetone and characterized for its viscosity and composition of sugar. A cross-linked polymer electrolyte membrane was prepared by blending EPS and sulfosuccinic acid (SSA). SEM morphology showed the presence of SSA in the EPS matrix. Water sorption, ion-exchange capacity (IEC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and proton conductivity properties for the membrane were investigated. The fabricated membrane electrode assembly comprising the EPS membrane showed a peak power density of 400mWcm-2 at a load current density of 1250mAcm-2 in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Yim W.,Chungbuk National University | Seshadri S.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Kim K.,Chungbuk National University | Lee G.,National Research Foundational of Korea | Sa T.,Chungbuk National University
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Bacteria of genus Methylobacterium have been found to promote plant growth and regulate the level of ethylene in crop plants. This work is aimed to test the induction of defense responses in tomato against bacterial wilt by stress ethylene level reduction mediated by the ACC deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse conditions, the disease index value in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated tomato plants was lower than control plants. Plants treated with Methylobacterium sp. challenge inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) showed significantly reduced disease symptoms and lowered ethylene emission under greenhouse condition. The ACC and ACO (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase) accumulation in tomato leaves were significantly reduced with Methylobacterium strains inoculation. While ACC oxidase gene expression was found higher in plants treated with R. solanacearum than Methylobacterium sp. treatment, PR proteins related to induced systemic resistance like β-1,3-glucanase, PAL, PO and PPO were increased in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated plants. A significant increase in β-1,3-glucanase and PAL gene expression was found in all the Methylobacterium spp. treatments compared to the R. solanacearum treatment. This study confirms the activity of Methylobacterium sp. in increasing the defense enzymes by modulating the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and suggests the use of methylotrophic bacteria as potential biocontrol agents in tomato cultivation. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Islam R.,Chungbuk National University | Trivedi P.,Chungbuk National University | Madhaiyan M.,Chungbuk National University | Seshadri S.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | And 7 more authors.
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2010

A study was undertaken to determine the free-living culturable diazotrophic bacteria of paddy soils from a long-term fertilizer management experiment. Long-term application of different fertilizers significantly affected the population of free-living diazotrophs. Out of 165 distinct bacterial morphotypes observed during the isolation process, only 32 were positive for both acetylene reduction assay (ARA), and nifH gene screening. The ARA activity of the isolates ranged from 1.8 to 2,844.7 nmol ethylene h-1 mg protein-1. The 16S rRNA analysis identified the isolates to be members of 13 different genera viz. Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Serratia, Ochrobactrum, Lysinibacillus, Burkholderia, Brevundimonas, Herbaspirillum, Novosphingobium, Sphingomonas, Xanthomonas, and Azorhizobium. Though partial nifH gene sequencing of diazotrophic isolates showed good consistency with that of 16S rRNA-based identification, some nifH sequences were similar to a variety of uncultured nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The diversity of free-living diazotrophic bacteria and the wide distribution of nifH sequences indicate the potential contribution of these microorganisms to nitrogen input to paddy fields. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.


Jayashree S.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Lalitha R.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Vadivukkarasi P.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Kato Y.,Mitsui Norin Co. | Seshadri S.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Pink pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM) isolated from water samples of Cooum and Adyar rivers in Chennai and soil samples of forests located in various districts of Tamil Nadu, India were screened for cellulase production using carboxymethylcellulose agar (CMC agar) medium. The strains showed wide variations in the production of clearing zones around the colonies on CMC agar medium flooded with Congo red. CMCase and filter paper assays were used to quantitatively measure the cellulase activity of 13 PPFM strains. Among the strains, Methylobacterium gregans, MNW 60, MHW 109, MSF 34, and MSF 40 showed cellulolytic activity ranging from 0.73 to 1.16 U∈mL-1 with wide temperature (35-65°C) and pH (5 to 8) tolerance. SDS-PAGE analysis of the crude enzyme of PPFM strain MNW 60 exhibited several protein bands, and zymogram analysis revealed two dimeric cellulase bands with molecular mass of ~92 and 42 kDa. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed significant morphological differences between the cells grown in normal and CMC amended medium. The strain MNW 60 was identified as Methylobacterium sp. based on biochemical, physiological, and morphological analyses, and the methylotrophic nature was authenticated by the presence of mxaF gene, encoding methanol dehydrogenase as a key indicator enzyme of methylotrophs, with 99% similarity to Methylobacterium lusitanum. With the 16S ribosomal RNA sequence showing 97% similarity to M. lusitanum strain MP2, this can be proposed as a novel taxon of the genus Methylobacterium. The study forms the first detailed report on the extracellular cellulase production by pink pigmented Methylobacterium sp., and it is expected that this might be the basis for further studies on cellulase production by PPFMs to explore the molecular mechanism, strain improvement, and large-scale cellulase production for its application. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Sivakumar M.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Ranjith Kumar R.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Ranjith Kumar R.,Shree Chandraprabhu Jain College | Shashirekha V.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Seshadri S.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Growth of Spirulina sp. (MCRC-A0003), a cyanobacterium, was evaluated under different concentrations of carbon-dioxide (CO2) (4–50 %) in a closed glass photobioreactor. Although significant CO2 utilization by the cyanobacterial strain was observed up to 50 % concentration, complete utilization was observed only at 4, 10 and 20 % concentrations on 3rd, 6th and 8th day respectively. However, considerable reduction was witnessed in reactors containing 30–50 % CO2 only between 6th and 9th day. A corresponding increase in the biomass and primary metabolites like chlorophyll-a, carbohydrate and protein were observed. Biomass productivity of Spirulina in reactors sparged with 4, 10 and 20 % CO2 were 13.7, 43 and 44 % more than that in control reactor without CO2. While CO2 increased the levels of primary metabolites in the cyanobacterial cells, it was quite prominent in 10 % CO2 concentration with the chlorophyll-a, carbohydrate and protein contents were 64, 183 and 626 mg g−1 respectively. While 10 and 6.6 % increase were noticed in chlorophyll-a and protein, 17 % increase in carbohydrate levels was observed in Spirulina cells, which could be attributed to the conversion of CO2 to carbohydrate by the cyanobacterium. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Karthic R.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Nagaraj S.,University of Madras | Arulmurugan P.,University of Madras | Seshadri S.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To study the antidiabetic effects of suspension cell extract of Gymnema sylvestre (G. sylvestre) along with field grown and wild plants. Methods: The effect of ethanolic extracts of the in vitro grown suspension cells of G. sylvestre along with field grown and wild plant leaves of G. sylvestre was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results: While oral administration of the extracts reduced the glucose content in blood and urine, sugar and lipids in serum significantly (P≤0.05), it also increased the body weight, total haemoglobin and plasma protein content. Conclusions: It can be concluded that G. sylvestre suspension cell extract show excellent antidiabetic potential against alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats therefore be considered as potent antidiabetic drug. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Devi S.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Karuppan P.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center
Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research | Year: 2015

Reddish brown pigment has been extracted from dry mycelium of Alternaria alternata in methanol and then evaluated for dyeing efficacy on cotton fabrics. The pigment producing fungus A. alternata is grown in maize grain broth maintained at pH 6. Shade of Sienna is obtained on cotton. Dyed cotton fabric has recorded a grey scale rating of 2-3 and 4-5 for colour fastness and multi fibre staining respectively. Maximum dye absorption of 63% has been observed on cotton fabrics. The antimicrobial property of dyed fabric is also tested. Potent antimicrobial activity is observed against Staphylococcus epidermis (42 mm) and Streptococcus pyogenes (39 mm). © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.


Sudhakar M.P.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Jagatheesan A.,Alagappa University | Perumal K.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Arunkumar K.,Alagappa University
Algal Research | Year: 2015

Phycobiliproteins from red seaweeds are pigment-protein complexes constituting three different pigments such as phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin. The present investigation is focused on phycobiliproteins in red seaweed Gracilaria crassa collected from Pudumadam coast, Rameswaram. Three different solvents such as phosphate buffer, distilled water and seawater were used for extraction of pigments and quantity and purity were compared. Among the three different solvents, distilled water showed better results for phycoerythrin extraction; seawater proved to be a good solvent as well as preservative for all phycobiliproteins. The purity index (PI) was 3.79 for R-phycoerythrin (R-PE), purified by DEAE (Diethylaminoethyl) cellulose 52. The stability of phycobiliproteins was assessed using different preservatives. NaCl at 5% proved to be suitable for long-term preservation of phycoerythrin. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Jayashree S.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Vadivukkarasi P.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Anand K.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center | Kato Y.,Mitsui Norin Co. | Seshadri S.,Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center
Archives of Microbiology | Year: 2011

Thirteen pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) strains isolated from Adyar and Cooum rivers in Chennai and forest soil samples in Tamil Nadu, India, along with Methylobacterium extorquens, M. organophilum, M. gregans, and M. komagatae were screened for phosphate solubilization in plates. P-solubilization index of the PPFMs grown on NBRIP-BPB plates for 7 days ranged from 1.1 to 2.7. The growth of PPFMs in tricalcium phosphate amended media was found directly proportional to the glucose concentration. Higher phosphate solubilization was observed in four strains MSF 32 (415 mg l-l), MDW 80 (301 mg l-l), M. komagatae (279 mg l-l), and MSF 34 (202 mg l-l), after 7 days of incubation. A drop in the media pH from 6.6 to 3.4 was associated with an increase in titratable acidity. Acid phosphatase activity was more pronounced in the culture filtrate than alkaline phosphatase activity. Adherence of phosphate to densely grown bacterial surface was observed under scanning electron microscope after 7-day-old cultures. Biochemical characterization and screening for methanol dehydrogenase gene (mxaF) confirmed the strains as methylotrophs. The mxaF gene sequence from MSF 32 clustered towards M. lusitanum sp. with 99% similarity. This study forms the first detailed report on phosphate solubilization by the PPFMs. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | Shri Murugappa Chettiar Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: World journal of microbiology & biotechnology | Year: 2014

Growth of Spirulina sp. (MCRC-A0003), a cyanobacterium, was evaluated under different concentrations of carbon-dioxide (CO2) (4-50 %) in a closed glass photobioreactor. Although significant CO2 utilization by the cyanobacterial strain was observed up to 50 % concentration, complete utilization was observed only at 4, 10 and 20 % concentrations on 3rd, 6th and 8th day respectively. However, considerable reduction was witnessed in reactors containing 30-50 % CO2 only between 6th and 9th day. A corresponding increase in the biomass and primary metabolites like chlorophyll-a, carbohydrate and protein were observed. Biomass productivity of Spirulina in reactors sparged with 4, 10 and 20 % CO2 were 13.7, 43 and 44 % more than that in control reactor without CO2. While CO2 increased the levels of primary metabolites in the cyanobacterial cells, it was quite prominent in 10 % CO2 concentration with the chlorophyll-a, carbohydrate and protein contents were 64, 183 and 626 mg g(-1) respectively. While 10 and 6.6 % increase were noticed in chlorophyll-a and protein, 17 % increase in carbohydrate levels was observed in Spirulina cells, which could be attributed to the conversion of CO2 to carbohydrate by the cyanobacterium.

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